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Distributed cognition

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332052/when-art-meets-gardens-does-it-enhance-the-benefits-the-nancy-hypothesis-of-care-for-persons-with-alzheimer-s-disease
#1
Thérèse Rivasseau Jonveaux, Reinhard Fescharek
The creation of healing gardens for persons with Alzheimer's disease and related diseases (ADRD) offers vast potential. They can play a role in the scaffolding of cognitive disorders, emotional stress, sensory processing, sense of harmony, and appeasement. These effects are achieved through a distributed interplay of psychological functions with the immediate environment and local culture on the one hand, and dialogue on the other. The garden, a natural canvas created by man, shares with art the ability to foster an esthetic sense for which the perception can be measured by functional neurological imaging exploration...
2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320166/mass-spectrometric-quantitation-of-tubulin-acetylation-from-pepsin-digested-rat-brain-tissue-using-a-novel-stable-isotope-standard-and-capture-by-anti-peptide-antibody-siscapa-method
#2
Xiangkun Yang, Sean X Naughton, Zhen Han, Maomao He, Y George Zheng, Alvin V Terry, Michael G Bartlett
Acetylation of α-tubulin at Lys-40 is a potential biomarker for cognitive deficits in various neurological disorders. However, this key PTM has not been previously studied with mass spectrometry, due to the inadequate distribution of tryptic cleavage sites. Following peptic digestion, a surrogate sequence containing this key PTM site was identified, and was found to be stable and quantitatively reproducible. A highly sensitive and specific SISCAPA-LC-MS method for quantitating rat brain tubulin acetylation was developed, validated and applied, and only required a small amount of tissue (2...
January 10, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317112/cannabinoid-disposition-after-human-intraperitoneal-use-an-insight-into-intraperitoneal-pharmacokinetic-properties-in-metastatic-cancer
#3
Catherine J Lucas, Peter Galettis, Shuzhen Song, Nadia Solowij, Stephanie E Reuter, Jennifer Schneider, Jennifer H Martin
BACKGROUND: Medicinal cannabis is prescribed under the provision of a controlled drug in the Australian Poisons Standard. However, multiple laws must be navigated in order for patients to obtain access and imported products can be expensive. Dose-response information for both efficacy and toxicity pertaining to medicinal cannabis is lacking. The pharmacokinetic properties of cannabis administered by traditional routes has been described but to date, there is no literature on the pharmacokinetic properties of an intraperitoneal cannabinoid emulsion...
January 6, 2018: Clinical Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316266/inference-by-exclusion-in-the-red-tailed-black-cockatoo-calyptorhynchus-banksii
#4
Lorraine Subias, Andrea S Griffin, David Guez
Inference by exclusion is the ability to select a given option by excluding the others. When designed appropriately, tests of this ability can reveal choices that cannot be explained by associative processes. Over the past decade, exclusion reasoning has been explored in several non-human taxonomic groups including birds, mainly in Corvids and Parrots. To increase our understanding of the taxonomic distribution of exclusion reasoning and therefore its evolution, we investigated exclusion performances in Red-tailed Black cockatoos (Calyptorhynchus banksii), an Australian relative of the Goffin cockatoo (Cacatua goffinia), using a food-finding task...
January 9, 2018: Integrative Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315142/enteroviral-encephalitis-in-a-child-with-cns-relapse-of-burkitt-leukemia-treated-with-rituximab
#5
Najma Shaheen, Francis Mussai
A boy with central nervous system relapse of Burkitt leukemia developed fever and neurological symptoms and cognitive impairment. He had received multi-drug chemotherapy including rituximab. Enterovirus (EV) was detected in cerebrospinal fluid by polymerase chain reaction, and magnetic resonance imaging findings were consistent with viral infection. The patient was treated with intravenous immunoglobulin and within 1 month cleared his EV. Rituximab can cause a profound B-cell deficiency predisposing patients to infections including EV encephalitis...
