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Distributed cognition

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738403/developing-consensus-based-priority-outcome-domains-for-trials-in-kidney-transplantation-a-multinational-delphi-survey-with-patients-caregivers-and-health-professionals
#1
Bénédicte Sautenet, Allison Tong, Karine E Manera, Jeremy R Chapman, Anthony N Warrens, David Rosenbloom, Germaine Wong, John Gill, Klemens Budde, Lionel Rostaing, Lorna Marson, Michelle A Josephson, Peter P Reese, Timothy L Pruett, Camilla S Hanson, Donal O'Donoghue, Helen Tam-Tham, Jean-Michel Halimi, Jenny I Shen, John Kanellis, John D Scandling, Kirsten Howard, Martin Howell, Nick Cross, Nicole Evangelidis, Philip Masson, Rainer Oberbauer, Samuel Fung, Shilpa Jesudason, Simon Knight, Sreedhar Mandayam, Stephen P McDonald, Steve Chadban, Tasleem Rajan, Jonathan C Craig
BACKGROUND: Inconsistencies in outcome reporting and frequent omission of patient-centered outcomes can diminish the value of trials in treatment decision making. We identified critically important outcome domains in kidney transplantation based on the shared priorities of patients/caregivers and health professionals. METHODS: In a 3-round Delphi survey, patients/caregivers and health professionals rated the importance of outcome domains for trials in kidney transplantation on a 9-point Likert scale and provided comments...
August 2017: Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737289/comparison-of-pasl-pcasl-and-background-suppressed-3d-pcasl-in-mild-cognitive-impairment
#2
Sudipto Dolui, Marta Vidorreta, Ze Wang, Ilya M Nasrallah, Abass Alavi, David A Wolk, John A Detre
We compared three implementations of single-shot arterial spin labeled (ASL) perfusion magnetic resonance imaging: two-dimensional (2D) pulsed ASL (PASL), 2D pseudocontinuous ASL (PCASL), and background-suppressed (BS) 3D PCASL obtained in a cohort of patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and elderly controls. Study subjects also underwent (18) F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography ((18) F-FDG PET). While BS 3D PCASL showed the lowest (P < 0.001) gray matter-white matter cerebral blood flow (CBF) contrast ratio, it provided the highest (P < 0...
July 24, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735921/frontal-dysfunction-in-patients-with-restless-legs-syndrome-performing-a-visual-oddball-task-an-event-related-potential-source-imaging-study
#3
Kwang Su Cha, Jeong Woo Choi, Ki-Young Jung, Kyung Hwan Kim
Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a sensorimotor neurological disorder that is accompanied by the compelling urge to move one's legs, and unpleasant, disturbing sensations in the legs. Several neuropsychological studies have shown that RLS is associated with deficits in cognitive functions, such as attention, working memory, and frontal executive function, presumably due to abnormal frontal activities. However, the mechanism underlying the cognitive deficits in RLS patients is mostly unknown. To investigate the cortical origin of cognitive dysfunction in RLS, we analyzed the P2 and P3 event-related potential (ERP) components evoked by a visual oddball task using distributed cortical source localization via low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography (LORETA) algorithm...
August 2017: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734837/neural-reuse-of-action-perception-circuits-for-language-concepts-and-communication
#4
REVIEW
Friedemann Pulvermüller
Neurocognitive and neurolinguistics theories make explicit statements relating specialized cognitive and linguistic processes to specific brain loci. These linking hypotheses are in need of neurobiological explanation. Recent mathematical models of human language mechanisms constrained by fundamental neuroscience principles and established knowledge about comparative neuroanatomy offer explanations for where, when and how language is processed in the human brain. In these models, network structure and connectivity along with action- and perception-induced correlation of neuronal activity co-determine neurocognitive mechanisms...
