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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646457/national-survey-among-radiation-oncology-residents-related-to-their-needs-in-geriatric-oncology
#1
Rachel Leifer, Bonnie Bristow, Martine Puts, Shabbir Alibhai, Xingshan Cao, Barbara-Ann Millar, Meredith Giuliani, Tina Hsu, Maureen Trudeau, Rajin Mehta, Ines Menjak, Mireille Norris, Barbara Liu, Francois Gallant, Ewa Szumacher
Currently, there is no formal curriculum addressing geriatric oncology within Canadian radiation oncology (RO) residency programs. Knowledge related to geriatric medicine may help radiation oncologists modify RT based on frailty status and geriatric considerations. Understanding specific learning needs allow program coordinators to align the current curriculum with residents' geriatric oncology learning needs. The purpose of this study is to determine the geriatric oncology educational needs of the Canadian RO residents and to inform Canadian RO residency training...
June 24, 2017: Journal of Cancer Education: the Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646349/modeling-pain-using-fmri-from-regions-to-biomarkers
#2
REVIEW
Marianne C Reddan, Tor D Wager
Pain is a subjective and complex phenomenon. Its complexity is related to its heterogeneity: multiple component processes, including sensation, affect, and cognition, contribute to pain experience and reporting. These components are likely to be encoded in distributed brain networks that interact to create pain experience and pain-related decision-making. Therefore, to understand pain, we must identify these networks and build models of these interactions that yield testable predictions about pain-related outcomes...
June 23, 2017: Neuroscience Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644906/cholinesterases-in-normal-and-alzheimer-s-disease-primary-olfactory-gyrus
#3
Hayam Hamodat, Meghan K Cash, John D Fisk, Sultan Darvesh
AIMS: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by cholinergic dysfunction and deposition of β-amyloid (Aβ) plaques and tau neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) in the brain. Olfactory abnormalities often precede cognitive symptoms in AD, indicating early involvement of pathology in olfactory structures. The cholinergic system is important not only in cognition but also in modulation of the olfactory system. The primary olfactory gyrus (POG) is comprised of the olfactory tract, anterior olfactory nucleus (AON) and olfactory area (OA)...
June 23, 2017: Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643854/olfactory-dysfunction-in-the-app-ps1-transgenic-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease-morphological-evaluations-from-the-nose-to-the-brain
#4
Zhi-Gang Yao, Fang Hua, Hao-Zhuang Zhang, Yan-Yan Li, Ye-Jun Qin
Olfactory dysfunction is among the signs of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and cognitive impairment. It has been demonstrated Aβ was associated with olfactory impairment observed in both transgenic mice and in AD patients. In this study, we evaluated amyloid deposition in the olfactory circuit of APP/PS1 transgenic mouse model of AD, which showed olfactory dysfunction in olfactory behavior tests. We found amyloid depositions were widely distributed in the whole olfactory circuit. Moreover, we think these amyloid depositions contribute to neuronal atrophy, dendritic abnormalities, synapse loss and axonal degeneration...
