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Distributed cognition

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231478/event-related-brain-potential-indices-of-cognitive-function-and-brain-resource-reallocation-during-working-memory-in-patients-with-multiple-sclerosis
#1
Thomas J Covey, Janet L Shucard, David W Shucard
OBJECTIVE: To examine event-related brain potentials (ERPs) in Multiple Sclerosis (MS) during a visual n-back working memory (WM) task, and test the hypothesis that compensatory brain function may be associated with variance in task performance in MS patients. METHODS: Midline ERPs for 25MS patients and 18 HCs were obtained for a visual n-back task that placed increasing demands on WM. N-back behavioral measures and neuropsychological performance measures of WM were also obtained...
January 29, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230848/computational-approaches-to-fmri-analysis
#2
Jonathan D Cohen, Nathaniel Daw, Barbara Engelhardt, Uri Hasson, Kai Li, Yael Niv, Kenneth A Norman, Jonathan Pillow, Peter J Ramadge, Nicholas B Turk-Browne, Theodore L Willke
Analysis methods in cognitive neuroscience have not always matched the richness of fMRI data. Early methods focused on estimating neural activity within individual voxels or regions, averaged over trials or blocks and modeled separately in each participant. This approach mostly neglected the distributed nature of neural representations over voxels, the continuous dynamics of neural activity during tasks, the statistical benefits of performing joint inference over multiple participants and the value of using predictive models to constrain analysis...
February 23, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229985/association-between-n-terminal-prob-type-natriuretic-peptide-and-depressive-symptoms-in-patients-with-acute-myocardial-infarction
#3
Yan Ren, Jiao Jia, Jian Sa, Li-Xia Qiu, Yue-Hua Cui, Yue-An Zhang, Hong Yang, Gui-Fen Liu
BACKGROUND: While depression and certain cardiac biomarkers are associated with acute myocardial infarction (AMI), the relationship between them remains largely unexplored. We examined the association between depressive symptoms and biomarkers in patients with AMI. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional study using data from 103 patients with AMI between March 2013 and September 2014. The levels of depression, N-terminal proB-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), and troponin I (TnI) were measured at baseline...
2017: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229131/discovering-cortical-folding-patterns-in-neonatal-cortical-surfaces-using-large-scale-dataset
#4
Yu Meng, Gang Li, Li Wang, Weili Lin, John H Gilmore, Dinggang Shen
The cortical folding of the human brain is highly complex and variable across individuals. Mining the major patterns of cortical folding from modern large-scale neuroimaging datasets is of great importance in advancing techniques for neuroimaging analysis and understanding the inter-individual variations of cortical folding and its relationship with cognitive function and disorders. As the primary cortical folding is genetically influenced and has been established at term birth, neonates with the minimal exposure to the complicated postnatal environmental influence are the ideal candidates for understanding the major patterns of cortical folding...
October 2016: Medical Image Computing and Computer-assisted Intervention: MICCAI ..