July 19, 2017: Progress in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729755/social-cognition-deficits-current-position-and-future-directions-for-neuropsychological-interventions-in-cerebrovascular-disease
#5
REVIEW
Progress Njomboro
Neuropsychological assessments of cognitive dysfunction in cerebrovascular illness commonly target basic cognitive functions involving aspects of memory, attention, language, praxis, and number processing. Here, I highlight the clinical importance of often-neglected social cognition functions. These functions recruit a widely distributed neural network, making them vulnerable in most cerebrovascular diseases. Sociocognitive deficits underlie most of the problematic social conduct observed in patients and are associated with more negative clinical outcomes (compared to nonsocial cognitive deficits)...
2017: Behavioural Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728905/perceptions-of-clostridium-difficile-infections-among-infection-control-professionals-in-taiwan
#6
Yuan-Pin Hung, Jen-Chieh Lee, Hsiao-Ju Lin, Chun-Wei Chiu, Jia-Ling Wu, Hsiao-Chieh Liu, I-Hsiu Huang, Pei-Jane Tsai, Wen-Chien Ko
BACKGROUND: High Clostridium difficile colonization and infection rates among hospitalized patients had been noted in Taiwan. Nevertheless, the cognition about clinical diagnosis and management of CDI among infection control professionals in Taiwan is not clear. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A 24-item survey questionnaire about the diagnosis, therapy, or infection control policies toward CDI was distributed in the annual meeting of the Infectious Disease Society of Taiwan (IDST) in October 2015 and Infectious Control Society of Taiwan (ICST) in April 2016...
June 29, 2017: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection, Wei Mian Yu Gan Ran za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722234/minocycline-reduces-microgliosis-and-improves-subcortical-white-matter-function-in-a-model-of-cerebral-vascular-disease
#7
Yasmina Manso, Philip R Holland, Akihiro Kitamura, Stefan Szymkowiak, Jessica Duncombe, Edel Hennessy, James L Searcy, Martina Marangoni, Andrew D Randall, Jon T Brown, Barry W McColl, Karen Horsburgh
Chronic cerebral hypoperfusion is a key mechanism associated with white matter disruption in cerebral vascular disease and dementia. In a mouse model relevant to studying cerebral vascular disease, we have previously shown that cerebral hypoperfusion disrupts axon-glial integrity and the distribution of key paranodal and internodal proteins in subcortical myelinated axons. This disruption of myelinated axons is accompanied by increased microglia and cognitive decline. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether hypoperfusion impairs the functional integrity of white matter, its relation with axon-glial integrity and microglial number, and whether by targeting microglia these effects can be improved...
July 19, 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721433/oral-health-and-the-frail-elderly
#8
L Rapp, S Sourdet, B Vellas, M-H Lacoste-Ferré
INTRODUCTION: The relationships between oral health conditions and frailty have rarely been explored. A systematic review of frailty components and oral health concluded that differences in study population endpoint criteria and study design cannot establish a relationship between frailty and oral health. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to describe the distribution of the OHAT (Oral Health Assessment Tool) score in a population of frail subjects and to assess associated parameters (age, socio-economic status, living conditions, education level, nutritional habits, cognitive functioning, autonomy)...
2017: Journal of Frailty & Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715867/therapeutic-impact-of-grape-leaves-polyphenols-on-certain-biochemical-and-neurological-markers-in-alcl3-induced-alzheimer-s-disease
#9
Ibrahim H Borai, Magda K Ezz, Maha Z Rizk, Hanan F Aly, Mahmoud El-Sherbiny, Azza A Matloub, Ghadha I Fouad
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a grave and prevailing neurodegenerative disease, characterized by slow and progressive neurodegeneration in different brain regions. Aluminum (Al) is a potent and widely distributed neurotoxic metal, implicated in the neuropathogenesis of AD. This study aimed to evaluate the possible neurorestorative potential of Vitis vinifera Leaves Polyphenolic (VLP) extract in alleviating aluminum chloride (AlCl3)-induced neurotoxicity in male rats. AlCl3 neurotoxicity induced a significant decrease in brain/serum acetylcholine (ACh) contents and serum dopamine (DA) levels, along with a significant increment of brain/serum acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activities...