January 8, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Hematology/oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314513/acceptability-of-opt-out-consent-in-a-hospital-patient-population
#6
Daniel Boulos, Eric Morand, Michelle Foo, Janki Dhaval Trivedi, Ruth Lai, Rachel Huntersmith, Karen Zhang, Claire Brigid Stark, Suong Le
Research has been slow to leverage digitalised medical records as a data resource. Our study assessed patient acceptability of opt-out consent for secondary use of digital patient data. A questionnaire was distributed to patients in multiple languages and with an interpreter. Of 919 completed surveys, 33% were of non-English speaking background, 15% self-reported cognitive impairment and 3% were refugees. Opt-out consent was accepted in this diverse population; 87% of participants approved, or were indifferent to opt-out consent...
January 2018: Internal Medicine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314415/differentially-categorized-structural-brain-hubs-are-involved-in-different-microstructural-functional-and-cognitive-characteristics-and-contribute-to-individual-identification
#7
Xindi Wang, Qixiang Lin, Mingrui Xia, Yong He
Very little is known regarding whether structural hubs of human brain networks that enable efficient information communication may be classified into different categories. Using three multimodal neuroimaging data sets, we construct individual structural brain networks and further identify hub regions based on eight widely used graph-nodal metrics, followed by comprehensive characteristics and reproducibility analyses. We show the three categories of structural hubs in the brain network, namely, aggregated, distributed, and connector hubs...
January 4, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310862/a-review-on-the-hybrids-of-hydroxycinnamic-acid-as-multi-target-directed-ligands-against-alzheimer-s-disease
#8
REVIEW
Xiao Zhang, Xixin He, Qiuhe Chen, Junfeng Lu, Simona Rapposelli, Rongbiao Pi
Alzheimer's disease (AD), a complex chronic progressive central nervous system degenerative disease and a public health problem of the world, often characters cognitive dysfunction accompaning aggression and depression, and may lead to death. More attentions should be paid on it because there is no modified strategy against AD till now. AD is featured with the loss of cholinergic neurons, the amyloid-beta peptide (Aβ) plaques and the neurofibrillary tangles and several hypotheses were established to explain the pathogenesis of AD...
December 26, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306552/nationwide-prevalence-of-self-reported-serious-sensory-impairments-and-their-associations-with-self-reported-cognitive-and-functional-difficulties
#9
Spencer D Fuller, Lucy I Mudie, Carlos Siordia, Bonnielin K Swenor, David S Friedman
PURPOSE: To estimate the nationwide prevalence of self-reported serious vision impairment (SVI), serious hearing impairment (SHI), and serious dual sensory impairment (DSI; i.e., concomitant SVI and SHI) and to characterize their associations with self-reported cognitive, independent living, self-care, and ambulatory difficulties. DESIGN: The American Community Survey (ACS) is a nationwide cross-sectional survey administered by the United States Census Bureau. PARTICIPANTS: The 2011-2015 ACS sample contains data on 7 210 535 individuals 45 years of age or older...
January 3, 2018: Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306521/what-can-autism-teach-us-about-the-role-of-sensorimotor-systems-in-higher-cognition-new-clues-from-studies-on-language-action-semantics-and-abstract-emotional-concept-processing
#10
REVIEW
Rachel L Moseley, Friedemann Pulvermüller
Within the neurocognitive literature there is much debate about the role of the motor system in language, social communication and conceptual processing. We suggest, here, that autism spectrum conditions (ASC) may afford an excellent test case for investigating and evaluating contemporary neurocognitive models, most notably a neurobiological theory of action perception integration where widely-distributed cell assemblies linking neurons in action and perceptual brain regions act as the building blocks of many higher cognitive functions...
