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Anchal Ghai, Dolonchampa Maji, Michael Rettig, Chantiya Chanswangphuwana, John DiPersio, Walter Akers, Samuel Achilefu, Farrokh Dehdashti, Ravi Vij, Monica Shokeen
Multiple myeloma (MM) is a plasma B-cell hematologic cancer that causes significant skeletal morbidity. Despite improvements in survival, heterogeneity in response remains a major challenge in MM. Cluster of differentiation 38 (CD38) is a type II transmembrane glycoprotein over-expressed in myeloma cells and is implicated in MM cell signaling. Daratumumab is US Food and Drug Administration approved high-affinity monoclonal antibody targeting CD38 that is clinically benefiting refractory MM patients. Here, we evaluated [(89)Zr]Zr-DFO-daratumumab positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) imaging in MM tumor models...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
Habib Ghaznavi, Samira Hosseini-Nami, S Kamran Kamrava, Rasoul Irajirad, Shayan Maleki, Ali Shakeri-Zadeh, Alireza Montazerabadi
This study reports the synthesis and characterization of poly(ethylene glycol) coated gold@iron oxide core-shell nanoparticles conjugated with folic acid (FA-PEG-Au@IONP). Also, targeted therapeutic properties of such a nanocomplex were studied on human nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell line KB and human breast adenocarcinoma cell line MCF-7 in vitro. The synthesized nanocomplex was characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS), UV-Vis spectroscopy, vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy...
October 10, 2017: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
Jung Sun Park, Hoon In Choi, Eun Hui Bae, Seong Kwon Ma, Soo Wan Kim
Background/Aims: Indoxyl sulfate (IS) is a uremic toxin and an important causative factor in the progression of chronic kidney disease. Recently, paricalcitol (19-nor-1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D2) was shown to exhibit protective effects in kidney injury. Here, we investigated the effects of paricalcitol treatment on IS-induced renal tubular injury. Methods: The fluorescent dye 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate was used to measure intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) following IS administration in human renal proximal tubular epithelial (HK-2) cells...
October 10, 2017: Korean Journal of Internal Medicine
Mingming Guo, Madhav P Yadav, Tony Z Jin
This study focused on the use of antimicrobial edible coatings and films from micro-emulsions to reduce populations of foodborne pathogens in foods. Corn-Bio-fiber gum (C-BFG) was used as an emulsifier with chitosan. Allyl isothiocyanate (AIT) and lauric arginate ester (LAE) served as antimicrobials. Micro-emulsions were obtained from a solution consisting of 1% chitosan, 0.5% C-BFG, and 1-4% AIT or LAE which was subject to high pressure homogenization (HPH) processing at 138MPa for 3cycles. Coatings and films produced from the micro-emulsions had micro-pores with sizes ranging from 100 to 300nm and micro-channels that hold antimicrobials effectively and facilitate the release of antimicrobials from the center to the surface of the films or coatings, thus enhancing their antimicrobial efficacy...
October 2, 2017: International Journal of Food Microbiology
Ali Q Alorabi, Mark D Tarn, Jenifer Gómez-Pastora, Eugenio Bringas, Inmaculada Ortiz, Vesselin N Paunov, Nicole Pamme
Polyelectrolyte (PE) microcapsules for drug delivery are typically fabricated via layer-by-layer (LbL) deposition of PE layers of alternating charge on sacrificial template microparticles, which usually requires multiple incubation and washing steps that render the process repetitive and time-consuming. Here, ferrofluid droplets were explored for this purpose as an elegant alternative of templates that can be easily manipulated via an external magnetic field, and require only a simple microfluidic chip design and setup...
October 9, 2017: Lab on a Chip
Long Lv, Bo Liu
Bakuchiol is extracted from Psoralea corylifolia, a member of the Leguminosae family, has been used in Indian Ayurvedic and Chinese traditional medicine, and it possesses an anticancer effect. The primary aim of the present study was to identify the molecular mechanisms underlying the anticancer effect of bakuchiol monoterpenes. Bakuchiol treatment significantly inhibited NUGC3 human gastric cancer cell viability in a concentration dependent manner. In addition, bakuchiol significantly increased the apoptotic cell population in the sub‑G1 phase, and Annexin‑V‑fluorescein isothiocyanate/propidium iodide double staining confirmed the increase in apoptosis...
October 3, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
Soshi Seike, Masaya Takehara, Teruhisa Takagishi, Kazuaki Miyamoto, Keiko Kobayashi, Masahiro Nagahama
Clostridium perfringens delta-toxin is a β-barrel-pore-forming toxin (β-PFT) and a presumptive virulence factor of type B and C strains, which are causative organisms of fatal intestinal diseases in animals. We showed previously that delta-toxin causes cytotoxicity via necrosis in sensitive cells. Here, we examined the effect of delta-toxin on intestinal membrane integrity. Delta-toxin led to a reduction in transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) and increased the permeability of fluorescence isothiocyanate-conjugated dextran in human intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells without changing the tight junction proteins, such as zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1), occludin, and claudin-1...
