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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296187/lethal-and-sublethal-effects-of-pesticides-in-the-management-of-polyphagotarsonemus-latus-banks-acari-tarsonemidae-on-capsicum-annuum-l
#1
Mariana O Breda, José V Oliveira, Alberto B Esteves Filho, Douglas R S Barbosa, Andrezo A Santos
BACKGROUND: The evaluation of lethal and sublethal effects are of great importance for a complete assessment of the total impact of chemical compounds upon pest populations and the development of management strategies. At this study, the lethal and sublethal effects of different synthetic and botanical products were evaluated upon the broad mite, Polyphagotarsonemus latus (Banks), a major pest of Capsicum annuum L and other crops. RESULTS: Abamectin presented the highest lethal effect to P...
March 15, 2017: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237806/chemical-composition-and-insecticidal-property-of-myrsine-stolonifera-koidz-walker-family-myrsinaceae-on-musca-domestica-diptera-muscidae
#2
Xue Gui Wang, Qian Li, Su Rong Jiang, Pei Li, Ji Zhi Yang
Musca domestica is one of the most important pests of human health, and has developed strong resistance to many chemicals used for its control. One important approach for creating new pesticides is the exploration of novel compounds from plants. During a wide screening of plants with insecticidal properties that grow in southern China, we found that the methanolic extracts of Myrsine stolonifera had insecticidal activity against the adults of M. domestica. However, the insecticidal constituents and mechanisms of the M...
February 22, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161865/biophysical-characterization-of-acacia-caesia-fabricated-silver-nanoparticles-effectiveness-on-mosquito-vectors-of-public-health-relevance-and-impact-on-non-target-aquatic-biocontrol-agents
#3
Giovanni Benelli, Shine Kadaikunnan, Naiyf S Alharbi, Marimuthu Govindarajan
Mosquito-borne diseases lead to serious public health concerns in tropical and sub-tropical countries worldwide, due to development of mosquito resistance to synthetic pesticides, non-target effects of pesticides, and socioeconomic reasons. Currently, green nanotechnology is a promising research field, showing a wide range of potential applications in vector control programs. The employ of natural products as reducing agents to fabricate insecticidal nanocomposites is gaining research attention worldwide, due to low costs and high effectiveness...
February 5, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28141965/evolution-of-stored-product-entomology-protecting-the-world-food-supply
#4
David W Hagstrum, Thomas W Phillips
Traditional methods of stored-product pest control were initially passed from generation to generation. Ancient literature and archaeology reveal hermetic sealing, burning sulfur, desiccant dusts, and toxic botanicals as early control methods. Whereas traditional nonchemical methods were subsequently replaced by synthetic chemicals, other traditional methods were improved and integrated with key modern pesticides. Modern stored-product integrated pest management (IPM) makes decisions using knowledge of population dynamics and threshold insect densities...
January 31, 2017: Annual Review of Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110082/acute-larvicidal-toxicity-of-five-essential-oils-pinus-nigra-hyssopus-officinalis-satureja-montana-aloysia-citrodora-and-pelargonium-graveolens-against-the-filariasis-vector-culex-quinquefasciatus-synergistic-and-antagonistic-effects
#5
Giovanni Benelli, Roman Pavela, Angelo Canale, Kevin Cianfaglione, Giampiero Ciaschetti, Fabio Conti, Marcello Nicoletti, Sengottayan Senthil-Nathan, Heinz Mehlhorn, Filippo Maggi
Mosquito vector control is facing a number of important and timely challenges, mainly due to the rapid development of pesticide resistance and environmental concerns. In this scenario, screening of botanical resources for their mosquitocidal activity may offer effective and eco-friendly tools against Culicidae vectors. Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae) is a vector of lymphatic filariasis and of dangerous arboviral diseases, such as West Nile and St. Louis encephalitis. In this study, the chemical composition of five essential oils obtained from different plants, namely Pinus nigra J...
