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Distributed cognition

Ignacio Jusué-Torres, Lee H Jeon, Eric W Sankey, Jennifer Lu, Tito Vivas-Buitrago, Joshua A Crawford, Mikhail V Pletnikov, Jiadi Xu, Ari Blitz, Daniel A Herzka, Barbara Crain, Alicia Hulbert, Hugo Guerrero-Cazares, Oscar Gonzalez-Perez, James P McAllister, Alfredo Quiñones-Hinojosa, Daniele Rigamonti
BACKGROUND: The pathogenesis of adult chronic hydrocephalus is not fully understood, and the temporal relationship between development of the radiological changes and neurological deterioration is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To clarify the progression of radiological-histological changes and subsequent clinical manifestations of adult chronic hydrocephalus. METHODS: Kaolin was injected bilaterally into the subarachnoid space overlying the cranial convexities in 20 adult rats...
November 2016: Neurosurgery
Christopher S Medina, Octavian Biris, Tomas L Falzone, Xiaowei Zhang, Amber J Zimmerman, Elaine L Bearer
Microtubule-based motors carry cargo back and forth between the synaptic region and the cell body. Defects in axonal transport result in peripheral neuropathies, some of which are caused by mutations in KIF5A, a gene encoding one of the heavy chain isoforms of conventional kinesin-1. Some mutations in KIF5A also cause severe central nervous system defects in humans. While transport dynamics in the peripheral nervous system have been well characterized experimentally, transport in the central nervous system is less experimentally accessible and until now not well described...
October 14, 2016: NeuroImage
Laurens Holmes, Joshua Tworig, Joseph Casini, Isabel Morgan, Kathleen O'Brien, Patricia Oceanic, Kirk Dabney
BACKGROUND: Sports-related concussion remains a public health challenge due to its morbidity and mortality. One of the consequences of concussion is cognitive impairment (CI) and cognitive-related symptoms (CRS) which determine, to some extent, physical and behavioral functioning of children who sustain concussion. Despite the high prevalence of CI and CRS associated with concussion, the risk factors are not fully understood. We aimed to characterize CRS and to examine its relationship with race, ethnicity, age, insurance, and sex in a pediatric population...
December 2016: Sports Medicine—Open
Ali Roohbakhsh, Kobra Shirani, Gholamreza Karimi
Methamphetamine (METH) is a highly potent and addictive drug with major medical, psychiatric, cognitive, socioeconomic, and legal consequences. It is well absorbed following different routes of administration and distributed throughout the body. METH is known as psychomotor stimulant with potent physiological outcomes on peripheral and central nervous systems, resulting in physical and psychological disorders. Autophagy is a highly conserved and regulated catabolic pathway which is critical for maintaining cellular energy homeostasis and regulating cell growth...
October 13, 2016: Chemico-biological Interactions
Christos C Ioannou
Larger groups often have a greater ability to solve cognitive tasks compared to smaller ones or lone individuals. This is well established in social insects, navigating flocks of birds, and in groups of prey collectively vigilant for predators. Research in social insects has convincingly shown that improved cognitive performance can arise from self-organised local interactions between individuals that integrates their contributions, often referred to as swarm intelligence. This emergent collective intelligence has gained in popularity and been directly applied to groups of other animals, including fish...
October 11, 2016: Behavioural Processes
Nina Hedayati, Kylie Schibli, Amedeo D'Angiulli
Children (aged 9-12) training in an El Sistema-inspired program (OrKidstra) and a matched comparison group participated in an auditory Go/No-Go task while event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded. Entire-sweep waveform patterns correlated with known ERP peaks associated with executive and other cognitive functions and indicated that the spread of neural activity in the initial 250 ms of executive attention processing (pre-P300) showed higher level of topographical overlap in OrKidstra children. In these children, late potentials (post-P300) concurrent with response control were more widely distributed and temporally coordinated...
October 13, 2016: Neurocase
Somashekhar Marutirao Nimbalkar, Dipen Vasudev Patel, Ajay Gajanan Phatak
OBJECTIVE: Micronutrient deficiencies can lead to anemia, growth restriction, and poor motor and cognitive development. A clinical trial was planned to assess the impact of nutritional supplementation on cognitive measures in preschool children. Conducting clinical trials in children is difficult due to underlying laws, hesitation of the research community, and difficult enrollment. We carried out a questionnaire-based feasibility survey to assess the interest of parents towards participation in such a nutrition-based study...