December 7, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303843/cognition-emotional-health-and-immunological-markers-in-children-with-long-term-nonprogressive-hiv
#11
Robert Paul, Tanakorn Apornpong, Wasana Prasitsuebsai, Thanyawee Puthanakit, Vonthanak Saphonn, Linda Aurpibul, Pope Kosalaraksa, Suparat Kanjanavanit, Wicharn Luesomboon, Chaiwat Ngampiyaskul, Tulathip Suwanlerk, Kea Chettra, William T Shearer, Victor Valcour, Jintanat Ananworanich, Stephen Kerr
BACKGROUND: HIV-infected children with long-term nonprogressive disease (LTNPs) eventually convert to a progressive disease type, yet the extent to which these children experience the cognitive and emotional symptoms observed in typical progressive HIV (Progressors) is unknown. METHODS: Eighty-eight LTNPs, 53 Progressors, and 323 healthy controls completed annual assessments of cognitive and emotional health as part of a prospective study. The two HIV-infected groups and the healthy controls were matched on age and sex distribution at enrollment...
January 4, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29295929/the-prodrug-of-7-8-dihydroxyflavone-development-and-therapeutic-efficacy-for-treating-alzheimer-s-disease
#12
Chun Chen, Zhihao Wang, Zhentao Zhang, Xia Liu, Seong Su Kang, Ying Zhang, Keqiang Ye
The BDNF mimetic compound 7,8-dihydroxyflavone (7,8-DHF), a potent small molecular TrkB agonist, displays prominent therapeutic efficacy against Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, 7,8-DHF has only modest oral bioavailability and a moderate pharmacokinetic (PK) profile. To alleviate these preclinical obstacles, we used a prodrug strategy for elevating 7,8-DHF oral bioavailability and brain exposure, and found that the optimal prodrug R13 has favorable properties and dose-dependently reverses the cognitive defects in an AD mouse model...
January 2, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29291031/increased-local-connectivity-of-brain-functional-networks-during-facial-processing-in-schizophrenia-evidence-from-eeg-data
#13
Tianyi Yan, Wenhui Wang, Tiantian Liu, Duanduan Chen, Changming Wang, Yulong Li, Xudong Ma, Xiaoying Tang, Jinglong Wu, Yiming Deng, Lun Zhao
Schizophrenia is often considered to be a disconnection syndrome. The abnormal interactions between large-scale functional brain networks result in cognitive and perceptual deficits. The present study investigated event-related functional connectivity networks to compare facial processing in individuals with and without schizophrenia. Faces and tables were presented to participants, and event-related phase synchrony, represented by the phase lag index (PLI), was calculated. In addition, cortical oscillatory dynamics may be useful for understanding the neural mechanisms underlying the disparate cognitive and functional impairments in schizophrenic patients...
December 5, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287243/individual-variation-in-the-propensity-for-prospective-thought-is-associated-with-functional-integration-between-visual-and-retrosplenial-cortex
#14
Mario Villena-Gonzalez, Hao-Ting Wang, Mladen Sormaz, Giovanna Mollo, Daniel S Margulies, Elizabeth A Jefferies, Jonathan Smallwood
It is well recognized that the default mode network (DMN) is involved in states of imagination, although the cognitive processes that this association reflects are not well understood. The DMN includes many regions that function as cortical "hubs", including the posterior cingulate/retrosplenial cortex, anterior temporal lobe and the hippocampus. This suggests that the role of the DMN in cognition may reflect a process of cortical integration. In the current study we tested whether functional connectivity from uni-modal regions of cortex into the DMN is linked to features of imaginative thought...
December 5, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283333/neurosteroids-and-ischemic-stroke-progesterone-a-promising-agent-in-reducing-the-brain-injury-in-ischemic-stroke
#15
REVIEW
Syed Suhail Andrabi, Suhel Parvez, Heena Tabassum
Progesterone (P4), a well-known neurosteroid, is produced by ovaries and placenta in females and by adrenal glands in both sexes. Progesterone is also synthesized by central nervous system (CNS) tissues to perform various vital neurological functions in the brain. Apart from performing crucial reproductive functions, it also plays a pivotal role in neurogenesis, regeneration, cognition, mood, inflammation, and myelination in the CNS. A substantial body of experimental evidence from animal models documents the neuroprotective role of P4 in various CNS injury models, including ischemic stroke...
