keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Distributed cognition

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430076/on-using-distributional-analysis-techniques-for-determining-the-onset-of-the-influence-of-experimental-variables
#1
Eyal M Reingold, Heather Sheridan
Much of the investigation of eye-movement control in visual cognition has focused on the influence of experimental variables on mean fixation durations. In the present paper we explored the convergence between two distributional analysis techniques that were recently introduced in this domain. First, Staub, White, Drieghe, Hollway and Rayner, (2010) proposed fitting the ex-Gaussian distribution to individual participants' data in order to ascertain whether a variable has a rapid or a slow influence on fixation durations...
April 21, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430042/control-without-controllers-toward-a-distributed-neuroscience-of-executive-control
#2
Benjamin R Eisenreich, Rei Akaishi, Benjamin Y Hayden
Executive control refers to the regulation of cognition and behavior by mental processes and is a hallmark of higher cognition. Most approaches to understanding its mechanisms begin with the assumption that our brains have anatomically segregated and functionally specialized control modules. The modular approach is intuitive: Control is conceptually distinct from basic mental processing, so an organization that reifies that distinction makes sense. An alternative approach sees executive control as self-organizing principles of a distributed organization...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426778/apai-polymorphism-of-vitamin-d-receptor-affects-health-related-quality-of-life-in-patients-with-primary-sclerosing-cholangitis
#3
Agnieszka Kempinska-Podhorodecka, Malgorzata Milkiewicz, Dariusz Jabłonski, Piotr Milkiewicz, Ewa Wunsch
BACKGROUND: Polymorphisms of vitamin D receptor (VDR) contribute to the pathogenesis of multiple autoimmune conditions. METHODS: We investigated the incidence of VDR polymorphisms (rs1544410-BsmI; rs7975232-ApaI; rs731236-TaqI) in a group of patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC, n = 275) and in healthy controls (n = 376). Additionally, correlations of the VDR polymorphisms with clinical and biochemical factors of the disease were analysed. RESULTS: The genotype and allele distributions of these polymorphisms in PSC patients were similar to those observed in controls...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426648/pregnancy-swimming-causes-short-and-long-term-neuroprotection-against-hypoxia-ischemia-in-very-immature-rats
#4
Eduardo Farias Sanches, Luz Elena Duran Carabali, Andrea Tosta, Fabrício Nicola, Felipe Schmitz, André Rodrigues, Cassiana Siebert, Angela Wyse, Carlos Alexandre Netto
BACKGROUND: Hypoxia-ischemia (HI) is a major cause of neurological damage in preterm. Pregnancy swimming alters the pup's brain development. We tested the effects of swimming during pregnancy in the very immature rat brain. METHODS: Female Wistar rats (n=12) were assigned to sedentary (SE, n=6) or swimming groups (SW, n=6). From the gestational day 0 (DG0) to GD21 they performed 20 min/daily swimming sessions. HI on postnatal day 3 rat cause sensorimotor and cognitive impairments...
April 20, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425500/structure-shapes-dynamics-and-directionality-in-diverse-brain-networks-mathematical-principles-and-empirical-confirmation-in-three-species
#5
Joon-Young Moon, Junhyeok Kim, Tae-Wook Ko, Minkyung Kim, Yasser Iturria-Medina, Jee-Hyun Choi, Joseph Lee, George A Mashour, UnCheol Lee
Identifying how spatially distributed information becomes integrated in the brain is essential to understanding higher cognitive functions. Previous computational and empirical studies suggest a significant influence of brain network structure on brain network function. However, there have been few analytical approaches to explain the role of network structure in shaping regional activities and directionality patterns. In this study, analytical methods are applied to a coupled oscillator model implemented in inhomogeneous networks...
April 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422805/a-randomized-pilot-study-comparing-ketamine-and-methohexital-anesthesia-for-electroconvulsive-therapy-in-patients-with-depression
#6
Shona L Ray-Griffith, Lou Ann Eads, Xiaotong Han, Kimberly Golden, Zachary N Stowe
OBJECTIVE: This randomized controlled pilot study examines the differences in response to electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) as defined by an improvement of depressive symptoms between ketamine and methohexital as the primary anesthetic agent. Adverse effects and cognitive tolerability were also examined. METHODS: Subjects undergoing ECT for unipolar or bipolar depression were randomized to receive ketamine or methohexital as the anesthetic agent. Primary outcome measure includes the Hamilton rating scale for depression (17-item)...
April 18, 2017: Journal of ECT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416459/the-error-of-broca-from-the-traditional-localizationist-concept-to-a-connectomal-anatomy-of-human-brain
#7
REVIEW
Hugues Duffau
Neurology, especially aphasiology, was mainly built on behavioral-structural correlations ("lesion method"). In this setting, Broca's area has been considered as the "speech area"; moreover, this observation led to localizationism. However, advances in brain mapping techniques, as functional neuroimaging and direct electrical stimulation in patients undergoing awake surgery for gliomas, has resulted in a paradigmatic shift regarding models of neural architecture. In fact, the brain is organized in distributed complex networks underpinning sensorimotor, visuospatial, language, cognitive and emotional functions...
