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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088646/bone-microarchitecture-in-adolescent-boys-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#1
Ann M Neumeyer, Natalia Cano Sokoloff, Erin McDonnell, Eric A Macklin, Christopher J McDougle, Madhusmita Misra
BACKGROUND: Boys with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have lower areal bone mineral density (aBMD) than typically developing controls (TDC). Studies of volumetric BMD (vBMD) and bone microarchitecture provide information about fracture risk beyond that provided by aBMD but are currently lacking in ASD. OBJECTIVES: To assess ultradistal radius and distal tibia vBMD, bone microarchitecture and strength estimates in adolescent boys with ASD compared to TDC. DESIGN/METHODS: Cross-sectional study of 34 boys (16 ASD, 18 TDC) that assessed (i) aBMD at the whole body (WB), WB less head (WBLH), hip and spine using dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), (ii) vBMD and bone microarchitecture at the ultradistal radius and distal tibia using high-resolution peripheral quantitative CT (HRpQCT), and (iii) bone strength estimates (stiffness and failure load) using micro-finite element analysis (FEA)...
January 11, 2017: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088520/palmitic-acid-increases-invasiveness-of-pancreatic-cancer-cells-aspc-1-through-tlr4-ros-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-mmp-9-signaling-pathway
#2
Makena J Binker-Cosen, Daniel Richards, Brenda Oliver, Herbert Y Gaisano, Marcelo G Binker, Laura I Cosen-Binker
Pancreatic cancer (PC) is an aggressive malady with proclivity for early metastasis. Overexpression of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, the most common type of pancreatic malignancy, correlates to tumor size, lymph node involvement, venous invasion and pathological stage. Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) are natural TLR4 ligands that have been shown to increase the invasive ability of PC cells. However, rapid inactivation of circulating LPS and low systemic absorption of inhaled LPS from the bronchoalveolar compartment make other agonists such as saturated fatty acids more suitable to be considered for TLR4-related cell invasiveness...
January 11, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088260/korean-chungtaejeon-tea-extract-attenuates-body-weight-gain-in-c57bl-6j-lep-ob-ob-mice-and-regulates-adipogenesis-and-lipolysis-in-3t3-l1-adipocytes
#3
Bhesh Raj Sharma, Dong Wook Kim, Dong Young Rhyu
OBJECTIVE: Traditional Korean Chungtaejeon (CTJ) tea is a type of fermented tea, which has received increasing attention in recent years because of its purported health benefits. The present study was designed to investigate the effect and mechanism of CTJ tea extract on body weight gain using C57BL/6J-Lep ob/ob mice and 3T3-L1 adipocytes, respectively. METHODS: The effects of CTJ on cell viability, lipid accumulation, and expression of protein and mRNA were measured in 3T3-L1 adipocytes by using 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide, oil red O staining, Western blotting, and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analyses...
January 2017: Journal of Integrative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087587/association-between-dietary-intake-and-school-valued-outcomes-a-scoping-review
#4
H S K Chan, C Knight, M Nicholson
Approximately one in four Australian children aged 5-17 years are overweight or obese. Most of the health effects of overweight and obesity in childhood do not eventuate until into adulthood; therefore, motivation for children to have a healthy diet may be low. This scoping review examined the literature for associations between diet quality in 5-18 year olds and 'school-valued' outcomes including student attendance, academic performance, behaviour at school and mental health. A literature search for studies that assessed dietary intake and at least one 'school-valued' outcome in schoolchildren, in highly developed countries was conducted...
January 13, 2017: Health Education Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087414/consumption-of-low-calorie-sweeteners-among-children-and-adults-in-the-united-states
#5
Allison C Sylvetsky, Yichen Jin, Elena J Clark, Jean A Welsh, Kristina I Rother, Sameera A Talegawkar
BACKGROUND: Consumption of low-calorie sweeteners (LCSs) has increased markedly during the past several decades, yet the prevalence of LCS consumption in recent years is currently unknown. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to describe LCS consumption in the United States and to characterize consumption by sociodemographic subgroups, source, frequency, eating occasion, and location. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study using National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data from 2009 to 2012...