July 13, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715453/effects-of-glucose-insulin-and-insulin-resistance-on-cerebral-18f-fdg-distribution-in-cognitively-normal-older-subjects
#10
Kenji Ishibashi, Airin Onishi, Yoshinori Fujiwara, Kiichi Ishiwata, Kenji Ishii
BACKGROUND: Increasing plasma glucose levels and insulin resistance can alter the distribution pattern of fluorine-18-labeled fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) in the brain and relatively reduce 18F-FDG uptake in Alzheimer's disease (AD)-related hypometabolic regions, leading to the appearance of an AD-like pattern. However, its relationship with plasma insulin levels is unclear. We aimed to compare the effects of plasma glucose levels, plasma insulin levels and insulin resistance on the appearance of the AD-like pattern in 18F-FDG images...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715105/a-simulation-based-approach-to-measuring-team-situational-awareness-in-emergency-medicine-a-multicenter-observational-study
#11
Elizabeth D Rosenman, Aurora J Dixon, Jessica M Webb, Sarah Brolliar, Simon J Golden, Kerin A Jones, Sachita Shah, James A Grand, Steve W J Kozlowski, Georgia T Chao, Rosemarie Fernandez
OBJECTIVES: Team situational awareness (TSA) is critical for effective teamwork and supports dynamic decision-making in unpredictable, time-pressured situations. Simulation provides a platform for developing and assessing TSA; but these efforts are limited by suboptimal measurement approaches. The objective of this study was to develop and evaluate a novel approach to TSA measurement in interprofessional emergency medicine teams. METHODS: We performed a multicenter, prospective, simulation-based observational study to evaluate an approach to TSA measurement...
July 17, 2017: Academic Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714503/protective-effects-of-fisetin-and-other-berry-flavonoids-in-parkinson-s-disease
#12
REVIEW
Pamela Maher
Parkinson's disease (PD) is an age-associated degenerative disease of the midbrain that results from the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. It initially presents as a movement disorder with cognitive and other behavioral problems appearing later in the progression of the disease. Current therapies for PD only delay the onset or reduce the motor symptoms. There are no treatments to stop the nerve cell death or to cure the disease. It is becoming increasingly clear that neurological diseases such as PD are multi-factorial involving disruptions in multiple cellular systems...
July 17, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714497/admitting-deserving-medical-students-from-rural-and-disadvantaged-patan-academy-of-health-sciences-approach
#13
S K Upadhyay, S Bhandary, D B Bhandari, R K Dulal, K P Baral, R N Gongal, P K Acharya, S Shrestha, J N Shah, A Karki
BACKGROUND: Patan Academy of Health Sciences (PAHS) aims to produce physicians who would be able and willing to serve in the rural areas. Recognizing the critical importance of student selection strategy, among others, in achieving the program goals, it has adopted an innovative scheme for selecting medical students. This paper describes PAHS medical student selection scheme that favors enrollment of deserving applicants from rural and disadvantaged groups so as to help improve distribution of physicians in rural Nepal...
January 2017: Journal of Nepal Health Research Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713585/associations-of-centrally-acting-ace-inhibitors-with-cognitive-decline-and-survival-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#14
Karim Fazal, Gayan Perera, Mizanur Khondoker, Robert Howard, Robert Stewart
BACKGROUND: Cognitive improvement has been reported in patients receiving centrally acting angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (C-ACEIs). AIMS: To compare cognitive decline and survival after diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease between people receiving C-ACEIs, non-centrally acting angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (NC-ACEIs), and neither. METHOD: Routine Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores were extracted in 5260 patients receiving acetylcholinesterase inhibitors and analysed against C-/NC-ACEI exposure at the time of Alzheimer's disease diagnosis...
