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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452173/energy-intake-functions-and-energy-budgets-of-ectotherms-and-endotherms-derived-from-their-ontogenetic-growth-in-body-mass-and-timing-of-sexual-maturation
#1
Jan Werner, Nikolaos Sfakianakis, Alan D Rendall, Eva Maria Griebeler
Ectothermic and endothermic vertebrates differ not only in their source of body temperature (environment vs. metabolism), but also in growth patterns, in timing of sexual maturation within life, and energy intake functions. Here, we present a mathematical model applicable to ectothermic and endothermic vertebrates. It is designed to test whether differences in the timing of sexual maturation within an animal's life (age at which sexual maturity is reached vs. longevity) together with its ontogenetic gain in body mass (growth curve) can predict the energy intake throughout the animal's life (food intake curve) and can explain differences in energy partitioning (between growth, reproduction, heat production and maintenance, with the latter subsuming any other additional task requiring energy) between ectothermic and endothermic vertebrates...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451831/high-dose-perinatal-folic-acid-supplementation-alters-insulin-sensitivity-in-sprague-dawley-rats-and-diminishes-the-expression-of-adiponectin
#2
Ayodele Olufemi Morakinyo, Titilola Aderonke Samuel, Funmileyi Olubajo Awobajo, Gabriel Olorunleke Oludare, Adekunle Mofolorunso
The possible intake of folate in excess of the recommended upper levels is a matter of critical importance. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of prenatal and postnatal high folic acid supplementation (FAS) on glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity, lipid metabolism, and expression of adiponectin in rats. The study included 20 female rats divided into two groups: control group and FAS group (receiving high folic acid supplemented diet). Both groups of female rats were mated and pregnancy confirmed...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Dietary Supplements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451631/-effects-of-saludarte-program-in-feeding-and-nutrition-components-in-school-children-in-mexico-city
#3
Teresa Shamah-Levy, Lucía Cuevas-Nasu, Luz María Gómez-Acosta, Ma Del Carmen Morales-Ruan, Ignacio Méndez-Gómez Humarán, Mara Nadiezhda Robles-Villaseñor, Mauricio Hernández-Ávila
OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of Education in Nutrition and Food Assistance components of the SaludArte program in participant schools during 2013-2015. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A three cohort comparative study was used, with two type of follow-up panel structures: a complete panel and a continuous time, with a total of consisting on 1620 scholar children from 144 schools. Information on food intake, feeding behaviors, food preservation and hygiene, physical activity (PI) and anthropometry was registered...
November 2017: Salud Pública de México
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450584/dietary-patterns-and-longitudinal-change-in-hip-bone-mineral-density-among-older-men
#4
T S Rogers, S Harrison, S Judd, E S Orwoll, L M Marshall, J Shannon, L Langsetmo, N E Lane, J M Shikany
Studying dietary patterns is often more informative than individual nutrients or foods. We found that a Prudent dietary pattern (rich in vegetables and fish) was associated with reduced loss of total hip BMD in older men. A Prudent dietary pattern may be a potential lifestyle strategy for minimizing bone loss. INTRODUCTION: This study aimed to identify baseline dietary patterns using factor analysis in a cohort of older men and to evaluate whether the dietary patterns were associated with bone mineral density change (%ΔBMD) at the total hip and femoral neck over time...
February 15, 2018: Osteoporosis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450103/public-health-failure-in-the-prevention-of-neural-tube-defects-time-to-abandon-the-tolerable-upper-intake-level-of-folate
#5
REVIEW
Nicholas J Wald, Joan K Morris, Colin Blakemore
The neural tube defects anencephaly and spina bifida are two of the most common serious congenital malformations. Most cases can be prevented by consuming sufficient folic acid immediately before pregnancy and in early pregnancy. Fortification of flour with folic acid to prevent these defects has been implemented in 81 countries without public objection or indication of harm. An obstacle to the wider adoption of fortification arises from the creation of a "tolerable upper intake level" for folate (which includes natural food folate as well as synthetic folic acid), and which has been set at 1 mg/day, thereby proscribing higher folate intakes...