January 6, 2017: Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087413/nesfatin-1-modulates-murine-gastric-vagal-afferent-mechanosensitivity-in-a-nutritional-state-dependent-manner
#6
Stephen J Kentish, Hui Li, Claudine L Frisby, Amanda J Page
Food intake is regulated by vagal afferent signals from the stomach. Nesfatin-1 is an anorexigenic peptide produced within the gastrointestinal tract and has well defined central effects. We aimed to determine if nesfatin-1 can modulate gastric vagal afferent signals in the periphery and further whether this is altered in different nutritional states. Female C57BL/6J mice were fed either a standard laboratory diet (SLD) or a high fat diet (HFD) for 12 weeks or fasted overnight. Plasma nucleobindin-2 (NUCB2; nesfatin-1 precursor)/nesfatin-1 levels were assayed, the expression of NUCB2 in the gastric mucosa and adipose tissue was assessed using real-time quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction...
January 10, 2017: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087336/oleate-induces-katp-channel-dependent-hyperpolarisation-in-mouse-hypothalamic-glucose-excited-neurones-without-altering-cellular-energy-charge
#7
Selma Dadak, Craig Beall, Julia M Vlachaki Walker, Marc Pm Soutar, Rory J McCrimmon, Michael L J Ashford
The unsaturated fatty acid, oleate exhibits anorexigenic properties reducing food intake and hepatic glucose output. However, its mechanism of action in the hypothalamus has not been fully determined. This study investigated the effects of oleate and glucose on GT1-7 mouse hypothalamic cells (a model of glucose-excited (GE) neurones) and mouse arcuate nucleus (ARC) neurones. Whole-cell and perforated patch-clamp recordings, immunoblotting and cell energy status measures were used to investigate oleate and glucose sensing properties of mouse hypothalamic neurones...
January 9, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086943/a-lifestyle-intervention-among-elderly-men-on-active-surveillance-for-non-aggressive-prostate-cancer-a-randomised-feasibility-study-with-whole-grain-rye-and-exercise
#8
Anne Kirstine Eriksen, Rikke Dalgaard Hansen, Michael Borre, Ryan Godsk Larsen, Jeppe Munthe Jensen, Kristian Overgaard, Mette Borre, Cecilie Kyrø, Rikard Landberg, Anja Olsen, Anne Tjønneland
BACKGROUND: The prognosis for men with non-aggressive prostate cancer is good, and several studies have investigated the impact of lifestyle changes including physical activity and diet on the prognosis. Despite positive results in animal studies and a few human interventions with whole-grain rye on markers of prostate cancer progression, the feasibility of trials investigating such dietary changes in combination with physical activity remains largely unstudied. The primary aim was to investigate the feasibility of an intervention with high whole-grain rye intake and vigorous physical activity for 6 months in men diagnosed with prostate cancer...
January 13, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086843/evaluation-of-the-good-start-program-a-healthy-eating-and-physical-activity-intervention-for-maori-and-pacific-islander-children-living-in-queensland-australia
#9
Seema Mihrshahi, Lisa Vaughan, Nicola Fa'avale, Shreenika De Silva Weliange, Inez Manu-Sione, Lisa Schubert
BACKGROUND: Reducing the prevalence of obesity and chronic disease are important priorities. Maori and Pacific Islander communities living in Australia have higher rates of obesity and chronic disease than the wider Australian population. This study aims to assess the effectiveness of the Good Start program, which aims to improve knowledge, attitudes and practices related to healthy eating and physical activity amongst Maori and Pacific Islander communities living in Queensland. METHODS: The intervention was delivered to children aged 6-19 years (N = 375) in schools by multicultural health workers...
January 13, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086754/making-the-most-of-mealtimes-m3-protocol-of-a-multi-centre-cross-sectional-study-of-food-intake-and-its-determinants-in-older-adults-living-in-long-term-care-homes
#10
Heather H Keller, Natalie Carrier, Susan Slaughter, Christina Lengyel, Catriona M Steele, Lisa Duizer, K Steve Brown, Habib Chaudhury, Minn N Yoon, Alison M Duncan, Veronique M Boscart, George Heckman, Lita Villalon
BACKGROUND: Older adults living in long term care (LTC) homes are nutritionally vulnerable, often consuming insufficient energy, macro- and micronutrients to sustain their health and function. Multiple factors are proposed to influence food intake, yet our understanding of these diverse factors and their interactions are limited. The purpose of this paper is to fully describe the protocol used to examine determinants of food and fluid intake among older adults participating in the Making the Most of Mealtimes (M3) study...
