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Distributed cognition

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926742/modeling-deficits-from-early-auditory-information-processing-to-psychosocial-functioning-in-schizophrenia
#1
Michael L Thomas, Michael F Green, Gerhard Hellemann, Catherine A Sugar, Melissa Tarasenko, Monica E Calkins, Tiffany A Greenwood, Raquel E Gur, Ruben C Gur, Laura C Lazzeroni, Keith H Nuechterlein, Allen D Radant, Larry J Seidman, Alexandra L Shiluk, Larry J Siever, Jeremy M Silverman, Joyce Sprock, William S Stone, Neal R Swerdlow, Debby W Tsuang, Ming T Tsuang, Bruce I Turetsky, David L Braff, Gregory A Light
Importance: Neurophysiologic measures of early auditory information processing (EAP) are used as endophenotypes in genomic studies and biomarkers in clinical intervention studies. Research in schizophrenia has established correlations among measures of EAP, cognition, clinical symptoms, and functional outcome. Clarifying these associations by determining the pathways through which deficits in EAP affect functioning would suggest when and where to therapeutically intervene. Objectives: To characterize the pathways from EAP to outcome and to estimate the extent to which enhancement of basic information processing might improve cognition and psychosocial functioning in schizophrenia...
December 7, 2016: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923431/using-oscillating-sounds-to-manipulate-sleep-spindles
#2
James W Antony, Ken A Paller
STUDY OBJECTIVES: EEG oscillations known as sleep spindles have been linked with various aspects of cognition, but the specific functions they signal remain controversial. Two types of EEG sleep spindle have been distinguished: slow spindles at 11-13.5 Hz and fast spindles at 13.5-16 Hz. Slow spindles exhibit a frontal scalp topography, whereas fast spindles exhibit a posterior scalp topography and have been preferentially linked with memory consolidation during sleep. To advance understanding beyond that provided from correlative studies of spindles, we aimed to develop a new method to systematically manipulate spindles...
November 28, 2016: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920431/cerebral-blood-flow-blood-supply-and-cognition-in-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#3
Jacobus F A Jansen, Frank C G van Bussel, Harm J van de Haar, Matthias J P van Osch, Paul A M Hofman, Martin P J van Boxtel, Robert J van Oostenbrugge, Miranda T Schram, Coen D A Stehouwer, Joachim E Wildberger, Walter H Backes
We investigated whether type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and the presence of cognitive impairment are associated with altered cerebral blood flow (CBF). Forty-one participants with and thirty-nine without T2DM underwent 3-Tesla MRI, including a quantitative technique measuring (macrovascular) blood flow in the internal carotid artery and an arterial spin labeling technique measuring (microvascular) perfusion in the grey matter (GM). Three analysis methods were used to quantify the CBF: a region of interest analysis, a voxel-based statistical parametric mapping technique, and a 'distributed deviating voxels' method...
December 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919234/blended-cbt-versus-face-to-face-cbt-a-randomised-non-inferiority-trial
#4
Kim Mathiasen, Tonny E Andersen, Heleen Riper, Annet A M Kleiboer, Kirsten K Roessler
BACKGROUND: Internet based cognitive behavioural therapy (iCBT) has been demonstrated to be cost- and clinically effective. There is a need, however, for increased therapist contact for some patient groups. Combining iCBT with traditional face-to-face (ftf) consultations in a blended format (B-CBT) may produce a new treatment format with multiple benefits from both traditional CBT and iCBT such as individual adaptation, lower costs than traditional therapy, wide geographical and temporal availability, and possibly lower threshold to implementation...