2018: Public Health Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449670/social-inhibition-and-behavioural-flexibility-when-the-context-changes-a-comparison-across-six-primate-species
#6
Federica Amici, Josep Call, Julia Watzek, Sarah Brosnan, Filippo Aureli
The ability to inhibit previously employed strategies and flexibly adjust behavioural responses to external conditions may be critical for individual survival. However, it is unclear which factors predict their distribution across species. Here, we investigated social inhibition and behavioural flexibility in six primate species (chimpanzees, bonobos, orangutans, gorillas, capuchin monkeys and spider monkeys) differing in terms of phylogenetic relatedness, foraging ecology and social organization. Depending on the social context, individuals could maximize their food intake by inhibiting the selection of a larger food reward in one condition (i...
February 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449657/neural-activity-induced-by-visual-food-stimuli-presented-out-of-awareness-a-preliminary-magnetoencephalography-study
#7
Katsuko Takada, Akira Ishii, Takashi Matsuo, Chika Nakamura, Masato Uji, Takahiro Yoshikawa
Obesity is a major public health problem in modern society. Appetitive behavior has been proposed to be partially driven by unconscious decision-making processes and thus, targeting the unconscious cognitive processes related to eating behavior is essential to develop strategies for overweight individuals and obese patients. Here, we presented food pictures below the threshold of awareness to healthy male volunteers and examined neural activity related to appetitive behavior using magnetoencephalography. We found that, among participants who did not recognize food pictures during the experiment, an index of heart rate variability assessed by electrocardiography (low-frequency component power/high-frequency component power ratio, LF/HF) just after picture presentation was increased compared with that just before presentation, and the increase in LF/HF was negatively associated with the score for cognitive restraint of food intake...
February 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449051/differences-in-the-validity-of-a-visual-estimation-method-for-determining-patients-meal-intake-between-various-meal-types-and-supplied-food-items
#8
Yui Kawasaki, Rie Akamatsu, Yuki Tamaura, Masashi Sakai, Keiko Fujiwara, Satomi Tsutsuura
BACKGROUND & AIMS: The aim of this study was to examine differences in the validity of a visual estimation method for determining patients' meal intake between various meal types and supplied food items in hospitals and to find factors influencing the validity of a visual estimation method. METHODS: There are two procedures by which we obtained the information on dietary intake of the patients in these hospitals. These are both by visual assessment from the meal trays at the time of their clearing, by the attending nursing staff and by weighing conducted by researchers...
February 12, 2018: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448899/dietary-exposure-of-the-belgian-population-to-emulsifiers-e481-sodium-stearoyl-2-lactylate-and-e482-calcium-stearoyl-2-lactylate
#9
Sarah Bel, Thomas Struyf, Tine Fierens, Griet Jacobs, Christine Vinkx, Mia Bellemans, Stefan Voorspoels, Karin De Ridder
A dietary exposure assessment of food emulsifiers E481 (sodium stearoyl-2-lactylate) and E482 (calcium stearoyl-2-lactylate) in the Belgian population was performed. Nationally representative food consumption data from the Belgian National Food Consumption Surveys 2004 (BNFCS2004) and 2014 (BNFCS2014) were used for calculations. A conservative approach (combining individual food consumption data with the maximum permitted level (MPL) of foods (tier 2), was compared with more refined estimates (combining individual food consumption data with actual concentrations measured in food products available on the Belgian market (tier 3))...
February 15, 2018: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448893/arsenic-species-in-rice-and-rice-based-products-consumed-by-toddlers-in-switzerland
#10
Roxane Guillod-Magnin, Beat J Brüschweiler, Rafael Aubert, Max Haldimann
Inorganic arsenic (iAs) is a contaminant present in food, especially in rice and rice-based products. Toxicity of arsenic compounds (As) depends on species and oxidative state. Inorganic arsenic species, such as arsenite (As(III)) and arsenate (As(V)), are more bioactive and toxic than organic arsenic species, like methylarsonic acid (MMA(V)) and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA(V)) or arsenosugars and arsenobetaine. An ion chromatography-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy (IC-ICP-MS) method was developed to separate the four following arsenic anions: As(III), As(V), MMA(V) and DMA(V)...