2017: Journal of Environmental Pathology, Toxicology and Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279863/combinatorial-inputs-to-the-ventral-striatum-from-the-temporal-cortex-frontal-cortex-and-amygdala-implications-for-segmenting-the-striatum
#16
Eun Young Choi, Song-Lin Ding, Suzanne N Haber
The canonical striatal map, based predominantly on frontal corticostriatal projections, divides the striatum into ventromedial-limbic, central-association, and dorsolateral-motor territories. While this has been a useful heuristic, recent studies indicate that the striatum has a more complex topography when considering converging frontal and nonfrontal inputs from distributed cortical networks. The ventral striatum (VS) in particular is often ascribed a "limbic" role, but it receives diverse information, including motivation and emotion from deep brain structures, cognition from frontal cortex, and polysensory and mnemonic signals from temporal cortex...
November 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276677/cross-sectional-variations-of-white-and-grey-matter-in-older-hypertensive-patients-with-subjective-memory-complaints
#17
Ahmed Chetouani, Mohammad B Chawki, Gabriela Hossu, Anna Kearney-Schwartz, Florence Chauveau-Beuret, Serge Bracard, Veronique Roch, Vincent Lebon, Pierre-Yves Marie, Athanase Benetos, Laure Joly, Antoine Verger
Mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's dementia involve a grey matter disease, quantifiable by 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET), but also white matter damage, evidenced by diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging (DTI), which may play an additional pathogenic role. This study aimed to determine whether such DTI and PET variations are also interrelated in a high-risk population of older hypertensive patients with only subjective memory complaints (SMC). Sixty older hypertensive patients (75 ± 5 years) with SMC were referred to DTI and FDG-PET brain imaging, executive and memory tests, as well as peripheral and central blood pressure (BP) measurements...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276482/viewing-another-act-as-you-would-creates-altruistic-desires-towards-that-other
#18
Paul Bogdan
There has been growing evidence for the existence of distributed, frequently updating social "indices", which are related to the reputation of others and predict altruism towards them. However, the means by which the brain modifies an index based on experiences is still unknown. This work utilizes recent insights on the role of the anterior cingulate cortex during perspective taking, dorsolateral prefrontal representations of context, the temporoparietal junctions relationship with understanding another's background, and dorsomedial prefrontal activation patterns tracking reputation...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276381/a-new-data-analysis-approach-for-measuring-longitudinal-changes-of-metabolism-in-cognitively-normal-elderly-adults
#19
Sepideh Shokouhi, William R Riddle, Hakmook Kang
Introduction: Previously, we discussed several critical barriers in including [18F] fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography ([18F]FDG-PET) imaging of preclinical Alzheimer's disease (AD) subjects. These factors included the reference region selection and intensity normalization of PET images and the within- and across-subject variability of affected brain regions. In this study, we utilized a novel FDG-PET analysis, the regional FDG time correlation coefficient, rFTC, that can address and resolve these barriers and provide a more sensitive way of monitoring longitudinal changes in metabolism of cognitively normal elderly adults...
2017: Clinical Interventions in Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275841/the-mediodorsal-thalamus-an-essential-partner-of-the-prefrontal-cortex-for-cognition
#20
REVIEW
Sébastien Parnaudeau, Scott S Bolkan, Christoph Kellendonk
Deficits in cognition are a core feature of many psychiatric conditions, including schizophrenia, where the severity of such deficits is a strong predictor of long-term outcome. Impairment in cognitive domains such as working memory and behavioral flexibility has typically been associated with prefrontal cortex (PFC) dysfunction. However, there is increasing evidence that the PFC cannot be dissociated from its main thalamic counterpart, the mediodorsal thalamus (MD). Since the causal relationships between MD-PFC abnormalities and cognitive impairment, as well as the neuronal mechanisms underlying them, are difficult to address in humans, animal models have been employed for mechanistic insight...
November 15, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
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