December 5, 2016: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919003/altered-patterns-of-directed-connectivity-within-the-reading-network-of-dyslexic-children-and-their-relation-to-reading-dysfluency
#5
Gojko Žarić, João M Correia, Gorka Fraga González, Jurgen Tijms, Maurtis W van der Molen, Leo Blomert, Milene Bonte
Reading is a complex cognitive skill subserved by a distributed network of visual and language-related regions. Disruptions of connectivity within this network have been associated with developmental dyslexia but their relation to individual differences in the severity of reading problems remains unclear. Here we investigate whether dysfunctional connectivity scales with the level of reading dysfluency by examining EEG recordings during visual word and false font processing in 9-year-old typically reading children (TR) and two groups of dyslexic children: severely dysfluent (SDD) and moderately dysfluent (MDD) dyslexics...
November 19, 2016: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918065/a-statistical-proposal-for-selecting-a-data-depending-threshold-in-neurobiology
#6
P Finotelli, F Panzica, P Dulio, F Rotondi, G Varotto
In this paper we propose a new methodology for introducing thresholds in the analysis of neuro- biological databases. Often, in Neuroscience, absolute thresholds are adopted. This is done by cutting the data below (or above) predetermined values of the involved parameters, without an analysis of the distribution of the collected data concerning the phenomenon under investigation. Despite an absolute threshold could be rigorously defined in terms of physic parameters, it can be influenced by many different subjective aspects, including cognitive processes, and individual adaptation to the external stimuli...
June 1, 2016: Archives Italiennes de Biologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917869/neurophysiological-characterization-of-attentional-performance-dysfunction-in-schizophrenia-patients-in-a-reverse-translated-task
#7
Jared W Young, Andrew W Bismark, Yinming Sun, Wendy Zhang, Meghan McIlwain, Ibrahim Grootendorst, Gregory A Light
Attentional dysfunction in schizophrenia (SZ) contributes to the functional deficits ubiquitous to the disorder. Identifying the neural substrates of translational measures of attentional dysfunction would prove invaluable for developing therapeutics. Attentional performance is typically assessed via continuous performance tasks (CPTs), though many place additional cognitive demands with little cross-species test-relevance. Herein, event related potentials (ERPs) were utilized to investigate the neurophysiological correlates of attention and response inhibition of SZ and healthy participants, while they performed the cross-species translated five-choice CPT (5C-CPT)...
December 5, 2016: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917152/amyloid-dysmetabolism-relates-to-reduced-glucose-uptake-in-white-matter-hyperintensities
#8
Lisa Flem Kalheim, Per Selnes, Atle Bjørnerud, Christopher Coello, Kjetil Vegge, Tormod Fladby
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most prevalent neurodegenerative disorder and cause of dementia and is characterized by amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles. AD has traditionally been considered to primarily affect gray matter, but multiple lines of evidence also indicate white matter (WM) pathology and associated small-vessel cerebrovascular disease. WM glucose delivery and metabolism may have implications for local tissue integrity, and [(18)F]-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) may be helpful to assess neuroglial and axonal function in WM...
2016: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915995/lack-of-p-glycoprotein-results-in-impairment-of-removal-of-beta-amyloid-and-increased-intraparenchymal-cerebral-amyloid-angiopathy-after-active-immunization-in-a-transgenic-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#9
Sascha Brückmann, Anja Brenn, Markus Grube, Katharina Niedrig, Silva Holtfreter, Oliver von Bohlen Und Halbach, Martin Groschup, Markus Keller, Silke Vogelgesang
Immunization against beta-amyloid (Aβ) reduces cerebral Aβ deposits and improves cognitive capacities in transgenic mouse models, and thus has been considered a promising disease-modifying therapeutic approach for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Although clinical trials in AD patients have yielded evidence for clearance of parenchymal Aβ plaques, Aβ increases in blood vessels of treated patients. We hypothesize that an age-related decline in the mechanisms that clear Aβ from the brain might be at least in part responsible for the failure to purge and re-distribute Aβ...
