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Distributed cognition

Brandon P Vasquez, Jennifer C Tomaszczyk, Bhanu Sharma, Brenda Colella, Robin E A Green
BACKGROUND: Executive control deficits are deleterious and enduring consequences of moderate-severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) that disrupt everyday functioning. Clinically, such impairments can manifest as behavioural inconsistency, measurable experimentally by the degree of variability across trials of a reaction time (RT) task (also known as intraindividual variability [IIV]). Growing research on cognition after TBI points to cognitive deterioration in the chronic stages postinjury...
March 1, 2018: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair
Fabio Cocco, Guglielmo Campus, Laura Strohmenger, Viviana Cortesi Ardizzone, Maria Grazia Cagetti
BACKGROUND: This survey aims to evaluate the prevalence and severity of tooth loss in the Italian elderly population living in nursing homes and to associate the oral data with demographic, socioeconomic factors, the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), the Body Mass Index (BMI) and the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) scores. METHODS: A cluster sample method was performed using each nursing home as a cluster. Twenty-three nursing homes located in the five areas of the Italy (North-West, North-East, Centre, South and Islands) were selected...
March 20, 2018: BMC Geriatrics
Ane Storch Jakobsen, Helene Speyer, Hans Christian Brix Nørgaard, Mette Karlsen, Carsten Hjorthøj, Jesper Krogh, Ole Mors, Merete Nordentoft, Ulla Toft
OBJECTIVES: People with severe mental disorders die 10-25years earlier than people in the Western background population, mainly due to lifestyle related diseases, with cardiovascular disease (CVD) being the most frequent cause of death. Major contributors to this excess morbidity and mortality are unhealthy lifestyle factors including tobacco smoking, unhealthy eating habits and lower levels of physical activity. The aim of this study was to investigate the dietary habits and levels of physical activity in people with schizophrenia spectrum disorders and overweight and to compare the results with the current recommendations and with results from the general Danish population...
March 16, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
Barbara Diana, Valentino Zurloni, Massimiliano Elia, Cesare Cavalera, Olivia Realdon, Gudberg K Jonsson, M Teresa Anguera
Deception has evolved to become a fundamental aspect of human interaction. Despite the prolonged efforts in many disciplines, there has been no definite finding of a univocally "deceptive" signal. This work proposes an approach to deception detection combining cognitive load manipulation and T-pattern methodology with the objective of: (a) testing the efficacy of dual task-procedure in enhancing differences between truth tellers and liars in a low-stakes situation; (b) exploring the efficacy of T-pattern methodology in discriminating truthful reports from deceitful ones in a low-stakes situation; (c) setting the experimental design and procedure for following research...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
P H M Burger, M Scholz
BACKGROUND: In Germany, currently two out of three medical students are female. Several studies corroborate that medical students show a significantly higher prevalence of stress-related mental disorders than the population in general. AIMS: We aimed to evaluate, if gender has an influence on the distribution of mental stress parameters and learning style among male and female medical students. METHODS: We investigated a total of 758 students of the medical faculty at the University of Erlangen-Nuernberg, Germany, using standardized and validated psychological questionnaires on depressive symptoms (BDI-II), burnout (BOSS-II) and quality of life (SF-12)...
March 15, 2018: Annals of Anatomy, Anatomischer Anzeiger: Official Organ of the Anatomische Gesellschaft
Lisa G Sorensen, Katie Neighbors, Regina M Hardison, Kathleen M Loomes, James W Varni, Vicky L Ng, Robert H Squires, Estella M Alonso
OBJECTIVE: To determine health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and neurocognitive impairment in survivors of pediatric acute liver failure (PALF). STUDY DESIGN: A longitudinal prospective study was conducted. At 6 and 12 months after PALF presentation, surveys of HRQoL were completed for 2- to 19-year-olds and executive functioning for ages 2-16 years. At 12 months, patients 3-16 years of age completed neurocognitive testing. HRQoL scores were compared with a healthy, matched sample...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Pediatrics
Jeroen M van de Pol, Jurjen G Geljon, Svetlana V Belitser, Geert W J Frederix, Anke M Hövels, Marcel L Bouvy
INTRODUCTION: The nature of community pharmacy is changing, shifting from the preparation and distribution of medicines to the provision of cognitive pharmaceutical services (CPS); however, often the provision of traditional services leaves little time for innovative services. This study investigated the time community pharmacists spend on the tasks and activities of daily practice and to what extent they are able to implement CPS-related services in daily practice. METHODS: Self-reporting work sampling was used to register the activities of community pharmacists...