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227767/regional-brain-activity-that-determines-successful-and-unsuccessful-working-memory-formation
#5
Shohei Teramoto, Tsubasa Inaoka, Yumie Ono, Shohei Teramoto, Tsubasa Inaoka, Yumie Ono, Shohei Teramoto, Tsubasa Inaoka, Yumie Ono
Using EEG source reconstruction with Multiple Sparse Priors (MSP), we investigated the regional brain activity that determines successful memory encoding in two participant groups of high and low accuracy rates. Eighteen healthy young adults performed a sequential fashion of visual Sternberg memory task. The 32-channel EEG was continuously measured during participants performed two 70 trials of memory task. The regional brain activity corresponding to the oscillatory EEG activity in the alpha band (8-13 Hz) during encoding period was analyzed by MSP implemented in SPM8...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226697/differences-in-white-matter-microstructure-between-parkinson-s-disease-patients-with-and-without-rem-sleep-behavior-disorder
#6
Farzaneh Rahmani, Mina Ansari, Atefeh Pooyan, Mehdi M Mirbagheri, Mohammad Hadi Aarabi, Farzaneh Rahmani, Mina Ansari, Atefeh Pooyan, Mehdi M Mirbagheri, Mohammad Hadi Aarabi, Mehdi M Mirbagheri, Farzaneh Rahmani, Atefeh Pooyan, Mina Ansari, Mohammad Hadi Aarabi
REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is characterized by increased muscle tone and violent limb movements and usually occurs during the early stages of Parkinson disease (PD). PD patients with RBD represent faster motor progression and cognitive dysfunction. We used diffusion imaging to assess which regions are involved in this phenomenon. In the current study, we computed Quantitative Anisotropic (QA), which is based on spin distribution function (SDF) that quantifies the density of diffusing water and is more sensitive to psychological differences between groups and also diffusion MRI connectometry to conduct group analysis between age and gender matched PD patients with and without RBD...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226691/structural-changes-of-cingulate-cortex-in-post-stroke-depression
#7
Chenfei Ye, Jun Wu, Xuhui Chen, Changle Zhang, Hengtong Li, Shuai Mao, Heather T Ma, Chenfei Ye, Jun Wu, Xuhui Chen, Changle Zhang, Hengtong Li, Shuai Mao, Heather T Ma, Shuai Mao, Heather T Ma, Jun Wu, Hengtong Li, Changle Zhang, Chenfei Ye, Xuhui Chen
Disruption of neural connections among regions regulating mood and cognition rather than cerebrovascular lesions may contribute to post-stroke depression (PSD). In this paper, we hypothesized that structural abnormalities in white matter structure like cingulate cortex induced by focal infarcts would play a role in mood regulation or depression after stroke onset. Various DTI coefficients including FA, RD and ADC with multiple signal distribution measurements were collected and statistically analyzed. The results identify significant differences in volume and multiple diffusion indices of DTI intensity distribution in cingulate cortex between PSD patients and the normal control...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226594/novel-measure-of-the-weigh-distribution-balance-on-the-brain-network-graph-complexity-applied-to-schizophrenia
#8
J Gomez-Pilar, J Poza, A Bachiller, P Nunez, C Gomez, A Lubeiro, V Molina, R Hornero, J Gomez-Pilar, J Poza, A Bachiller, P Nunez, C Gomez, A Lubeiro, V Molina, R Hornero, J Gomez-Pilar, A Bachiller, C Gomez, J Poza, P Nunez, A Lubeiro, V Molina, R Hornero
The aim of this study was to assess brain complexity dynamics in schizophrenia (SCH) patients during an auditory oddball task. For this task, we applied a novel graph measure based on the balance of the node weights distribution. Previous studies applied complexity parameters that were strongly dependent on network topology. This could bias the results, as well as making correction techniques, such as surrogating process, necessary. In the present study, we applied a novel graph complexity measure derived from the information theory: Shannon Graph Complexity (SGC)...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225852/tryptophan-overloading-activates-brain-regions-involved-with-cognition-mood-and-anxiety
#9
Luana C A Silva, Milena B Viana, José S Andrade, Melyssa A Souza, Isabel C Céspedes, Vânia D'Almeida
Tryptophan is the only precursor of serotonin and mediates serotonergic activity in the brain. Previous studies have shown that the administration of tryptophan or tryptophan depletion significantly alters cognition, mood and anxiety. Nevertheless, the neurobiological alterations that follow these changes have not yet been fully investigated. The aim of this study was to verify the effects of a tryptophan-enriched diet on immunoreactivity to Fos-protein in the rat brain. Sixteen male Wistar rats were distributed into two groups that either received standard chow diet or a tryptophan-enriched diet for a period of thirty days...
February 16, 2017: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224092/language-and-cognitive-outcome-for-high-risk-neonates-at-the-age-of-2-3-years-experience-from-an-arab-country
#10
Tamer Abou-Elsaad, Hesham Abdel-Hady, Hemmat Baz, Doaa ElShabrawi
AIM: To investigate the effect of different neonatal risk factors on different language parameters as well as cognitive abilities among Arabic speaking Egyptian children at the age of two to three years of life and to find out which risk factor(s) had the greatest impact on language and cognitive abilities. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study was conducted on 103 children with age range of 2-3 years (median age 31 mo). They were 62 males and 41 females who were exposed to different high-risk factors in the perinatal period, with exclusion of metabolic disorders, sepsis/meningitis, congenital anomalies and chromosomal aberrations...