October 5, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Tingting Yang, Huifang Mei, Dengqiu Xu, Wang Zhou, Xiaoyu Zhu, Lixin Sun, Xin Huang, Xue Wang, Ting Shu, Jia Liu, Jiaxin Ding, H M Hassan, Luyong Zhang, Zhenzhou Jiang
Hepatocyte polarization is essential for biliary secretion, and loss of polarity causes bile secretory failure and hepatotoxicity. Here, we showed that alpha-naphthyl isothiocyanate (ANIT)-induced liver injury was accompanied by the dynamic interruption of bile acid homeostasis in rat plasma, liver and bile, which was characterized by the redistribution of bile acids in plasma and bile and a small range of fluctuations in the liver. Molecular mechanism studies indicated that these factors are dynamically mediated by the disruption of bile acid transporters and hepatic tight junctions...
October 3, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Jason Fawley, Shannon Koehler, Susan Cabrera, Vy Lam, Katherine Fredrich, Martin Hessner, Nita Salzman, David Gourlay
BACKGROUND: Intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP) has been shown to help maintain intestinal homeostasis. Decreased expression of IAP has been linked with pediatric intestinal diseases associated with bacterial overgrowth and subsequent inflammation. We hypothesize that the absence of IAP leads to dysbiosis, with increased inflammation and permeability of the newborn intestine. METHODS: Sprague-Dawley heterozygote IAP cross-matches were bred. Pups were dam fed ad lib and euthanized at weaning...
October 2017: Journal of Surgical Research
Lei Zhang, Xia Wang, Ruixue Wang, Xuelian Zheng, Na Li, Huannan Li, Xiaoren Cao, Bin Zhou, Yong Lin, Lan Yang
The combination of tumor necrosis factor‑related apoptosis‑inducing ligand (TRAIL) with other agents has been recognized as a promising strategy to overcome TRAIL resistance in cancer cells. Baicalin (5, 6‑dihydroxy‑7‑o‑glucuronide flavone) is a flavonoid from the root of the medicinal herb Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi, which has been reported to exert antioxidant, anti‑inflammatory, antiviral and anticancer activities in vitro. However, the effect of baicalin on TRAIL‑induced cytotoxicity has not been previously reported...
September 26, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
Bahman Yousefi, Ako Azimi, Maryam Majidinia, Vahid Shafiei-Irannejad, Reza Badalzadeh, Behzad Baradaran, Nosratollah Zarghami, Nasser Samadi
Multidrug resistance in tumor cells is still a big challenge in cancer treatment. Therefore, identification ofsafe and effective multidrug resistance-reversing compounds with minimal side effects is an important approach in cancer treatment. Here, we investigated the role and potential mechanisms of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ in doxorubicin-resistant human myelogenous leukemia (K562/DOX) cells. The effect of doxorubicin on cell viability following treatment with balaglitazone, a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ agonist, was evaluated using trypan blue and 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assays...
October 2017: Tumour Biology: the Journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
Emily Mathieu, Neeru Gupta, Amir Ahari, Xun Zhou, Joseph Hanna, Yeni H Yücel
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine whether cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) enters the optic nerve via a glymphatic pathway and whether this entry is size-dependent. Methods: Fluorescent dextran tracers (fluorescein isothiocyanate [FITC]) of four different sizes (10, 40, 70, and 500 kDa) and FITC-ovalbumin (45 kDa) were injected into the CSF of 15 adult mice. Tracer distribution in the orbital optic nerve at 1 hour after injection was assessed in tissue sections with confocal microscopy...
September 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Martin Rudolf, Armin Mir Mohi Sefat, Yoko Miura, Aysegül Tura, Walter Raasch, Mahdy Ranjbar, Salvatore Grisanti, Zouhair Aherrahrou, Anna Wagner, Jeffrey D Messinger, David W Garber, G M Anantharamaiah, Christine A Curcio
PURPOSE: Accumulation of lipoprotein-derived lipids including esterified and unesterified cholesterol in Bruch's membrane of human eyes is a major age-related change involved in initiating and sustaining soft drusen in age-related macular degeneration (AMD). The apolipoprotein (apo) A-I mimetic peptide 4F is a small anti-inflammatory and anti-atherogenic agent, and potent modifier of plasma membranes. We evaluated the effect of intravitreally-injected 4F on murine Bruch's membrane. METHODS: We tested single intravitreal injections of 4F doses (0...
