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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228009/prevalence-of-anemia-and-associated-factors-among-pregnant-women-in-southern-ethiopia-a-community-based-cross-sectional-study
#1
Meaza Lebso, Anchamo Anato, Eskindir Loha
BACKGROUND: Anemia is defined as a condition in which there is less than the normal hemoglobin (Hb) level in the body. During pregnancy; iron deficiency is associated with multiple adverse outcomes for both mother and infant. Most of the studies conducted in Ethiopia on anemia during pregnancy were conducted at institution level and associated factors are not well studied and documented. Independent factors like, food security status, dietary diversity and intestinal parasites infection were considered by only a few of them...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227523/childhood-ingestions-of-environmental-toxins-what-are-the-risks
#2
Marissa Hauptman, Alan D Woolf
Infants and children are at higher risk than adolescents and adults for exposure to environmental toxins via ingestion for a number of reasons: their smaller size (and proportionately larger dose of ingested toxins), their closer proximity to the ground, dirt, and indoor dust, their boundless curiosity and oral exploratory behaviors, pica habits that may persist into school-age for children with autism or other developmental delays, their proportionately larger daily water and milk intake, and food preferences that differ markedly from adolescents and adults...
December 1, 2017: Pediatric Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226549/fasting-induces-astroglial-plasticity-in-the-olfactory-bulb-glomeruli-of-rats
#3
Virginie Daumas-Meyer, Gaëlle Champeil-Potokar, Catherine Chaumontet, Patrice Dahirel, Catherine Papillon, Patrice Congar, Isabelle Denis
The detection of food odors by the olfactory system, which plays a key role in regulating food intake and elaborating the hedonic value of food, is reciprocally influenced by the metabolic state. Fasting increases olfactory performance, notably by increasing the activity of olfactory bulb (OB) neurons. The glutamatergic synapses between olfactory sensory neurons and mitral cells in the OB glomeruli are regulated by astrocytes, periglomerular neurons, and centrifugal afferents. We compared the expansion of astroglial processes by quantifying GFAP-labeled areas in fed and fasted rats to see whether OB glomerular astrocytes are involved in the metabolic sensing and adaptation of the olfactory system...
December 11, 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225993/determination-of-selected-metals-in-fruit-wines-by-spectroscopic-techniques
#4
Justyna Płotka-Wasylka, Małgorzata Rutkowska, Bartłomiej Cieślik, Alan Tyburcy, Jacek Namieśnik
Background: The determination of metals in different types of food and beverages samples has drawn significant attention due to several reasons with the most important one being the nutritional and toxic effects of these elements or their compounds. The knowledge of certain elements content in wines/fruit wines is of special interest due to their toxicity in case of excessive intake and also the effect they seem to have on the organoleptic properties of wine. Results: The study was focused on measuring the concentration levels of trace metals in fruit wines...
2017: Journal of Analytical Methods in Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225943/how-income-and-food-prices-influence-global-dietary-intakes-by-age-and-sex-evidence-from-164-countries
#5
Andrew Muhammad, Anna D'Souza, Birgit Meade, Renata Micha, Dariush Mozaffarian
Background: While income and prices are key drivers of dietary choices, how their influence varies by food category, nation, and demographics is not well established. Based on intake data for 164 countries and 11 food categories, we examined how income and food prices relate to food intake globally, including by world region, age, and sex. Methods: We used 2010 intake data from the Global Dietary Database, the first database of consumption estimates for major food categories by country, age, and sex...
2017: BMJ Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225724/effects-of-white-wine-consumption-on-weight-in-rats-do-polyphenols-matter
#6
Ana Marija Milat, Ivana Mudnić, Ivica Grković, Nikola Ključević, Mia Grga, Iva Jerčić, Diana Jurić, Danica Ivanković, Benjamin Benzon, Mladen Boban
Introduction: Effects of white wine and the role of wine polyphenols on weight gain in rats of different age were examined in the 4-week-voluntary-consumption trial. Methods and Materials: Biochemically characterized standard (low polyphenols, W) and macerated (high polyphenolic content, PW) white wines were compared. One- and three-month-old Sprague-Dawley male rats (n = 78) were used. Each age group was subdivided into water-only-drinking controls (C), W, and PW-drinking animals...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225484/the-prevalence-of-iron-deficiency-anemia-and-its-associated-risk-factors-among-a-sample-of-female-university-students-in-tabuk-saudi-arabia
#7
Riyadh A Alzaheb, Osama Al-Amer
Background: Prior data on iron deficiency anemia's (IDA) prevalence and associated risk factors among female university students are scarce in the Saudi Arabian context. This study therefore recruited a sample of female students at the University of Tabuk, Saudi Arabia, to investigate IDA prevalence and risk factors and fill the identified research gap. Methods: A cross-sectional study of 200 apparently healthy female students aged between 19 and 25 years was performed between February and June 2016...