February 8, 2017: World Journal of Clinical Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222519/genetic-stratification-to-identify-risk-groups-for-alzheimer-s-disease
#11
Riccardo E Marioni, Archie Campbell, Saskia P Hagenaars, Reka Nagy, Carmen Amador, Caroline Hayward, David J Porteous, Peter M Visscher, Ian J Deary
Stratification by genetic risk factors for Alzheimer's disease (AD) may help identify groups with the greatest disease risk. Biological changes that cause late-onset AD are likely to occur years, if not decades prior to diagnosis. Here, we select a subset of the Generation Scotland: Scottish Family Health Study cohort in a likely preclinical age-range of 60-70 years (subset n = 3,495 with cognitive and genetic data). We test for cognitive differences by polygenic risk scores for AD. The polygenic scores are constructed using all available SNPs, excluding those within a 500 kb distance of the APOE locus...
February 10, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222518/differential-regional-distribution-of-juxtacortical-white-matter-signal-abnormalities-in-aging-and-alzheimer-s-disease
#12
Emily R Lindemer, Douglas N Greve, Bruce Fischl, Jean C Augustinack, David H Salat
BACKGROUND: White matter signal abnormalities (WMSA) (also known as 'hyperintensities') on MRI are commonly seen in normal aging and increases have been noted in Alzheimer's disease (AD), but whether there is a spatial specificity to these increases is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To discern whether or not there is a spatial pattern of WMSA in the brains of individuals with AD that differs from those who exhibit cognitively healthy aging. METHOD: Structural MRI data from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative public database were used to quantify WMSA in 35 regions of interest (ROIs)...
February 10, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222386/heterogeneous-fractionation-profiles-of-meta-analytic-coactivation-networks
#13
Angela R Laird, Michael C Riedel, Mershack Okoe, Radu Jianu, Kimberly L Ray, Simon B Eickhoff, Stephen M Smith, Peter T Fox, Matthew T Sutherland
Computational cognitive neuroimaging approaches can be leveraged to characterize the hierarchical organization of distributed, functionally specialized networks in the human brain. To this end, we performed large-scale mining across the BrainMap database of coordinate-based activation locations from over 10,000 task-based experiments. Meta-analytic coactivation networks were identified by jointly applying independent component analysis (ICA) and meta-analytic connectivity modeling (MACM) across a wide range of model orders (i...
February 18, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220290/epidemiology-of-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-in-southern-germany
#14
Angela Rosenbohm, Raphael S Peter, Siegfried Erhardt, Dorothée Lulé, Dietrich Rothenbacher, Albert C Ludolph, Gabriele Nagel
The objective of this study is to determine the current distribution of clinical phenotypes and to estimate future trends of ALS incidence in Western societies. We report on a clinical-epidemiological registry with a capture-recapture rate of >80% and population-based case-control study in ALS patients in South Western Germany. 1163 incidents of ALS were registered. Clinical and neuropsychological data were prospectively collected from 699 cases. The mean age at onset was 66.6 (SD = 11.6) years in prospective cases (N = 699)...