December 1, 2016: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914042/perfectionism-mediated-the-relationship-between-brain-structure-variation-and-negative-emotion-in-a-nonclinical-sample
#10
Di Wu, Kangcheng Wang, Dongtao Wei, Qunlin Chen, Xue Du, Junyi Yang, Jiang Qiu
In maladaptive respects, perfectionism reflects an individual's concern over making mistakes and doubting the quality of his or her own actions excessively, which would affect one's emotion. However, little is known about the neural mechanisms associated with the perfectionism and negative affect. In this study, voxel-based morphometry was performed to identify the brain regions underlying individual differences in perfectionism, which was measured by the Chinese Frost Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale (CFMPS), in a large sample of nonclinical young adults...
December 2, 2016: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910102/association-of-serum-klotho-with-loss-of-bone-mineral-density-and-fracture-risk-in-older-adults
#11
Didier Chalhoub, Elisa Marques, Osorio Meirelles, Richard D Semba, Luigi Ferrucci, Suzanne Satterfield, Michael Nevitt, Jane A Cauley, Tamara Harris
OBJECTIVES: Klotho deficiency has been previously linked to aging-like phenotypes such as osteoporosis, cognitive impairment, and sarcopenia. Low serum klotho was shown to be related to grip strength and disability. Nonetheless, no previous study has explored the association between serum klotho and fractures. The purpose of this report is to examine the relationship of serum klotho with bone mineral density (BMD) loss and fractures in older adults. DESIGN: The Health, Aging, and Body Composition (Health ABC) Study is a longitudinal cohort study of 3,075 community-dwelling older adults...
December 2, 2016: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907279/development-of-norms-for-executive-functions-in-typically-developing-indian-urban-preschool-children-and-its-association-with-nutritional-status
#12
Sumithra Selvam, Tinku Thomas, Priya Shetty, K Thennarasu, Vijaya Raman, Deepti Khanna, Ruchika Mehra, Anura V Kurpad, Krishnamachari Srinivasan
Executive functions (EFs) are essential and important for achieving success in children's everyday lives and play a fundamental role in children's cognitive, academic, social, emotional and behavioral functioning. A cross-sectional study was carried out to develop age- and sex-specific norms for EFs using the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function - Preschool Version (BRIEF-P) among 2- to 5-year-olds from urban Bangalore, India. In addition, the association between EFs and anthropometric measures, a marker of nutritional status, is also examined...
December 1, 2016: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903719/the-segregation-and-integration-of-distinct-brain-networks-and-their-relationship-to-cognition
#13
Jessica R Cohen, Mark D'Esposito
: A critical feature of the human brain that gives rise to complex cognition is its ability to reconfigure its network structure dynamically and adaptively in response to the environment. Existing research probing task-related reconfiguration of brain network structure has concluded that, although there are many similarities in network structure during an intrinsic, resting state and during the performance of a variety of cognitive tasks, there are meaningful differences as well. In this study, we related intrinsic, resting state network organization to reconfigured network organization during the performance of two tasks: a sequence tapping task, which is thought to probe motor execution and likely engages a single brain network, and an n-back task, which is thought to probe working memory and likely requires coordination across multiple networks...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903706/phase-amplitude-coupling-and-long-range-phase-synchronization-reveal-frontotemporal-interactions-during-visual-working-memory
#14
Jonathan Daume, Thomas Gruber, Andreas K Engel, Uwe Friese
: It has been suggested that cross-frequency phase-amplitude coupling (PAC) particularly in temporal brain structures serves as a neural mechanism for coordinated working memory storage. In this magnetoencephalography study, we show that during visual working memory maintenance, temporal cortex regions, which exhibit enhanced PAC, interact with prefrontal cortex via enhanced low-frequency phase synchronization. Healthy human participants were engaged in a visual delayed-matching-to-sample task with pictures of natural objects...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903330/intraindividual-cognitive-variability-in-middle-age-predicts-cognitive-impairment-8-10-years-later-results-from-the-wisconsin-registry-for-alzheimer-s-prevention
#15
Rebecca L Koscik, Sara E Berman, Lindsay R Clark, Kimberly D Mueller, Ozioma C Okonkwo, Carey E Gleason, Bruce P Hermann, Mark A Sager, Sterling C Johnson
OBJECTIVES: Intraindividual cognitive variability (IICV) has been shown to differentiate between groups with normal cognition, mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and dementia. This study examined whether baseline IICV predicted subsequent mild to moderate cognitive impairment in a cognitively normal baseline sample. METHODS: Participants with 4 waves of cognitive assessment were drawn from the Wisconsin Registry for Alzheimer's Prevention (WRAP; n=684; 53.6(6.6) baseline age; 9...