2017: Clinical Medicine Insights. Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225213/fish-protein-hydrolysate-exhibits-anti-obesity-activity-and-reduces-hypothalamic-neuropeptide-y-and-agouti-related-protein-mrna-expressions-in-rats
#8
Takafumi Mizushige, Masaki Komiya, Moe Onda, Kenji Uchida, Kohsuke Hayamizu, Yukihito Kabuyama
Fish protein is a source of animal protein that is consumed worldwide. Although it has been reported that the intake of Alaska pollack protein (APP) reduces body fat accumulation and increases muscle weight in rats, the mechanisms underlying these effects are poorly understood. As a possibility, peptides released from APP in the gastrointestinal tract are important to the functions of APP. In the present study, we examined the effects of APP hydrolysate digested artificially with pepsin and pancreatin on white adipose tissue and skeletal muscle...
2017: Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225095/restriction-of-dietary-protein-leads-to-conditioned-protein-preference-and-elevated-palatability-of-protein-containing-food-in-rats
#9
Michelle Murphy, Kate Z Peters, Bethany S Denton, Kathryn A Lee, Heramb Chadchankar, James E McCutcheon
The mechanisms by which intake of dietary protein is regulated are poorly understood despite their potential involvement in determining food choice and appetite. In particular, it is unclear whether protein deficiency results in a specific appetite for protein and whether influences on diet are immediate or develop over time. To determine the effects of protein restriction on consumption, preference, and palatability for protein we assessed patterns of intake for casein (protein) and maltodextrin (carbohydrate) solutions in adult rats...
December 7, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224668/circadian-clock-gastrointestinal-peptide-interaction-in-peripheral-tissues-and-the-brain
#10
REVIEW
Dominic Landgraf, Anne-Marie Neumann, Henrik Oster
Food intake and sleep are two mutually exclusive behaviors and both are normally confined to opposing phases of the diurnal cycle. The temporal coordination of behavior and physiology along the 24-h day-night cycle is organized by a network of circadian clocks that orchestrate transcriptional programs controlling cellular physiology. Many of the peptide hormones of the gastrointestinal tract are not only secreted in a circadian fashion, they can also affect circadian clock function in peripheral metabolic tissues and the brain, thus providing metabolic feedback to metabolic and neurobehavioral circuits...
December 2017: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224576/using-structural-equation-modelling-to-assess-factors-influencing-children-s-growth-and-nutrition-in-rural-china
#11
Zixi Cheng, Ling Shi, Ying Li, Yan Wang, Jingxu Zhang
OBJECTIVE: Children's poor growth and nutrition status has serious consequences and therefore it is important to understand its contributing factors. DESIGN: A community-based interventional study focusing on child feeding was conducted in a rural community in China. Data from the intervention group at baseline (1-4 months of age) and follow-up visits (12 and 18 months of age) were used in the present study (n 236). A structural equation model was generated to explore the effects of family wealth, household food safety, dietary intake, diseases and other factors on the growth and nutrition of young children...
December 11, 2017: Public Health Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224552/factors-influencing-the-eating-practices-of-hospital-nurses-during-their-shifts
#12
Tina Monaghan, Lauren Dinour, Doreen Liou, Melanie Shefchik
The purpose of this study was to identify factors influencing hospital nurses' dietary practices during their shifts. Semistructured interviews grounded in the Social Ecological Model focused on individual, interpersonal, organizational, and public policy factors affecting intake. Responses from 20 female nurses were qualitatively coded and categorized based on common themes. Four major themes emerged: occupational characteristics, hesitation to take breaks, influence of unhealthy food, and organizational and industry policies...
December 1, 2017: Workplace Health & Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224485/assessment-of-dietary-factors-dietary-practices-and-exercise-on-mental-distress-in-young-adults-versus-matured-adults-a-cross-sectional-study
#13
Lina Begdache, Maher Chaar, Nasim Sabounchi, Hamed Kianmehr
The importance of the diet in modulating mental health is uncovering as many dietary factors have been described to alter brain chemistry. Brain maturation may not complete until the age of 30 which may explain the differential emotional control, mindset, and resilience between young adults and matured adults. As a result, dietary factors may influence mental health differently in these two populations. OBJECTIVES: To study dietary intake, dietary practices and exercise in young adults (YA) (18-29 years) versus matured adults (MA) (30 years and older) in relation to mental distress...