October 3, 2017: Current Eye Research
Magdalena M Olchawa, Justyna A Furso, Grzegorz M Szewczyk, Tadeusz J Sarna
The risk of chronic oxidative stress in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) increases with age due to accumulation of the photoreactive age pigment lipofuscin (LFG). Here, we asked whether sublethal and weakly lethal photic stress, induced by irradiation of ARPE-19 cells containing phagocytised LFG, affected the cell specific phagocytic activity, which is critically important for proper functioning and survival of the retina, and if natural antioxidants could modify the observed outcomes. ARPE-19 cells preloaded with LFG isolated from human donors of different age or containing LFG enriched with zeaxanthin and α-tocopherol (LFG-A), were irradiated with blue light...
October 3, 2017: Free Radical Research
Yun-Jeong Jeong, Hyun-Ji Cho, Fung-Lung Chung, Xiantao Wang, Hyang-Sook Hoe, Kwan-Kyu Park, Cheorl-Ho Kim, Hyeun-Wook Chang, Sang-Rae Lee, Young-Chae Chang
Isothiocyanates, which are present as glucosinolate precursors in cruciferous vegetables, have strong activity against various cancers. Here, we compared the anti-metastatic effects of isothiocyanates (benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC), phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC), and sulforaphane (SFN)) by examining how they regulate MMP-9 expression. Isothiocyanates, particularly PEITC, suppressed 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced MMP-9 activity and invasion in various cancer cell lines. By contrast, N-methyl phenethylamine, a PEITC analog without an isothiocyanate functional group, had no effect...
September 8, 2017: Oncotarget
Luke Bell, Carol Wagstaff
Glucosinolates (GSLs) and isothiocyanates (ITCs) are produced by Brassicaceae plants. They are popular targets for analysis due to the health benefits associated with them. Breeders aim to increase the concentrations in commercial varieties, however there are few examples of this. The most well known is Beneforté broccoli, which has increased glucoraphanin/sulforaphane concentrations compared to conventional varieties. It was developed through traditional breeding methods with considerations for processing, consumption and health made throughout this process...
October 2, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Yaman Musdal, Sridhar Govindarajan, Bengt Mannervik
Exploring the vicinity around a locus of a protein in sequence space may identify homologs with enhanced properties, which could become valuable in biotechnical and other applications. A rational approach to this pursuit is the use of 'infologs', i.e. synthetic sequences with specific substitutions capturing maximal sequence information derived from the evolutionary history of the protein family. Ninety-five such infolog genes of poplar glutathione transferase were synthesized and expressed in Escherichia coli, and the catalytic activities of the proteins determined with alternative substrates...
August 1, 2017: Protein Engineering, Design & Selection: PEDS
Tine Van Bergen, Tjing-Tjing Hu, Isabelle Etienne, Geert E Reyns, Lieve Moons, Jean H M Feyen
The current standard of care in clinical practice for diabetic retinopathy (DR), anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) therapy, has shown a significant improvement in visual acuity. However, treatment response can be variable and might be associated with potential side effects. This study was designed to investigate inhibition of placental growth factor (PlGF) as a possible alternative therapy for DR. The effect of the anti-PlGF antibody (PL5D11D4) was preclinically evaluated in various animal models by investigating different DR hallmarks, including inflammation, neurodegeneration, vascular leakage and fibrosis...
September 28, 2017: Experimental Eye Research
John Baeten, Alexander Johnson, Sumsum Sunny, Amritha Suresh, Praveen Birur, K Uma, Deepak Kademani
BACKGROUND: Aberrant sialylation is accepted as a carcinogenic biomarker. In previous work, fluorescently labeled wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) distinguished between cancerous and normal oral biopsies. The purpose of this study was to investigate WGA-fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) as a point-of-care tool for detecting oral malignant and dysplastic lesions in vivo. METHODS: Subject recruitment was divided into two groups: (1) the clinically normal oral mucosa group; or (2) the presence of clinically suspicious oral lesion(s) group...
September 30, 2017: Head & Neck
Zhen Wang, You-Min Ying, Kai-Qiang Li, Yu Zhang, Bing-Yu Chen, Jing-Jing Zeng, Xu-Jun He, Meng-Meng Jiang, Bo-Xu Chen, Ying Wang, Xiao-Dong Xu, Ke Hao, Meng-Hua Zhu, Wei Zhang
An extract from a traditional Chinese herb, Marsdeniae tenacissima (trade name, Xiao-Ai-Ping) has been approved for use on the Chinese market as a cancer chemotherapeutic agent for decades. Previous studies have demonstrated the cytostatic and pro-apoptotic effects of M. tenacissima extract (MTE) in multiple cancer cells. However, the contributions of MTE to the proliferation and apoptosis of hepatoma carcinoma cells and the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In the present study, Bel-7402 cells were incubated with increasing concentrations of MTE ranging from 0-320 µl/ml to explore the effects and potential mechanisms of MTE on the proliferation and apoptosis of Bel-7402 cells...
September 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
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