November 2016: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902936/how-restful-is-it-with-all-that-noise-comparison-of-interleaved-silent-steady-state-isss-and-conventional-imaging-in-resting-state-fmri
#16
J Andoh, M Ferreira, I R Leppert, R Matsushita, B Pike, R J Zatorre
Resting-state fMRI studies have become very important in cognitive neuroscience because they are able to identify BOLD fluctuations in brain circuits involved in motor, cognitive, or perceptual processes without the use of an explicit task. Such approaches have been fruitful when applied to various disordered populations, or to children or the elderly. However, insufficient attention has been paid to the consequences of the loud acoustic scanner noise associated with conventional fMRI acquisition, which could be an important confounding factor affecting auditory and/or cognitive networks in resting-state fMRI...
November 27, 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902738/induced-and-evoked-human-electrophysiological-correlates-of-visual-working-memory-set-size-effects-at-encoding
#17
Gennadiy Gurariy, Kyle W Killebrew, Marian E Berryhill, Gideon P Caplovitz
The ability to encode, store, and retrieve visually presented objects is referred to as visual working memory (VWM). Although crucial for many cognitive processes, previous research reveals that VWM strictly capacity limited. This capacity limitation is behaviorally observable in the set size effect: the ability to successfully report items in VWM asymptotes at a small number of items. Research into the neural correlates of set size effects and VWM capacity limits in general largely focus on the maintenance period of VWM...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899295/prevalence-and-correlates-of-binge-eating-disorder-related-features-in-the-community
#18
Linda Mustelin, Cynthia M Bulik, Jaakko Kaprio, Anna Keski-Rahkonen
Binge eating disorder (BED) is associated with high levels of obesity and psychological suffering, but little is known about 1) the distribution of features of BED in the general population and 2) their consequences for weight development and psychological distress in young adulthood. We investigated the prevalence of features of BED and their association with body mass index (BMI) and psychological distress among men (n = 2423) and women (n = 2825) from the longitudinal community-based FinnTwin16 cohort (born 1975-1979)...
November 26, 2016: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898362/psychogenic-non-epileptic-seizure-in-patients-with-intellectual-disability-with-special-focus-on-choice-of-therapeutic-intervention
#19
Kousuke Kanemoto, Hiroko Goji, Yukari Tadokoro, Etsushi Kato, Tomohiro Oshima
PURPOSE: There have been a number of studies exploring treatments for psychogenic non-epileptic seizure (PNES) but largely neglecting the sizable subgroup of patients with intellectual disability (ID). In the present study, we attempted to demonstrate effects and preferred modes of therapeutic intervention in PNES patients with ID being treated at a Japanese municipal center with a short referral chain. METHODS: We examined 46 PNES patients with ID (ID group) and 106 PNES patients without ID (non-ID group) retrospectively in case charts...
November 14, 2016: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893868/three-boundary-conditions-for-computing-the-fixed-point-property-in-binary-mixture-data
#20
Leendert van Maanen, Joaquina Couto, Mael Lebreton
The notion of "mixtures" has become pervasive in behavioral and cognitive sciences, due to the success of dual-process theories of cognition. However, providing support for such dual-process theories is not trivial, as it crucially requires properties in the data that are specific to mixture of cognitive processes. In theory, one such property could be the fixed-point property of binary mixture data, applied-for instance- to response times. In that case, the fixed-point property entails that response time distributions obtained in an experiment in which the mixture proportion is manipulated would have a common density point...
2016: PloS One
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