April 2017: Parasitology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931388/effects-of-pollution-on-freshwater-organisms
#6
B S Choudri, Mahad Baawain
This review includes works published in the general scientific literature during 2015 on the effects of anthropogenic pollutants on freshwater organisms. It begins with two broad sections: research reviews and broad field studies and surveys. This is followed by reviews of research categorized in sections to reflect the pollutant class. These sections include wastewater, stormwater and non-point source pollution, nutrients, sediment cap materials and suspended clays, botanical extracts, surfactants, metals, persistent organic pollutants, pharmaceuticals, endocrine disruptors, pesticides, petroleum hydrocarbons and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), ionic liquids, and nanomaterials...
October 2016: Water Environment Research: a Research Publication of the Water Environment Federation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834875/resveratrol-and-coumarin-novel-agricultural-antibacterial-agent-against-ralstonia-solanacearum-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#7
Juanni Chen, Yanmei Yu, Shili Li, Wei Ding
Bacterial wilt is a destructive disease caused by the phytopathogen Ralstonia solanacearum (R. solanacearum), which is widely found in various tobacco-growing areas all over the world. Botanical bactericidal substances have gradually emerged as a hot topic in modern pesticide research. In this study, the antibacterial activities of two phytochemicals (resveratrol and coumarin) against R. solanacearum and their in vivo and in vitro efficacy for controlling tobacco bacterial wilt were evaluated. We rule out significant biological effects of both phytochemicals using transmission electron microscope (TEM) and fluorescence microscope, which suppressed the growth of R...
November 9, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27754334/chemical-compositions-of-ligusticum-chuanxiong-oil-and-lemongrass-oil-and-their-joint-action-against-aphis-citricola-van-der-goot-hemiptera-aphididae
#8
Chao Zhang, Runqiang Liu, Jun He, Zhiqing Ma, Xing Zhang
In order to develop novel botanical insecticides, the joint action of Ligusticum chuanxiong oil (LCO) and lemongrass oil (LO) against Aphis citricola van der Goot was determined systematically indoors and outdoors. The chemical profiles of LCO and LO as determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis revealed that the main compounds from LCO were (Z)-ligustilide (44.58%) and senkyunolide A (26.92%), and that of LO were geranial (42.16%) and neral (32.58%), respectively. The mixture of LCO and LO showed significant synergy against A...
October 12, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27721831/chemical-composition-and-antibacterial-activity-of-essential-oils-of-tagetes-minuta-asteraceae-against-selected-plant-pathogenic-bacteria
#9
Martin Muthee Gakuubi, John M Wagacha, Saifuddin F Dossaji, Wycliffe Wanzala
The objective of this study was to determine the chemical composition and antibacterial activity of essential oils (EOs) of Tagetes minuta against three phytopathogenic bacteria Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. phaseolicola, Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. phaseoli, and Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. manihotis. The essential oils were extracted using steam distillation method in a modified Clevenger-type apparatus while antibacterial activity of the EOs was evaluated by disc diffusion method. Gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC/MS) was used for analysis of the chemical profile of the EOs...
2016: International Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27683558/current-therapeutic-cannabis-controversies-and-clinical-trial-design-issues
#10
REVIEW
Ethan B Russo
This overview covers a wide range of cannabis topics, initially examining issues in dispensaries and self-administration, plus regulatory requirements for production of cannabis-based medicines, particularly the Food and Drug Administration "Botanical Guidance." The remainder pertains to various cannabis controversies that certainly require closer examination if the scientific, consumer, and governmental stakeholders are ever to reach consensus on safety issues, specifically: whether botanical cannabis displays herbal synergy of its components, pharmacokinetics of cannabis and dose titration, whether cannabis medicines produce cyclo-oxygenase inhibition, cannabis-drug interactions, and cytochrome P450 issues, whether cannabis randomized clinical trials are properly blinded, combatting the placebo effect in those trials via new approaches, the drug abuse liability (DAL) of cannabis-based medicines and their regulatory scheduling, their effects on cognitive function and psychiatric sequelae, immunological effects, cannabis and driving safety, youth usage, issues related to cannabis smoking and vaporization, cannabis concentrates and vape-pens, and laboratory analysis for contamination with bacteria and heavy metals...