March 9, 2018: Research in Social & Administrative Pharmacy: RSAP
Megan Zirnstein, Janet G van Hell, Judith F Kroll
In this study, we examined the role that cognitive control and language regulation ability play in mediating readers' susceptibility to prediction error costs when reading in the native language (L1) or a second language (L2). Twenty-four English monolinguals (Experiment 1) and 28 Chinese-English bilinguals (Experiment 2) read sentences in English while their EEG was recorded. The sentences varied in the predictability of an upcoming expected word and in whether that prediction was confirmed. Monolinguals showed sensitivity to sentence contexts in which expectations were not met (i...
March 14, 2018: Cognition
R Miller, K Schmidt, C Kirschbaum, S Enge
The internet-based assessment of response time (RT) and error rate (ERR) has recently become a well-validated alternative to traditional laboratory-based assessment, because methodological research has provided evidence for negligible setting- and setup-related differences in RT and ERR measures of central tendency. However, corresponding data on potential differences in the variability of such performance measures are still lacking, to date. Hence, the aim of this study was to conduct internet-based mental chronometry in both poorly standardized domestic and highly standardized laboratory environments and to compare the variabilities of the corresponding performance measures...
March 15, 2018: Behavior Research Methods
Kathleen S Rockland
Recent commentaries on the role of the thalamus consider a wide sphere of influence beyond sensory-motor transformation, to include task-relevant cognitive processes. In this short review, I reconsider known anatomic features of corticothalamic connectivity, primarily for macaque monkey, and discuss these as part of an intricate network architecture consistent with multiple connectional re-combinations and a diversity of functional tasks. Drawing mainly on results from single axon analysis for the two broad classes of corticothalamic (CT) connections, I review the strikingly complementary spatial parameters of their extrinsic CT arbors in relation to intrinsic cortical collaterals...
March 14, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Greg D Reynolds, Kelly C Roth
We present an integrative review of research and theory on major factors involved in the early development of attentional biases to faces. Research utilizing behavioral, eye-tracking, and neuroscience measures with infant participants as well as comparative research with animal subjects are reviewed. We begin with coverage of research demonstrating the presence of an attentional bias for faces shortly after birth, such as newborn infants' visual preference for face-like over non-face stimuli. The role of experience and the process of perceptual narrowing in face processing are examined as infants begin to demonstrate enhanced behavioral and neural responsiveness to mother over stranger, female over male, own- over other-race, and native over non-native faces...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Bei-Bei Wu, Ye Ma, Lei Xie, Jin-Zhuang Huang, Zong-Bo Sun, Zhi-Duo Hou, Rui-Wei Guo, Zhi-Rong Lin, Shou-Xing Duan, Shan-Shan Zhao, Yao-Xie, Dan-Miao Sun, Chun-Min Zhu, Shu-Hua Ma
BACKGROUND: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is associated with cognitive deficit but the exact neural mechanisms remain unclear. PURPOSE: To explore sequential brain activities using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during the performance of a decision-making task, and to determine whether serum or clinical markers can reflect the involvement of the brain in SLE. SUBJECTS: Sixteen female SLE patients without overt clinical neuropsychiatric symptoms and 16 healthy controls were included...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
Fan Lou, Ming Li, Xiaoguang Luo, Yan Ren
Background: The clock genes controlling biological rhythm play an important role in the pathophysiology of aging. The purpose of this study was to determine whether there is an association between a variant of the circadian locomotor output cycles kaput (CLOCK) gene and circadian dysfunction of Parkinson's disease (PD). Methods: Six hundred and forty-six cases of Parkinson's disease from consecutive outpatients and inpatients ward from our hospital were included in this study...