June 23, 2017: Neuropathology: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642698/enhanced-working-memory-binding-by-direct-electrical-stimulation-of-the-parietal-cortex
#5
Agustina Birba, Eugenia Hesse, Lucas Sedeño, Ezequiel P Mikulan, María Del C García, Juan Ávalos, Federico Adolfi, Agustina Legaz, Tristán A Bekinschtein, Máximo Zimerman, Mario Parra, Adolfo M García, Agustín Ibáñez
Recent works evince the critical role of visual short-term memory (STM) binding deficits as a clinical and preclinical marker of Alzheimer's disease (AD). These studies suggest a potential role of posterior brain regions in both the neurocognitive deficits of Alzheimer's patients and STM binding in general. Thereupon, we surmised that stimulation of the posterior parietal cortex (PPC) might be a successful approach to tackle working memory deficits in this condition, especially at early stages. To date, no causal evidence exists of the role of the parietal cortex in STM binding...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641593/preliminary-evidence-for-an-association-between-the-composition-of-the-gut-microbiome-and-cognitive-function-in-neurologically-healthy-older-adults
#6
Lisa Manderino, Ian Carroll, M Andrea Azcarate-Peril, Amber Rochette, Leslie Heinberg, Christine Peat, Kristine Steffen, James Mitchell, John Gunstad
OBJECTIVES: Dysbiosis of the gut microbiome is implicated in numerous human health conditions. Animal studies have linked microbiome disruption to changes in cognitive functioning, although no study has examined this possibility in neurologically healthy older adults. METHODS: Participants were 43 community-dwelling older adults (50-85 years) that completed a brief cognitive test battery and provided stool samples for gut microbiome sequencing. Participants performing≥1 SD below normative performance on two or more tests were compared to persons with one or fewer impaired scores...
June 23, 2017: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640434/catechol-o-methyltransferase-genotype-and-gait-speed-changes-over-10-years-in-older-adults
#7
Andrea L Metti, Caterina Rosano, Robert Boudreau, Robyn Massa, Kristine Yaffe, Suzanne Satterfield, Tamara Harris, Andrea L Rosso
OBJECTIVES: To determine the association between catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) genotype and 6-m walk time and to determine whether these associations are quadratic in nature, similar to previously reported U-shaped associations between dopamine and gait and cognition. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: Health, Aging and Body Composition Study. PARTICIPANTS: Black (n = 850) and white (n = 1,352) men and women with a mean age of 73...
June 22, 2017: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640035/the-professionalism-and-integrity-in-research-program-description-and-preliminary-outcomes
#8
James M DuBois, John T Chibnall, Raymond Tait, Jillon S Vander Wal
Violations of rules and regulations in research can cause significant problems for human participants, animal subjects, data integrity, institutions, and investigators. The Professionalism and Integrity in Research Program (PI Program) provides remediation training that addresses the root causes of violations of rules and regulations in research. Through assessments, a three-day workshop, and follow-up coaching calls, the PI Program teaches evidence-based decision-making strategies designed to help researchers to compensate for bias, uncertainty, and work-related stress, and foster the skills needed to oversee research projects in today's complex regulatory environments...
June 20, 2017: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638715/rat-intersubjective-decisions-are-encoded-by-frequency-specific-oscillatory-contexts
#9
Jana Schaich Borg, Sanvesh Srivastava, Lizhen Lin, Joseph Heffner, David Dunson, Kafui Dzirasa, Luis de Lecea
INTRODUCTION: It is unknown how the brain coordinates decisions to withstand personal costs in order to prevent other individuals' distress. Here we test whether local field potential (LFP) oscillations between brain regions create "neural contexts" that select specific brain functions and encode the outcomes of these types of intersubjective decisions. METHODS: Rats participated in an "Intersubjective Avoidance Test" (IAT) that tested rats' willingness to enter an innately aversive chamber to prevent another rat from getting shocked...