January 13, 2017: BMC Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081517/a-path-analysis-model-of-factors-influencing-children-s-requests-for-unhealthy-foods
#11
Simone Pettigrew, Michelle Jongenelis, Caroline Miller, Kathy Chapman
Little is known about the complex combination of factors influencing the extent to which children request unhealthy foods from their parents. The aim of this study was to develop a comprehensive model of influencing factors to provide insight into potential methods of reducing these requests. A web panel provider was used to administer a national online survey to a sample of 1302 Australian parent-child dyads (total sample n=2604). Initial univariate analyses identified potential predictors of children's requests for and consumption of unhealthy foods...
December 27, 2016: Eating Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081177/first-behavioural-characterisation-of-a-knockout-mouse-model-for-the-transforming-growth-factor-tgf-%C3%AE-superfamily-cytokine-mic-1-gdf15
#12
Jac Kee Low, Ananthan Ambikairajah, Kani Shang, David A Brown, Vicky W W Tsai, Samuel N Breit, Tim Karl
Macrophage inhibitory cytokine-1 (MIC-1), also known as growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF15), is a stress response cytokine. MIC-1/GDF15 is secreted into the cerebrospinal fluid and increased levels of MIC-1/GDF15 are associated with a variety of diseases including cognitive decline. Furthermore, Mic-1/Gdf15 knockout mice (Mic-1 KO) weigh more, have increased adiposity, associated with increased spontaneous food intake, and exhibit reduced basal energy expenditure and physical activity. The current study was designed to comprehensively determine the role of MIC-1/GDF15 on behavioural domains of male and female knockout mice including locomotion, exploration, anxiety, cognition, social behaviours, and sensorimotor gating...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080906/oral-squamous-cell-carcinoma-in-an-aged-captive-white-rhinoceros-ceratotherium-simum
#13
Sandra Langer, Nadine Czerwonka, Kerstin Ternes, Dr Werner Herbst, Kernt Koehler
A 48-yr-old captive white rhinoceros ( Ceratotherium simum ) was euthanized due to old age, pododermatitis, and progressive laminitis of the middle toe of the left fore- and hindlimbs. Severe chronic necrotizing periodontitis and dental loss was diagnosed, although food intake prior to death had not decreased. In addition, extensive ulceration of the tongue was noted. Histologically, squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue was diagnosed with chronic severe ulcerative glossitis. Metastatic lesions were not detected...
December 2016: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080834/low-adherence-to-dietary-guidelines-in-spain-especially-in-the-overweight-obese-population-the-anibes-study
#14
Elena Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Aránzazu Aparicio, Javier Aranceta-Bartrina, Ángel Gil, Marcela González-Gross, Lluis Serra-Majem, Gregorio Varela-Moreiras, Rosa M Ortega
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to analyze the dietary intake of the Spanish population according to ponderal status and body fat distribution. METHODS: Data were obtained from ANIBES (Anthropometry, Intake, and Energy Balance in Spain), a cross-sectional study of a nationally representative sample (1013 men, 996 women) of the Spanish population (18-64 years). The final fieldwork was carried out from mid-September to November (three months) 2013. A 3-day dietary record provided information about food and beverage consumption...
January 12, 2017: Journal of the American College of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080325/adequacy-of-parent-packed-lunches-and-preschooler-s-consumption-compared-to-dietary-reference-intake-recommendations
#15
Maria Jose Romo-Palafox, Nalini Ranjit, Sara J Sweitzer, Cindy Roberts-Gray, Courtney E Byrd-Williams, Margaret E Briley, Deanna M Hoelscher
BACKGROUND: U.S. preschool children consume inadequate amounts of key nutrients. Understanding the contents of lunches packed by parents and consumed by their children can help identify areas of opportunity for the development of healthy food preferences. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the nutrient adequacy of lunches packed by parents and consumed by children attending early care and education (ECE) centers. METHODS: Baseline data from 607 parent-child dyads in the "Lunch Is in the Bag" cluster-randomized controlled trial in Central Texas were examined...