2016: PloS One
R Fernández Del Río, M E O'Hara, P Pemberton, T Whitehouse, C A Mayhew
Isoflurane (1-chloro-2,2,2-trifluoroethyl difluoromethyl ether), C3H2ClF5O, is a commonly used inhalation anaesthetic. Using a proton transfer reaction mass spectrometer (PTR-MS) we have detected isoflurane in the breath of patients several weeks following major surgery. That isoflurane is detected in the breath of patients so long after being anaesthetised raises questions about when cognitive function has fully returned to a patient. Temporal profiles of isoflurane concentrations in breath are presented for five patients (F/M 3/2, mean age 50 years, min-max 36-58 years) who had undergone liver transplant surgery...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Breath Research
Angelo Pirrone, Abigail Dickinson, Rosanna Gomez, Tom Stafford, Elizabeth Milne
Objective: Two-alternative forced-choice tasks are widely used to gain insight into specific areas of enhancement or impairment in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Data arising from these tasks have been used to support myriad theories regarding the integrity, or otherwise, of particular brain areas or cognitive processes in ASD. The drift diffusion model (DDM) provides an account of the underlying processes which give rise to accuracy and reaction time (RT) distributions, and parameterizes these processes in terms which have direct psychological interpretation...
October 10, 2016: Neuropsychology
Vicente Ponsoda, Kenia Martínez, José A Pineda-Pardo, Francisco J Abad, Julio Olea, Francisco J Román, Aron K Barbey, Roberto Colom
Neuroimaging research involves analyses of huge amounts of biological data that might or might not be related with cognition. This relationship is usually approached using univariate methods, and, therefore, correction methods are mandatory for reducing false positives. Nevertheless, the probability of false negatives is also increased. Multivariate frameworks have been proposed for helping to alleviate this balance. Here we apply multivariate distance matrix regression for the simultaneous analysis of biological and cognitive data, namely, structural connections among 82 brain regions and several latent factors estimating cognitive performance...
October 11, 2016: Human Brain Mapping
Tim Vanbellingen, Beatrice Ottiger, Tobias Pflugshaupt, Jan Mehrholz, Stephan Bohlhalter, Tobias Nef, Thomas Nyffeler
BACKGROUND: Good responsive functional outcome measures are important to measure change in stroke patients. The aim of study was to compare the internal and external responsiveness, floor and ceiling effects of the motor, cognition, and communication subscales of the Lucerne ICF-based Multidisciplinary Observation Scale (LIMOS) with the motor and cognition subscales of the Functional Independence Measure (FIM), and the Barthel Index (BI), in a large cohort of stroke patients. METHODS: One hundred eighteen stroke patients participated in this study...
2016: Frontiers in Neurology
Sangwon Han, Minyoung Oh, Jungsu S Oh, Sang Ju Lee, Seung Jun Oh, Sun Ju Chung, Hee Kyung Park, Jae Seung Kim
Importance: Pure akinesia with gait freezing (PAGF) is a clinical syndrome characterized by freezing of gait, handwriting, and speech without abnormal eye movement or cognitive impairment. Several studies have suggested that PAGF may be a variant of progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP). However, the characteristics of striatal dopamine transporter loss in PAGF are unknown. Objective: To investigate the subregional pattern of striatal dopamine transporter loss in patients with PAGF in comparison with patients with PSP and those with Parkinson disease (PD)...
October 10, 2016: JAMA Neurology
Haijun Li, Lan Li, Yi Shao, Honghan Gong, Wei Zhang, Xianjun Zeng, Chenglong Ye, Si Nie, Liting Chen, Dechang Peng
PURPOSE: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) has been associated with changes in brain structure and regional function in certain brain areas. However, the functional features of network organization in the whole brain remain largely uncertain. The purpose of this study was to identify the OSA-related spatial centrality distribution of the whole brain functional network and to investigate the potential altered intrinsic functional hubs. METHODS: Forty male patients with newly confirmed severe OSA on polysomnography, and well-matched good sleepers, participated in this study...