February 16, 2018: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448092/investigation-on-bisphenol-a-levels-in-human-milk-and-dairy-supply-chain-a-review
#11
REVIEW
Raffaelina Mercogliano, Serena Santonicola
Bisphenol A (BPA), widely used as additive in food packaging, is an environmental and food contaminant that shows a weak estrogenic activity in general population and toxicity in the infant population. A temporary tolerable daily intake (t-TDI) of 4 μg/kg bw/day and a migration limit of 0.6 mg/kg in food from plastic materials, intended to come in contact with food, were fixed. Dietary milk is important in the human diet. The review investigated the contamination levels in human milk and along the dairy supply chain...
February 12, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447246/fried-food-intake-and-risk-of-nonfatal-acute-myocardial-infarction-in-the-costa-rica-heart-study
#12
Peter Hu, Yanping Li, Hannia Campos
Economic development in middle-income countries has led to a noticeable rise in the availability of commercial deep fried foods and lifestyles that require eating meals "on the go" and outside of the home. Yet, data from these countries where fried foods were traditionally prepared at home are scarce, despite several studies showing the potential adverse effects of fried food consumption on risk for heart disease. We aimed to examine whether consumption of fried foods inside or outside of the home is associated with an increased risk of myocardial infarction (MI) among Hispanic/Latinos living in Costa Rica...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447201/estimation-model-for-habitual-24-hour-urinary-sodium-excretion-using-simple-questionnaires-from-normotensive-koreans
#13
Ji-Sook Kong, Yeon-Kyung Lee, Mi Kyung Kim, Mi-Kyeong Choi, Young-Ran Heo, Taisun Hyun, Sun Mee Kim, Eun-Soon Lyu, Se-Young Oh, Hae-Ryun Park, Moo-Yong Rhee, Hee-Kyong Ro, Mi Kyung Song
This study was conducted to develop an equation for estimation of 24-h urinary-sodium excretion that can serve as an alternative to 24-h dietary recall and 24-h urine collection for normotensive Korean adults. In total, data on 640 healthy Korean adults aged 19 to 69 years from 4 regions of the country were collected as a training set. In order to externally validate the equation developed from that training set, 200 subjects were recruited independently as a validation set. Due to heterogeneity by gender, we constructed a gender-specific equation for estimation of 24-h urinary-sodium excretion by using a multivariable linear regression model and assessed the performance of the developed equation in validation set...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446981/diet-pattern-and-respiratory-morbidity-in-the-atherosclerosis-risk-in-communities-study
#14
Emily P Brigham, Lyn M Steffen, Stephanie J London, Danielle Boyce, Gregory B Diette, Nadia N Hansel, Jessica Rice, Meredith C McCormack
RATIONALE: Dietary intake is a potential risk factor for respiratory morbidity in adult populations. Few studies capture the effect of diet patterns, representative of combination of nutrients consumed, on respiratory morbidity in combination with objective measures of lung function. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate patterns of dietary intake in relation to respiratory morbidity and objective measures of lung function in a U.S. POPULATION: <AbstractText Label="METHODS" NlmCategory="METHODS">The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study enrolled 15,792 participants from four U...
February 15, 2018: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446218/influence-of-grandparents-on-the-dietary-intake-of-their-2-12-year-old-grandchildren-a-systematic-review
#15
REVIEW
Kylie G Young, Kerith Duncanson, Tracy Burrows
AIM: Grandparents are assuming increased child-caregiving responsibilities, which potentially influences the dietary intake of grandchildren. The aim of this systematic review is to determine the influence of grandparental care on the dietary intake, food-related behaviours, food choices and weight status of their preschool and school-aged grandchildren. METHODS: Six electronic health databases were searched in January 2017. Inclusion criteria were publication in English language, peer-reviewed journal between 2000 and 2017; children aged 2-12 years; study outcomes included child dietary intake/weight status, grandparent nutrition knowledge/beliefs or grandparent/parent feeding practices...