2018: Parkinson's Disease
Sarah K Mesrobian, Alessandro E P Villa, Michel Bader, Lorenz Götte, Alessandra Lintas
Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is characterized by deficits in executive functions and decision making during childhood and adolescence. Contradictory results exist whether altered event-related potentials (ERPs) in adults are associated with the tendency of ADHD patients toward risky behavior. Clinically diagnosed ADHD patients ( n = 18) and healthy controls ( n = 18), aged between 18 and 29 (median 22 Yo), were screened with the Conners' Adult ADHD Rating Scales and assessed by the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview, adult ADHD Self-Report Scale, and by the 60-item HEXACO Personality Inventory...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Tomoya Nakamachi, Eri Kamata, Ayano Tanigawa, Norifumi Konno, Seiji Shioda, Kouhei Matsuda
Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a multipotent neuropeptide with an amino acid sequence that is well conserved among vertebrates. In teleosts, including zebrafish, the PACAP gene (adcyap1) has been duplicated to yield adcyap1a (coding PACAP1) and adcyap1b (coding PACAP2). This study aims to determine the distribution of these PACAPs and their mRNAs in zebrafish. We generated a zebrafish PACAP2-specific antibody. Using real-time PCR, we observed that adcyap1b mRNA was primarily localized in the brain, with the highest level in the telencephalon, followed by the diencephalon...
March 10, 2018: Peptides
Alexander Rozental, David Forsström, Philip Lindner, Simon Nilsson, Lina Mårtensson, Angela Rizzo, Gerhard Andersson, Per Carlbring
Procrastination is a common problem among university students, with at least half of the population reporting great difficulties initiating or completing tasks and assignments. Procrastination can have a negative impact on course grades and the ability to achieve a university degree, but can also lead to psychological distress. Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) is believed to reduce procrastination, but few studies have investigated its effectiveness in a regular clinical setting. The current study explored its effects using a pragmatic randomized controlled trial comparing treatment delivered during 8 weeks as self-guided CBT via the Internet (ICBT) or as group CBT...
March 2018: Behavior Therapy
Helena Verhelst, Catharine Vander Linden, Toon De Pauw, Guy Vingerhoets, Karen Caeyenberghs
Recent evidence has shown the presence of a "rich club" in the brain, which constitutes a core network of highly interconnected and spatially distributed brain regions, important for high-order cognitive processes. This study aimed to map the rich club organization in 17 young patients with moderate to severe TBI (15.71 ± 1.75 years) in the chronic stage of recovery and 17 age- and gender-matched controls. Probabilistic tractography was performed on diffusion weighted imaging data to construct the edges of the structural connectomes using number of streamlines as edge weight...
March 12, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
Claudio Liguori, Mariangela Pierantozzi, Agostino Chiaravalloti, Giulia M Sancesario, Nicola B Mercuri, Flaminia Franchini, Orazio Schillaci, Giuseppe Sancesario
Late-life depression (LLD) and Alzheimer's Disease (AD) are the two most frequent neuropsychiatric disorders affecting elderly. LLD and AD may clinically present with depressive and cognitive symptoms. Therefore, when cognitive decline is coupled with depression in the elderly, the differential diagnosis between LLD and AD could be challenging. The aim of the present study was to evaluate in a population of elderly patients affected by depression and dementia the usefulness of CSF AD biomarkers (tau proteins and β-amyloid42 -Aβ42 ) and 2-[18F]fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose positron emission tomography (18FFDG-PET) in early differentiating LLD from AD...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
M V Ivanova, O V Dragoy, S V Kuptsova, S Akinina Yu, A G Petrushevskii, O N Fedina, A Turken, V M Shklovsky, N F Dronkers
Currently, a distributed bilateral network of frontal-parietal areas is regarded as the neural substrate of working memory (WM), with the verbal WM network being more left-lateralized. This conclusion is based primarily on functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data that provides correlational evidence for brain regions involved in a task. However, fMRI cannot differentiate the areas that are fundamentally required for performing a task. These data can only come from brain-injured individuals who fail the task after the loss of specific brain areas...
March 8, 2018: Neuropsychologia
Kathrin C J Eschmann, Regine Bader, Axel Mecklinger
Electrophysiological oscillations are assumed to be the core mechanism for large-scale network communication. The specific role of frontal-midline theta oscillations as cognitive control mechanism is under debate. According to the dual mechanisms of control framework, cognitive control processes can be divided into proactive and reactive control. The present study aimed at investigating the role of frontal-midline theta activity by assessing oscillations in two tasks varying in the type of cognitive control needed...
March 7, 2018: Brain and Cognition
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