December 11, 2017: Nutritional Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224459/dietary-patterns-of-households-in-scotland-differences-by-level-of-deprivation-and-associations-with-dietary-goals
#14
S Whybrow, Lca Craig, J I Macdiarmid
BACKGROUND: Foods tend to be consumed in combinations, and dietary pattern analysis and diet-quality scores are often more appropriate methods of assessing overall diet quality than is intakes of individual foods or nutrients. AIM: The aim of this study was to evaluate dietary patterns from the food and drink purchases of households in Scotland, and to identify any dietary patterns that were associated with closer adherence to the Revised Dietary Goals for Scotland (RDGS)...
January 1, 2017: Nutrition and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224102/brain-estrogens-and-feeding-behavior
#15
Yong Xu
Estrogens play essential roles in suppressing food intake and preventing body weight gain. Tremendous research efforts have been focused on estrogen physiology in the context of feeding control. Estrogen receptors and the related signals have been attractive targets for development of new obesity therapies. This chapter focuses on the functional interactions between brain estrogens and other appetite-regulatory signals, the critical estrogen receptor isoforms and distinct brain regions that mediate effects of estrogens on feeding, and the intracellular signals that are involved...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224101/estradiol-regulation-of-brown-adipose-tissue-thermogenesis
#16
Ismael González-García, Manuel Tena-Sempere, Miguel López
Physiologically, estrogens carry out a myriad of functions, the most essential being the regulation of the reproductive axis. Currently, it is also dogmatic that estrogens play an important role modulating energy balance and metabolism. In this sense, it is well known that low estrogens levels, occurring due to ovarian insufficiency, in conditions such as menopause or ovariectomy (OVX), are associated with increased food intake and decreased energy expenditure, leading to weight gain and obesity at long term...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224095/sex-differences-in-muscle-wasting
#17
Lindsey J Anderson, Haiming Liu, Jose M Garcia
With aging and other muscle wasting diseases, men and women undergo similar pathological changes in skeletal muscle: increased inflammation, enhanced oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, satellite cell senescence, elevated apoptosis and proteasome activity, and suppressed protein synthesis and myocyte regeneration. Decreased food intake and physical activity also indirectly contribute to muscle wasting. Sex hormones also play important roles in maintaining skeletal muscle homeostasis. Testosterone is a potent anabolic factor promoting muscle protein synthesis and muscular regeneration...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224092/sex-differences-in-leptin-control-of-cardiovascular-function-in-health-and-metabolic-diseases
#18
Eric J Belin de Chantemèle
Leptin, the adipocyte-derived hormone identified in 1994 for its major role in the control of satiety and body weight regulation, is an adipokine secreted in a sex-specific manner. Although it has clearly been established that females secrete three to four times more leptin than males and that this sexual dimorphism in leptin secretion is exacerbated with overweight and obesity, the origin and the physiological consequences of this sexual dimorphism remain ill-defined. The adipose tissue is the major site of leptin secretion; however, leptin receptors are ubiquitously expressed, conferring to leptin, and indirectly to the adipose tissue, a potential role in the control of numerous physiological functions...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223935/-iron-intake-and-hfe-gen-in-male-adults-from-buenos-aires
#19
Ana L Felipoff, Silvana J Fleischman, M Luján Donadío, Vanesa Sebastiano, Marcelo Castro, Alejandra Vellicce, Jorge A Rey, Marta M Lardo, Silvia H Langini
Excess iron (Fe) intake in subjects carrying certain mutations in the HFE gene may result in Fe overload. To estimate risk of Fe overload, 166 male blood donors (19-65 years) from Buenos Aires city were investigated. Daily Fe intake (FeI), hem Fe intake, and Fe intake from SO4Fe enriched flours were estimated (SARA Computer Program and Food Composition Table, USDA). Serum ferritin and transferrin saturation were determined; criteria for Fe overload was serum ferritin > 300 ng/ml and transferrin saturation = 50%...
2017: Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223934/-hypoglycaemia-in-patients-with-type-1-and-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-on-insulin-therapy-results-of-the-global-hat-study-in-argentina
#20
José E Costa Gil, María A Linari, Natalia Pugnaloni, Fabio G Zambon, Federico Pérez Manghi, Mariana Rezzónico
We describe the results of the HAT study in 433 Argentinean patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D) and 823 with type 2 diabetes (T2D). HAT was an international non-interventional study assessing severe and non-severe hypoglycaemia in patients with T1D and T2D under insulin treatment through a two-part self-assessment questionnaire (retrospective and prospective). The annual incidence of at least one hypoglycaemic episode was 46 episode/patient/year in T1D and 14.2 in T2D (retrospective), 96.5 and 24.6 episode/patient/year in T1D and T2D, respectively (prospective)...
2017: Medicina
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