February 15, 2018: Nutrition & Dietetics: the Journal of the Dietitians Association of Australia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446079/dietary-intake-of-nutrients-involved-in-one-carbon-metabolism-and-risk-of-urothelial-cell-carcinoma-a-prospective-cohort-study
#16
Pierre-Antoine Dugué, Maree T Brinkman, Allison M Hodge, Julie K Bassett, Damien Bolton, Anthony Longano, John L Hopper, Melissa C Southey, Dallas R English, Roger L Milne, Graham G Giles
Nutrients involved in one-carbon metabolism may play a role in carcinogenesis through DNA replication, repair and methylation mechanisms. Most studies on urothelial cell carcinoma (UCC) have focused on folate. We sought to examine the association between B-group vitamins and methionine intake and UCC risk, overall and by subtype, and to test whether these associations are different for population subgroups whose nutritional status may be compromised. We followed participants in the Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study (N=41,513) for over 20 years, and observed 500 UCC cases (89% originating in the bladder; superficial: 279, invasive: 221)...
February 15, 2018: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446037/developing-healthy-food-preferences-in-preschool-children-through-taste-exposure-sensory-learning-and-nutrition-education
#17
REVIEW
Chandani Nekitsing, Marion M Hetherington, Pam Blundell-Birtill
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The present review was undertaken in order to summarize and evaluate recent research investigating taste exposure, sensory learning, and nutrition education interventions for promoting vegetable intake in preschool children. RECENT FINDINGS: Overall, taste exposure interventions yielded the best outcomes for increasing vegetable intake in early childhood. Evidence from sensory learning strategies such as visual exposure and experiential learning also show some success...
February 14, 2018: Current Obesity Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446036/mindfulness-approaches-and-weight-loss-weight-maintenance-and-weight-regain
#18
REVIEW
Carolyn Dunn, Megan Haubenreiser, Madison Johnson, Kelly Nordby, Surabhi Aggarwal, Sarah Myer, Cathy Thomas
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: There is an urgent need for effective weight management techniques, as more than one third of US adults are overweight or obese. Recommendations for weight loss include a combination of reducing caloric intake, increasing physical activity, and behavior modification. Behavior modification includes mindful eating or eating with awareness. The purpose of this review was to summarize the literature and examine the impact of mindful eating on weight management. RECENT FINDINGS: The practice of mindful eating has been applied to the reduction of food cravings, portion control, body mass index, and body weight...
February 14, 2018: Current Obesity Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445914/interaction-between-dietary-acrylamide-intake-and-genetic-variants-for-estrogen-receptor-positive-breast-cancer-risk
#19
Janneke G F Hogervorst, Piet A van den Brandt, Roger W L Godschalk, Frederik-Jan van Schooten, Leo J Schouten
PURPOSE: The association between dietary acrylamide intake and estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) breast cancer risk in epidemiological studies is inconsistent. By analyzing gene-acrylamide interactions for ER+ breast cancer risk, we aimed to clarify the role of acrylamide intake in ER+ breast cancer etiology. METHODS: The prospective Netherlands Cohort Study on diet and cancer includes 62,573 women, aged 55-69 years. At baseline, a random subcohort of 2589 women was sampled from the total cohort for a case-cohort analysis approach...
February 14, 2018: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445913/dietary-pattern-associated-with-selenoprotein-p-and-mri-derived-body-fat-volumes-liver-signal-intensity-and-metabolic-disorders
#20
Romina di Giuseppe, Sandra Plachta-Danielzik, Manja Koch, Ute Nöthlings, Sabrina Schlesinger, Jan Borggrefe, Marcus Both, Hans-Peter Müller, Jan Kassubek, Gunnar Jacobs, Wolfgang Lieb
PURPOSE: The association of complex dietary patterns with circulating selenoprotein P (SELENOP) levels in humans is unknown. In a general population sample, we aimed to identify a dietary pattern explaining inter-individual variation in circulating SELENOP concentrations and to study this pattern in relation to prevalent diabetes, metabolic syndrome (MetS), MRI-determined total volumes of visceral (VAT) and subcutaneous (SAT) abdominal adipose tissue, and liver signal intensity/fatty liver disease...
February 14, 2018: European Journal of Nutrition
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