2016: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27629396/identification-of-differentially-expressed-genes-in-monochamus-alternatus-digested-with-azadirachtin
#11
Tong Lin, Qisi Liu, Jingxiang Chen
The pine sawyer beetle Monochamus alternatus Hope, a major forest insect pest, is the primary vector of the destructive forest pest pine wood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus. Azadirachtin, an active compound of neem, is biologically interesting because it represents a group of important, successful botanical pesticides. We provide insight into the molecular effects of azadirachtin on M. alternatus at the transcriptional level to provide clues about possible molecular-level targets and to establish a link between azadirachtin and insect global responses...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27620107/effects-of-pollution-on-freshwater-organisms
#12
B S Choudri, Mahad Baawain
This review includes works published in the general scientific literature during 2015 on the effects of anthropogenic pollutants on freshwater organisms. It begins with two broad sections: research reviews and broad field studies and surveys. This is followed by reviews of research categorized in sections to reflect the pollutant class. These sections include wastewater, stormwater and non-point source pollution, nutrients, sediment cap materials and suspended clays, botanical extracts, surfactants, metals, persistent organic pollutants, pharmaceuticals, endocrine disruptors, pesticides, petroleum hydrocarbons and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), ionic liquids, and nanomaterials...
October 2016: Water Environment Research: a Research Publication of the Water Environment Federation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27607232/impact-of-sesquiterpenes-from-inula-racemosa-asteraceae-on-growth-development-and-nutrition-of-spodoptera-litura-lepidoptera-noctuidae
#13
Mandeep Kaur, Rakesh Kumar, Deep Patel Upendrabhai, Inder Pal Singh, Sanehdeep Kaur
BACKGROUND: The use of botanical pesticides for protecting crops from insect pests has assumed greater importance all over the world owing to growing awareness of harmful effects of indiscriminate use of synthetic pesticides. Inula racemosa Hook. f. (Asteraceae), a medicinally important perennial herb, is rich in sesquiterpenes with many biological activities. The present studies were conducted with the objective to evaluate the sesquiterpenes isolated from I. racemosa for insecticidal activity against Spodoptera litura (F...
September 8, 2016: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27604128/acute-toxicity-and-repellent-activity-of-the-origanum-scabrum-boiss-heldr-lamiaceae-essential-oil-against-four-mosquito-vectors-of-public-health-importance-and-its-biosafety-on-non-target-aquatic-organisms
#14
Marimuthu Govindarajan, Shine Kadaikunnan, Naiyf S Alharbi, Giovanni Benelli
The recent outbreaks of dengue, chikungunya, and Zika virus highlighted the pivotal importance of mosquito vector control in tropical and subtropical areas worldwide. However, mosquito control is facing hot challenges, mainly due to the rapid development of pesticide resistance in Culicidae and the limited success of biocontrol programs on Aedes mosquitoes. In this framework, screening botanicals for their mosquitocidal potential may offer effective and eco-friendly tools in the fight against mosquitoes. In the present study, the essential oil (EO) obtained from the medicinal plant Origanum scabrum was analyzed by GC-MS and evaluated for its mosquitocidal and repellent activities towards Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti, Culex quinquefasciatus, and Culex tritaeniorhynchus...
November 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27491031/one-pot-biogenic-fabrication-of-silver-nanocrystals-using-quisqualis-indica-effectiveness-on-malaria-and-zika-virus-mosquito-vectors-and-impact-on-non-target-aquatic-organisms
#15
Marimuthu Govindarajan, Periasamy Vijayan, Shine Kadaikunnan, Naiyf S Alharbi, Giovanni Benelli
Currently, mosquito vector control is facing a number of key challenges, including the rapid development of resistance to synthetic pesticides and the recent spread of aggressive arbovirus outbreaks. The biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) is currently considered an environmental friendly alternative to the employ of pyrethroids, carbamates and microbial agents (e.g. Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis), since AgNPs are easy to produce, effective and stable in the aquatic environment. However, their biophysical features showed wide variations according to the botanical agent using for the green synthesis, outlining the importance of screening local floral resources used as reducing and stabilizing agents...