January 12, 2017: Journal of the American College of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079354/effect-of-excess-iodine-intake-on-thyroid-on-human-health
#16
Eftychia G Koukkou, Nikolaos D Roupas, Kostas B Markou
INTRODUCTION: The recommended daily intake of iodide, is 150 μg for adolescents and adults, 175 μg for pregnancy and 200 μg for lactation. Thyroid gland is an effective collector of iodine. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: The active iodine uptake along the basolateral membrane of thyroid cell is followed by its transport to the apical edge of the cell and then to the follicle lumen. TSH acts through cAMP and stimulates NIS gene expression and protein synthesis. The major proportion of iodine in the thyroid gland is bound to Thyroglobulin...
January 12, 2017: Minerva Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078821/collateral-fattening-when-a-deficit-in-lean-body-mass-drives-overeating
#17
EDITORIAL
Abdul G Dulloo
In his last review entitled "Some Adventures in Body Composition," Gilbert Forbes reminded us that "lean body mass and body fat are in a sense companions." To what extent the lean body mass (or fat-free mass) component in this companionship impacts on energy intake is rarely a topic for discussion, amid a dominant adipocentric view of appetite control. Yet an analysis of the few human studies that have investigated the relationships between objectively measured food intake and body composition reveals a potentially important role for both an increase and a decrease in fat-free mass in the drive to eat...
January 11, 2017: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078804/a-low-protein-diet-induces-body-weight-loss-and-browning-of-subcutaneous-white-adipose-tissue-through-enhanced-expression-of-hepatic-fibroblast-growth-factor-21-fgf21
#18
Albert Pérez-Martí, Maite Garcia-Guasch, Anna Tresserra-Rimbau, Alexandra Carrilho-Do-Rosário, Ramon Estruch, Jordi Salas-Salvadó, Miguel Ángel Martínez-González, Rosa Lamuela-Raventós, Pedro F Marrero, Diego Haro, Joana Relat
SCOPE: Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is considered a promising therapeutic candidate for the treatment of obesity. Since FGF21 production is regulated by various nutritional factors, we analyze the impact of low protein intake on circulating levels of this growth hormone in mice and in a sub cohort of the PREDIMED (Prevención con Dieta Mediterránea) trial. We also describe the role of hepatic FGF21 in metabolic adaptation to a low-protein diet (LPD). METHODS AND RESULTS: We fed control and liver-specific Fgf21 knockout (LFgf21KO) mice a LPD...
January 11, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078758/periconceptional-maternal-high-fish-and-olive-oil-low-meat-dietary-pattern-is-associated-with-increased-embryonic-growth-the-rotterdam-periconceptional-cohort-predict-study
#19
Francesca Parisi, Melek Rousian, Nicole A Huijgen, Anton H J Koning, Sten P Willemsen, Jeanne H M de Vries, Irene Cetin, Eric A P Steegers, Régine P M Steegers-Theunissen
OBJECTIVE: To investigate associations between periconceptional maternal dietary patterns and first trimester embryonic growth. METHODS: 228 women with singleton ongoing pregnancies were enrolled in a prospective periconceptional cohort study, comprising of 135 strictly dated spontaneous pregnancies and 93 pregnancies achieved after in vitro fertilization or intracytoplasmatic sperm injection (IVF/ICSI pregnancies). All women underwent longitudinal transvaginal three-dimensional ultrasound (3D-US) scans from 6(+0) up to 13(+0) weeks of gestation...
January 12, 2017: Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078576/feeding-problems-and-nutrient-intake-in-children-with-and-without-autism-a-comparative-study
#20
Prahbhjot Malhi, Lolam Venkatesh, Bhavneet Bharti, Pratibha Singhi
OBJECTIVE: To compare parent reported feeding difficulties and nutritional adequacy of children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) to an age and socio-economically matched group of typically developing children. METHODS: The scores on Children's Eating Behavior Inventory (CEBI), three-day food records, anthropometric measures and adequacy of micro- and macro- nutrients were compared for 63 children diagnosed with ASD and 50 typically developing children enrolled from the department of pediatrics of a tertiary care teaching hospital from North India...
January 12, 2017: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
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