July 2017: BJPsych Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713450/generalized-benford-s-law-as-a-lie-detector
#15
Nicolas Gauvrit Gauvrit, Jean-Charles Houillon, Jean-Paul Delahaye
The first significant (leftmost nonzero) digit of seemingly random numbers often appears to conform to a logarithmic distribution, with more 1s than 2s, more 2s than 3s, and so forth, a phenomenon known as Benford's law. When humans try to produce random numbers, they often fail to conform to this distribution. This feature grounds the so-called Benford analysis, aiming at detecting fabricated data. A generalized Benford's law (GBL), extending the classical Benford's law, has been defined recently. In two studies, we provide some empirical support for the generalized Benford analysis, broadening the classical Benford analysis...
2017: Advances in Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713305/sequential-modulations-in-a-combined-horizontal-and-vertical-simon-task-is-there-erp-evidence-for-feature-integration-effects
#16
Katharina Hoppe, Kristina Küper, Edmund Wascher
In the Simon task, participants respond faster when the task-irrelevant stimulus position and the response position are corresponding, for example on the same side, compared to when they have a non-corresponding relation. Interestingly, this Simon effect is reduced after non-corresponding trials. Such sequential effects can be explained in terms of a more focused processing of the relevant stimulus dimension due to increased cognitive control, which transfers from the previous non-corresponding trial (conflict adaptation effects)...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707953/neural-correlates-of-visual-memory-in-patients-with-diffuse-axonal-injury
#17
Juliane Lauer, Laura Moreno-López, Anne Manktelow, Ellen L Carroll, Joanne G Outtrim, Jonathan P Coles, Virginia F Newcombe, Barbara J Sahakian, David K Menon, Emmanuel A Stamatakis
PRIMARY OBJECTIVE: To investigate the neural substrates of visual memory in a sample of patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI). We hypothesized that patients with decreased grey and white matter volume in frontal and parietal cortices as well as medial temporal and occipital lobes would perform poorly on the tests of visual memory analysed. METHODS AND PROCEDURES: 39 patients and 53 controls were assessed on tests of visual memory and learning from the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB)...
July 14, 2017: Brain Injury: [BI]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706740/action-video-game-experience-related-to-altered-large-scale-white-matter-networks
#18
Diankun Gong, Weiyi Ma, Jinnan Gong, Hui He, Li Dong, Dan Zhang, Jianfu Li, Cheng Luo, Dezhong Yao
With action video games (AVGs) becoming increasingly popular worldwide, the cognitive benefits of AVG experience have attracted continuous research attention over the past two decades. Research has repeatedly shown that AVG experience can causally enhance cognitive ability and is related to neural plasticity in gray matter and functional networks in the brain. However, the relation between AVG experience and the plasticity of white matter (WM) network still remains unclear. WM network modulates the distribution of action potentials, coordinating the communication between brain regions and acting as the framework of neural networks...
2017: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706435/genome-wide-polygenic-scores-predict-reading-performance-throughout-the-school-years
#19
Saskia Selzam, Philip S Dale, Richard K Wagner, John C DeFries, Martin Cederlöf, Paul F O'Reilly, Eva Krapohl, Robert Plomin
It is now possible to create individual-specific genetic scores, called genome-wide polygenic scores (GPS). We used a GPS for years of education (EduYears) to predict reading performance assessed at UK National Curriculum Key Stages 1 (age 7), 2 (age 12) and 3 (age 14) and on reading tests administered at ages 7 and 12 in a UK sample of 5,825 unrelated individuals. EduYears GPS accounts for up to 5% of the variance in reading performance at age 14. GPS predictions remained significant after accounting for general cognitive ability and family socioeconomic status...
July 4, 2017: Scientific Studies of Reading
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704632/measuring-memory-and-attention-to-preview-in-motion
#20
Richard J Jagacinski, Gordon M Hammond, Emanuele Rizzi
Objective Use perceptual-motor responses to perturbations to reveal the spatio-temporal detail of memory for the recent past and attention to preview when participants track a winding roadway. Background Memory of the recently passed roadway can be inferred from feedback control models of the participants' manual movement patterns. Similarly, attention to preview of the upcoming roadway can be inferred from feedforward control models of manual movement patterns. Method Perturbation techniques were used to measure these memory and attention functions...
August 2017: Human Factors
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