June 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638353/the-effects-of-spatial-endogenous-pre-cueing-across-eccentricities
#10
Jing Feng, Ian Spence
Frequently, we use expectations about likely locations of a target to guide the allocation of our attention. Despite the importance of this attentional process in everyday tasks, examination of pre-cueing effects on attention, particularly endogenous pre-cueing effects, has been relatively little explored outside an eccentricity of 20°. Given the visual field has functional subdivisions that attentional processes can differ significantly among the foveal, perifoveal, and more peripheral areas, how endogenous pre-cues that carry spatial information of targets influence our allocation of attention across a large visual field (especially in the more peripheral areas) remains unclear...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636610/chronotypes-in-the-us-influence-of-age-and-sex
#11
Dorothee Fischer, David A Lombardi, Helen Marucci-Wellman, Till Roenneberg
An individual's chronotype reflects how the circadian system embeds itself into the 24-h day with rhythms in physiology, cognition and behavior occurring accordingly earlier or later. In view of an increasing number of people working at unusual times and linked health and safety risks, the wide range in human chronotypes may provide opportunities to allow people to work (and sleep) at times that are in synch with their circadian physiology. We aimed at estimating the distribution of chronotypes in the US population by age and sex...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635155/representation-and-computation-in-cognitive-models
#12
Kenneth D Forbus, Chen Liang, Irina Rabkina
One of the central issues in cognitive science is the nature of human representations. We argue that symbolic representations are essential for capturing human cognitive capabilities. We start by examining some common misconceptions found in discussions of representations and models. Next we examine evidence that symbolic representations are essential for capturing human cognitive capabilities, drawing on the analogy literature. Then we examine fundamental limitations of feature vectors and other distributed representations that, despite their recent successes on various practical problems, suggest that they are insufficient to capture many aspects of human cognition...
June 21, 2017: Topics in Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634886/subcortical-brain-atrophy-in-gulf-war-illness
#13
Peka Christova, Lisa M James, Brian E Engdahl, Scott M Lewis, Adam F Carpenter, Apostolos P Georgopoulos
Gulf War Illness (GWI) is a multisystem disorder that has affected a substantial number of veterans who served in the 1990-1991 Gulf War. The brain is prominently affected, as manifested by the presence of neurological, cognitive and mood symptoms. Although brain dysfunction in GWI has been well documented (EBioMedicine 12:127-32, 2016), abnormalities in brain structure have been debated. Here we report a substantial (~10%) subcortical brain atrophy in GWI comprising mainly the brainstem, cerebellum and thalamus, and, to a lesser extent, basal ganglia, amygdala and diencephalon...
June 20, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634436/dual-coding-theory-explains-biphasic-collective-computation-in-neural-decision-making
#14
Bryan C Daniels, Jessica C Flack, David C Krakauer
A central question in cognitive neuroscience is how unitary, coherent decisions at the whole organism level can arise from the distributed behavior of a large population of neurons with only partially overlapping information. We address this issue by studying neural spiking behavior recorded from a multielectrode array with 169 channels during a visual motion direction discrimination task. It is well known that in this task there are two distinct phases in neural spiking behavior. Here we show Phase I is a distributed or incompressible phase in which uncertainty about the decision is substantially reduced by pooling information from many cells...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631188/role-of-clu-picalm-and-tnk1-genotypes-in-aging-with-and-without-alzheimer-s-disease
#15
Davide Seripa, Francesco Panza, Giulia Paroni, Grazia D'Onofrio, Paola Bisceglia, Carolina Gravina, Maria Urbano, Madia Lozupone, Vincenzo Solfrizzi, Alessandra Bizzarro, Virginia Boccardi, Chiara Piccininni, Antonio Daniele, Giancarlo Logroscino, Patrizia Mecocci, Carlo Masullo, Antonio Greco
Healthy and impaired cognitive aging may be associated to different prevalences of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). In a multicenter case-control association study, we studied the SNPs rs11136000 (clusterin, CLU), rs541458 (phosphatidylinositol binding clatrin assembly protein, PICALM), and rs1554948 (transcription factor A, and tyrosine kinase, non-receptor, 1, TNK1) according to the three age groups 50-65 years (group 1), 66-80 years (group 2), and 80+ years (group 3) in 569 older subjects without cognitive impairment (NoCI) and 520 Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients...
June 19, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627232/development-and-validation-of-the-self-awareness-of-falls-in-elderly-scale-among-elderly-inpatients
#16
Meei-Ling Shyu, Hui-Chuan Huang, Mei-Jung Wu, Hsiu-Ju Chang
The objectives of this study were to develop the Self-Awareness of Falls in Elderly (SAFE) scale and test its reliability and validity among elderly inpatients. A cross-sectional study design and convenience sampling were used to test the validity and reliability of the SAFE scale. Explanatory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis yielded an acceptable goodness of model fit, confirming the 21 items in the SAFE scale that were distributed among four factors: awareness of activity safety and environment, awareness of physical functions, awareness of medication, and awareness of cognitive behavior...