April 14, 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415191/random-walk-in-nonhomogeneous-environments-a-possible-approach-to-human-and-animal-mobility
#8
Tomasz Srokowski
The random walk process in a nonhomogeneous medium, characterized by a Lévy stable distribution of jump length, is discussed. The width depends on a position: either before the jump or after that. In the latter case, the density slope is affected by the variable width and the variance may be finite; then all kinds of the anomalous diffusion are predicted. In the former case, only the time characteristics are sensitive to the variable width. The corresponding Langevin equation with different interpretations of the multiplicative noise is discussed...
March 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410662/lewy-body-disorders
#9
REVIEW
Douglas Galasko
Dementia syndromes associated with Lewy bodies are subdivided into dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), an underdiagnosed cause of dementia in the elderly, and Parkinson disease with dementia (PDD), cognitive impairment appearing in people diagnosed with Parkinson disease. Their neuropathologic substrates are the widespread distribution of aggregates of the protein α-synuclein in neurons in cortical brain regions, accompanied by variable Alzheimer pathology. Clinical features of DLB and PDD include distinctive changes in cognition, behavior, movement, sleep, and autonomic function...
May 2017: Neurologic Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408865/tau-pathology-distribution-in-alzheimer-s-disease-corresponds-differentially-to-cognition-relevant-functional-brain-networks
#10
Oskar Hansson, Michel J Grothe, Tor Olof Strandberg, Tomas Ohlsson, Douglas Hägerström, Jonas Jögi, Ruben Smith, Michael Schöll
Neuropathological studies have shown that the typical neurofibrillary pathology of hyperphosphorylated tau protein in Alzheimer's disease (AD) preferentially affects specific brain regions whereas others remain relatively spared. It has been suggested that the distinct regional distribution profile of tau pathology in AD may be a consequence of the intrinsic network structure of the human brain. The spatially distributed brain regions that are most affected by the spread of tau pathology may hence reflect an interconnected neuronal system...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408413/distinct-physiological-maturation-of-parvalbumin-positive-neuron-subtypes-in-mouse-prefrontal-cortex
#11
Takeaki Miyamae, Kehui Chen, David A Lewis, Guillermo Gonzalez Burgos
Parvalbumin-positive (PV(+)) neurons control the timing of pyramidal cell output in cortical neuron networks. In the prefrontal cortex (PFC), PV(+) neuron activity is involved in cognitive function, suggesting that PV(+) neuron maturation is critical for cognitive development. The two major PV(+) neuron subtypes found in the PFC, chandelier (ChCs) and basket cells (BCs), are thought to play different roles in cortical circuits, but the trajectories of their physiological maturation have not been compared. Using two separate mouse lines, we found that in the mature PFC both ChCs and BCs are abundant in the superficial layer 2, but only BCs are present in deeper laminar locations...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408412/fluid-intelligence-predicts-novel-rule-implementation-in-a-distributed-frontoparietal-control-network
#12
Nadja Tschentscher, Daniel Mitchell, John Duncan
Fluid intelligence has been associated with a distributed cognitive control or multiple-demand (MD) network, comprising regions of lateral frontal, insular, dorsomedial frontal and parietal cortex. Human fluid intelligence is also intimately linked to task complexity, and the process of solving complex problems in a sequence of simpler, more focused parts. Here, a complex target detection task included multiple independent rules, applied one at a time in successive task epochs. Though only one rule applied at a time, increasing task complexity (number of rules) impaired performance in participants of lower fluid intelligence...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402547/perfluorododecanoic-acid-induces-cognitive-deficit-in-adult-rats
#13
Kohei Kawabata, Hirokazu Matsuzaki, Sahoko Nukui, Mari Okazaki, Ayako Sakai, Yoichi Kawashima, Naomi Kudo
The brain level of perfluorododecanoic acid (PFDoA) was compared with those of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA) in rats 9 days after a single oral dose (50 mg/kg). The PFDoA level in the brain was 44.0 ± 2.0 [mu]g/g, which was higher than that in the serum (24.4 ± 1.0 [mu]g/ml). By contrast, the concentrations of PFOA and PFDA in the brain were low (<0.8 and 4.7 ± 0.4 [mu]g/g, respectively), and less than one-tenth of those in the serum. Next, to investigate the effects on brain function, the cognitive function alterations of PFOA, PFDA, and PFDoA were estimated by the novel object recognition test 5-6 days after dosing...