September 2016: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27476000/target-and-non-target-toxicity-of-botanical-insecticide-derived-from-couroupita-guianensis-l-flower-against-generalist-herbivore-spodoptera-litura-fab-and-an-earthworm-eisenia-foetida-savigny
#16
Athirstam Ponsankar, Prabhakaran Vasantha-Srinivasan, Sengottayan Senthil-Nathan, Annamalai Thanigaivel, Edward-Sam Edwin, Selvaraj Selin-Rani, Kandaswamy Kalaivani, Wayne B Hunter, Rocco T Alessandro, Ahmed Abdel-Megeed, Chae-Hoon Paik, Veeramuthu Duraipandiyan, Naif Abdullah Al-Dhabi
Botanical insecticides may provide alternatives to synthetic insecticides for controlling Spodoptera litura (F.) and they are target specific, biodegradable, and harmless to mammals. Eight natural chemical compounds with larvicidal activity were identified from fraction F6 of C. guianensis flower extract. Probit analysis of 95% confidence level exposed an LC50 of 223ppm against S. litura third instar larvae. The growth and development of S. litura was affected in sub-lethal concentrations of fraction F6 (50, 100, 150 and 200ppm) compared to controls...
November 2016: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27452880/combination-of-carvacrol-and-thymol-against-the-poultry-red-mite-dermanyssus-gallinae
#17
Farzam Masoumi, Mohammad Reza Youssefi, Mohaddeseh Abouhosseini Tabari
Pest management by conventional pesticides has become progressively hindered by developing pest resistance and increase in consumers demand for safe and residue-free foodstuffs. This will create a considerable market opportunity for alternative products, including botanical pesticides. The present study was conducted to assess the combination of carvacrol and thymol, their repellent activity, and residual toxicity against Dermanyssus gallinae with the aim of designing a new strategy relying on natural compounds for the control of D...
November 2016: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27324586/effects-of-celangulin-iv-and-v-from-celastrus-angulatus-maxim-on-na-k-atpase-activities-of-the-oriental-armyworm-lepidoptera-noctuidae
#18
Dan Cheng, Mingxing Feng, Yufei Ji, Wenjun Wu, Zhaonong Hu
Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase (sodium pump) is an important target for the development of botanical pesticide as it is responsible for transforming chemical energy in ATP to osmotic work and maintaining electrochemical Na(+ )and K(+ )gradients across the cell membrane of most animal cells. Celangulin IV (C-IV) and V (C-V), which are isolated from the root bark of Celastrus angulatus, are the major active ingredients of this insecticidal plant. The activities of C-IV and C-V on Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase were investigated by ultramicro measuring method to evaluate the effects of C-IV and C-V on Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activities of the brain from the fifth Mythimna separata larvae and to discuss the insecticidal mechanism of C-IV and C-V...
2016: Journal of Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27251587/botanical-and-biological-pesticides-elicit-a-similar-induced-systemic-response-in-tomato-solanum-lycopersicum-secondary-metabolism
#19
Luca Pretali, Letizia Bernardo, Timothy S Butterfield, Marco Trevisan, Luigi Lucini
Natural pesticides have attracted substantial interest due to the increase in organic agriculture and enhanced attention to environmental pollution. Plant Growth Promoting Bacteria (PGPB) are applied for both disease control and growth enhancement; PGPBs are known to elicit Induced Systemic Response (ISR) in plants. However, less is known about the effect of botanical pesticides, such as the azadirachtin-containing neem extracts, on plant metabolism. This study aimed to investigate the effects of foliar application of the above-mentioned natural pesticides on the metabolic profiling of tomato...
October 2016: Phytochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27152614/extraction-and-separation-of-active-ingredients-in-schisandra-chinensis-turcz-baill-and-the-study-of-their-antifungal-effects
#20
Haijing Yi, Yan Chen, Jun Liu, Jie Zhang, Wei Guo, Weilie Xiao, Yuncong Yao
Schisandra chinensis extracts (SEs) have traditionally been used as an oriental medicine for the treatment of various human diseases, however, their further application in the biocontrol of plant disease remains poorly understood. This study was conducted to develop eco-friendly botanical pesticides from extracts of S. chinensis and assess whether they could play a key role in plant disease defense. Concentrated active fractions (SE-I, SE-II, and SE-III) were obtained from S. chinensis via specific extraction and separation...
2016: PloS One
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