June 1, 2017: Clinical Nursing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626259/lao-language-version-of-the-revised-hasegawa-s-dementia-scale
#17
Sengchanh Kounnavong, Khouanchay Soundavong, Syda Xayavong, Nialoun Vongpraserth, Phongsavang Bounsavath, Souphatsone Houatthongkham, Bounfeng Phoummalaysith, Yu Mon Saw, Eiko Yamamoto, Kenji Toba, Nobuyuki Hamajima
With the aging of society, the number of elderly with reduced cognitive function has been increasing worldwide. As a test to measure the cognitive function, the Revised Hasegawa's Dementia Scale (HDS-R) has been used in Japan, Korea, and China. Since there was no HDS-R version for Laotians, the questionnaire and manual were developed through the cooperation of Lao and Japanese researchers. Back-translation was conducted to confirm the accuracy of the translation. The score on the 9-item HDS-R ranges 0 to 30 points, and reduced cognitive function is usually defined as a score of 20 points or lower...
February 2017: Nagoya Journal of Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623429/bdnf-a-key-factor-with-multipotent-impact-on-brain-signaling-and-synaptic-plasticity
#18
REVIEW
Przemysław Kowiański, Grażyna Lietzau, Ewelina Czuba, Monika Waśkow, Aleksandra Steliga, Janusz Moryś
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is one of the most widely distributed and extensively studied neurotrophins in the mammalian brain. Among its prominent functions, one can mention control of neuronal and glial development, neuroprotection, and modulation of both short- and long-lasting synaptic interactions, which are critical for cognition and memory. A wide spectrum of processes are controlled by BDNF, and the sometimes contradictory effects of its action can be explained based on its specific pattern of synthesis, comprising several intermediate biologically active isoforms that bind to different types of receptor, triggering several signaling pathways...
June 16, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620278/revealing-the-dysfunction-of-schematic-facial-expression-processing-in-schizophrenia-a-comparative-study-of-different-references
#19
Shenglin She, Haijing Li, Yuping Ning, Jianjuan Ren, Zhangying Wu, Rongcheng Huang, Jingping Zhao, Qian Wang, Yingjun Zheng
The use of event-related potential (ERP) recording technology during perceptual and cognitive processing has been studied in order to develop objective diagnostic indexes for people with neuropsychiatric disorders. For example, patients with schizophrenia exhibit consistent abnormalities in face-evoked early components of ERPs and mismatch negativities (MMNs). In most studies, the choice of reference has been the average reference (AVE), but whether this is the most suitable choice is still unknown. The aim of this study was to systematically compare the AVE and reference electrode standardization technique (REST) methods for assessing expressional face-evoked early visual ERPs and visual MMNs (vMMNs) in patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619471/oral-haloperidol-or-olanzapine-intake-produces-distinct-and-region-specific-increase-in-cannabinoid-receptor-levels-that-is-prevented-by-high-fat-diet
#20
Foteini Delis, Lauren Rosko, Aditya Schroff, Kenneth E Leonard, Panayotis K Thanos
Clinical studies show higher levels of cannabinoid CB1 receptors (CB1R) in the brain of schizophrenic patients while preclinical studies report a significant functional interaction between dopamine D2 receptors and CB1Rs as well as an upregulation of CB1Rs after antipsychotic treatment. These findings prompted us to study the effects of chronic oral intake of a first and a second generation antipsychotic, haloperidol and olanzapine, on the levels and distribution of CB1Rs in the rat brain. Rats consumed either regular chow or high-fat food and drank water, haloperidol drinking solution (1...
June 12, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
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