February 20, 2017: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220063/vibrotactile-discrimination-training-affects-brain-connectivity-in-profoundly-deaf-individuals
#15
Andrés A González-Garrido, Vanessa D Ruiz-Stovel, Fabiola R Gómez-Velázquez, Hugo Vélez-Pérez, Rebeca Romo-Vázquez, Ricardo A Salido-Ruiz, Aurora Espinoza-Valdez, Luis R Campos
Early auditory deprivation has serious neurodevelopmental and cognitive repercussions largely derived from impoverished and delayed language acquisition. These conditions may be associated with early changes in brain connectivity. Vibrotactile stimulation is a sensory substitution method that allows perception and discrimination of sound, and even speech. To clarify the efficacy of this approach, a vibrotactile oddball task with 700 and 900 Hz pure-tones as stimuli [counterbalanced as target (T: 20% of the total) and non-target (NT: 80%)] with simultaneous EEG recording was performed by 14 profoundly deaf and 14 normal-hearing (NH) subjects, before and after a short training period (five 1-h sessions; in 2...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219764/gabaa-receptor-expression-and-white-matter-disruption-in-intrauterine-growth-restricted-piglets
#16
Viskasari P Kalanjati, Julie A Wixey, Stephanie M Miller, Paul B Colditz, Stella T Bjorkman
Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is one of the most common causes of perinatal mortality and morbidity. White matter and neuronal injury are major pathophysiological features of the IUGR neonatal brain. GABAA (γ-aminobutyric acid type A) receptors have been shown to play a role in oligodendrocyte differentiation and proliferation in the neonatal brain and may be a key factor in white matter injury and myelination in IUGR neonates. Whether there are impairments to the GABAergic system and neuronal cytoskeleton in IUGR brain has yet to be elucidated...
February 17, 2017: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213928/problem-solving-phase-transitions-during-team-collaboration
#17
Travis J Wiltshire, Jonathan E Butner, Stephen M Fiore
Multiple theories of problem-solving hypothesize that there are distinct qualitative phases exhibited during effective problem-solving. However, limited research has attempted to identify when transitions between phases occur. We integrate theory on collaborative problem-solving (CPS) with dynamical systems theory suggesting that when a system is undergoing a phase transition it should exhibit a peak in entropy and that entropy levels should also relate to team performance. Communications from 40 teams that collaborated on a complex problem were coded for occurrence of problem-solving processes...
February 18, 2017: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213121/determination-of-a-clinically-important-difference-and-definition-of-a-responder-threshold-for-the-ucsd-performance-based-skills-assessment-upsa-in-patients-with-major-depressive-disorder
#18
Philip D Harvey, William Jacobson, Wei Zhong, George G Nomikos, Christina Kurre Olsen, Elizabeth Merikle, Michael Cronquist Christensen
BACKGROUND: This article reports an evaluation of the psychometric properties and clinically important difference (CID) threshold of the UCSD Performance-Based Skills Assessment (UPSA) in major depressive disorder (MDD), using data from a large-scale study of the effects of vortioxetine on cognitive functioning and functional capacity in MDD patients. METHODS: Adults with moderate-to-severe recurrent MDD and self-reported cognitive dysfunction were randomized to 8 weeks of double-blind treatment with vortioxetine 10/20mg QD (flexible), duloxetine 60mg QD, or placebo...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210999/computational-cognitive-modeling-of-the-temporal-dynamics-of-fatigue-from-sleep-loss
#19
Matthew M Walsh, Glenn Gunzelmann, Hans P A Van Dongen
Computational models have become common tools in psychology. They provide quantitative instantiations of theories that seek to explain the functioning of the human mind. In this paper, we focus on identifying deep theoretical similarities between two very different models. Both models are concerned with how fatigue from sleep loss impacts cognitive processing. The first is based on the diffusion model and posits that fatigue decreases the drift rate of the diffusion process. The second is based on the Adaptive Control of Thought - Rational (ACT-R) cognitive architecture and posits that fatigue decreases the utility of candidate actions leading to microlapses in cognitive processing...
February 16, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210234/a-spiking-neuron-model-of-word-associations-for-the-remote-associates-test
#20
Ivana Kajić, Jan Gosmann, Terrence C Stewart, Thomas Wennekers, Chris Eliasmith
Generating associations is important for cognitive tasks including language acquisition and creative problem solving. It remains an open question how the brain represents and processes associations. The Remote Associates Test (RAT) is a task, originally used in creativity research, that is heavily dependent on generating associations in a search for the solutions to individual RAT problems. In this work we present a model that solves the test. Compared to earlier modeling work on the RAT, our hybrid (i.e., non-developmental) model is implemented in a spiking neural network by means of the Neural Engineering Framework (NEF), demonstrating that it is possible for spiking neurons to be organized to store the employed representations and to manipulate them...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
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