2016: PloS One
Michael W Cole, Takuya Ito, Danielle S Bassett, Douglas H Schultz
Resting-state functional connectivity (FC) has helped reveal the intrinsic network organization of the human brain, yet its relevance to cognitive task activations has been unclear. Uncertainty remains despite evidence that resting-state FC patterns are highly similar to cognitive task activation patterns. Identifying the distributed processes that shape localized cognitive task activations may help reveal why resting-state FC is so strongly related to cognitive task activations. We found that estimating task-evoked activity flow (the spread of activation amplitudes) over resting-state FC networks allowed prediction of cognitive task activations in a large-scale neural network model...
October 10, 2016: Nature Neuroscience
Jian Kang, Jixin Zhang, Yongqian Bai
An evaluation of the oil-spill emergency response capability (OS-ERC) currently in place in modern marine management is required to prevent pollution and loss accidents. The objective of this paper is to develop a novel OS-ERC evaluation model, the importance of which stems from the current lack of integrated approaches for interpreting, ranking and assessing OS-ERC performance factors. In the first part of this paper, the factors influencing OS-ERC are analyzed and classified to generate a global evaluation index system...
October 4, 2016: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Denes Szucs
There is increasing concern about the replicability of studies in psychology and cognitive neuroscience. Hidden data dredging (also called p-hacking) is a major contributor to this crisis because it substantially increases Type I error resulting in a much larger proportion of false positive findings than the usually expected 5%. In order to build better intuition to avoid, detect and criticize some typical problems, here I systematically illustrate the large impact of some easy to implement and so, perhaps frequent data dredging techniques on boosting false positive findings...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Andrea S Vincent, Christopher M Bailey, Charles Cowan, Eugenia Cox-Fuenzalida, Jeff Dyche, Kim A Gorgens, Daniel C Krawcyzk, Leanne Young
The BrainScope Ahead 300 is designed for use by health care professionals to aid in the assessment of patients suspected of a mild traumatic brain injury. The purpose of the current study was to establish normative data for the cognitive test component of the Ahead 300 system and to evaluate the role of demographic factors on test performance. Healthy, community-dwelling adults between the ages of 18 and 80 recruited from five geographically distributed sites were administered Android versions of the ANAM Matching to Sample and Procedural Reaction Time tests that comprise the cognitive test component of the Ahead 300 system by trained personnel...
August 11, 2016: Applied Neuropsychology. Adult
Philip S Insel, Michael C Donohue, R Scott Mackin, Paul S Aisen, Oskar Hansson, Michael W Weiner, Niklas Mattsson
Cognitively-normal people with evidence of β-amyloid (Aβ) pathology and subtle cognitive dysfunction are believed to be at high risk for progression to mild cognitive impairment due to Alzheimer's disease (AD). Clinical trials in later stages of AD typically include a coprimary endpoint to demonstrate efficacy on both cognitive and functional assessments. Recent trials focus on cognitively-normal people, but functional decline has not been explored for trial designs in this group. The goal of this study was therefore to characterize cognitive and functional decline in (1) cognitively-normal people converting to mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and (2) cognitively-normal β-amyloid-positive (Aβ+) people...
August 26, 2016: Neurobiology of Aging
Devesh Mishra, Jose Ignacio Pena-Bravo, Kah-Chung Leong, Antonieta Lavin, Carmela M Reichel
World-wide methamphetamine (meth) use is increasing at a rapid rate; therefore, it has become increasingly important to understand the synaptic changes and neural mechanisms affected by drug exposure. In rodents, 6-h access to contingent meth results in an escalation of drug intake and impaired cognitive sequelae typically associated with changes within the corticostriatal circuitry. There is a dearth of knowledge regarding the underlying physiological changes within this circuit following meth self-administration...
October 5, 2016: Brain Structure & Function
V Soler, S Sourdet, L Balardy, G Abellan van Kan, D Brechemier, M E Rougé-Bugat, N Tavassoli, M Cassagne, F Malecaze, F Nourhashémi, B Vellas
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate visual performance and factors associated with abnormal vision in patients screened for frailty at the Geriatric Frailty Clinic (GFC) for Assessment of Frailty and Prevention of Disability at Toulouse University Hospital. DESIGN: Retrospective, observational cross-sectional, single-centre study. SETTING: Institutional practice. PARTICIPANTS: Patients were screened for frailty during a single-day hospital stay between October 2011 and October 2014 (n = 1648)...
2016: Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging
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