April 11, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402480/cognitive-benefit-and-cost-of-acute-stress-is-differentially-modulated-by-individual-brain-state
#14
Nils Kohn, Erno J Hermans, Guillén Fernández
Acute stress is associated with beneficial as well as detrimental effects on cognition in different individuals. However, it is not yet known how stress can have such opposing effects. Stroop-like tasks typically show this dissociation: stress diminishes speed, but improves accuracy. We investigated accuracy and speed during a stroop-like task of 120 healthy male subjects after an experimental stress induction or control condition in a randomized, counter-balanced cross-over design; we assessed brain-behavior associations and determined the influence of individual brain connectivity patterns on these associations, which may moderate the effect and help identify stress resilience factors...
April 11, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402318/memory-enhancing-effects-of-gebr-32a-a-new-pde4d-inhibitor-holding-promise-for-the-treatment-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#15
Roberta Ricciarelli, Chiara Brullo, Jos Prickaerts, Ottavio Arancio, Carla Villa, Claudia Rebosio, Elisa Calcagno, Matilde Balbi, Britt T J van Hagen, Elentina K Argyrousi, Hong Zhang, Maria Adelaide Pronzato, Olga Bruno, Ernesto Fedele
Memory loss characterizes several neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer's disease (AD). Inhibition of type 4 phosphodiesterase (PDE4) and elevation of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) has emerged as a promising therapeutic approach to treat cognitive deficits. However, PDE4 exists in several isoforms and pan inhibitors cannot be used in humans due to severe emesis. Here, we present GEBR-32a, a new PDE4D full inhibitor that has been characterized both in vitro and in vivo using biochemical, electrophysiological and behavioural analyses...
April 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400716/evaluation-of-the-display-of-cognitive-state-feedback-to-drive-adaptive-task-sharing
#16
Michael C Dorneich, Břetislav Passinger, Christopher Hamblin, Claudia Keinrath, Jiři Vašek, Stephen D Whitlow, Martijn Beekhuyzen
This paper presents an adaptive system intended to address workload imbalances between pilots in future flight decks. Team performance can be maximized when task demands are balanced within crew capabilities and resources. Good communication skills enable teams to adapt to changes in workload, and include the balancing of workload between team members This work addresses human factors priorities in the aviation domain with the goal to develop concepts that balance operator workload, support future operator roles and responsibilities, and support new task requirements, while allowing operators to focus on the most safety critical tasks...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400089/neural-noise-hypothesis-of-developmental-dyslexia
#17
REVIEW
Roeland Hancock, Kenneth R Pugh, Fumiko Hoeft
Developmental dyslexia (decoding-based reading disorder; RD) is a complex trait with multifactorial origins at the genetic, neural, and cognitive levels. There is evidence that low-level sensory-processing deficits precede and underlie phonological problems, which are one of the best-documented aspects of RD. RD is also associated with impairments in integrating visual symbols with their corresponding speech sounds. Although causal relationships between sensory processing, print-speech integration, and fluent reading, and their neural bases are debated, these processes all require precise timing mechanisms across distributed brain networks...
April 8, 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399428/a-decline-in-self-defining-memories-following-a-diagnosis-of-schizophrenia
#18
Tine Holm, David B Pillemer, Vibeke Bliksted, Dorthe Kirkegaard Thomsen
PURPOSE: Receiving a diagnosis of schizophrenia can be a profound life transition that often has a negative influence on the patient's sense of self. The present study is the first to examine how self-defining memories are temporally distributed around age at diagnosis of schizophrenia. METHOD: 25 patients and 25 matched control participants identified 3 self-defining memories from their lives. In addition, participants were assessed with standardized interviews and questionnaires on negative and positive symptoms as well as tests of cognitive function...
April 3, 2017: Comprehensive Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398903/biomechanics-of-microliths-manufacture-a-preliminary-approach-to-neanderthal-s-motor-constrains-in-the-frame-of-embodied-cognition
#19
Francia Patiño, Manuel Luque, Marcos Terradillos-Bernal, Manuel Martín-Loeches
The systems of perception and action of the brain appear as important constraining factors in human evolution under current models of embodied cognition. In this view, the emergence of certain items in the archeological record is not necessarily subsequent to the emergence of a 'symbolic' mind, but instead to the appearance of the sensory-motor systems enabling that behavior. One of the products normally absent in pre- Homo sapiens species is the standardized microlith, whose production seems very demanding for the hand due to their small size and need for fine craft...
April 10, 2017: Journal of Anthropological Sciences, Rivista di Antropologia: JASS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398234/down-regulated-drebrin-aggravates-cognitive-impairments-in-a-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#20
Yan Liu, Yanfeng Xu, Ling Zhang, Lan Huang, Pin Yu, Hua Zhu, Wei Deng, Chuan Qin
The developmentally regulated brain protein drebrin (Dbn) is a functional protein involved with long-term memory formation and is widely distributed in brain neurons, especially in the dendritic spines. A noticeable decline of this protein has been found in the hippocampus and cortex of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), yet the relationship between Dbn and AD has not been fully understood. In the present study, we examined how down-regulation of Dbn impacts the progression of AD in experimental animals...
April 11, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
keyword
keyword
73634
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"