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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339164/are-schizophrenia-autistic-and-obsessive-spectrum-disorders-dissociable-on-the-basis-of-neuroimaging-morphological-findings-a-voxel-based-meta-analysis
#1
Franco Cauda, Tommaso Costa, Andrea Nani, Luciano Fava, Sara Palermo, Francesca Bianco, Sergio Duca, Karina Tatu, Roberto Keller
Schizophrenia spectrum disorder (SCZD), autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorder (OCSD) are considered as three separate psychiatric conditions with, supposedly, different brain alterations patterns. From a neuroimaging perspective, this meta-analytic study aimed to address whether this nosographical differentiation is actually supported by different brain patterns of gray matter (GM) or white matter (WM) morphological alterations. We explored two possibilities: (a) to find out whether GM alterations are specific for SCZD, ASD, and OCSD; and (b) to associate the identified brain alteration patterns with cognitive dysfunctions by means of an analysis of lesion decoding...
March 24, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336779/validation-of-the-semi-quantitative-static-suvr-method-for-18-f-av45-pet-by-pharmacokinetic-modeling-with-an-arterial-input-function
#2
Julie Ottoy, Jeroen Verhaeghe, Ellis Niemantsverdriet, Leonie Wyffels, Charisse Somers, Ellen De Roeck, Hanne Struyfs, Femke Soetewey, Steven Deleye, Tobi Van den Bossche, Sara Van Mossevelde, Sarah Ceyssens, Jan Versijpt, Sigrid Stroobants, Sebastiaan Engelborghs, Steven Staelens
Increased brain uptake of [(18)F]-AV45 visualized by PET is a key biomarker for Alzheimer's disease (AD). The standardized uptake value ratio (SUVR) is widely used for quantification, but is subject to variability based on choice of reference region and changes in cerebral blood flow. Here we validate the SUVR method against the gold standard volume of distribution (VT) to assess cross-sectional differences in plaque load. Methods: Dynamic 60-min [(18)F]-AV45 (291 ± 67 MBq) and 1-min [(15)O]-H2O (370 MBq) scans were obtained in 35 age-matched elderly subjects, including 10 probable AD dementia, 15 amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and 10 cognitively healthy controls (HC)...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336433/early-stage-reduction-of-the-dendritic-complexity-in-basolateral-amygdala-of-a-transgenic-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#3
Congdi Guo, Ben Long, Yarong Hu, Jing Yuan, Hui Gong, Xiangning Li
Alzheimer's disease is a representative age-related neurodegenerative disease that could result in loss of memory and cognitive deficiency. However, the precise onset time of Alzheimer's disease affecting neuronal circuits and the mechanisms underlying the changes are not clearly known. To address the neuroanatomical changes during the early pathologic developing process, we acquired the neuronal morphological characterization of AD in APP/PS1 double-transgenic mice using the Micro-Optical Sectioning Tomography system...
March 20, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336400/mechanistic-characterization-of-s-38093-a-novel-inverse-agonist-at-histamine-h3-receptors
#4
Aurore Sors, Fany Panayi, Lionel Bert, Dominique Favale, Olivier Nosjean, Valérie Audinot, Jean-Michel Arrang, Bruno Buisson, Esther Steidl, Jean-Marie Delbos, Tuulia Huhtala, Outi Kontkanen, Anne-Marie Chollet, Patrick Casara, Pierre Lestage
Histaminergic H3 inverse agonists, by stimulating central histamine release, represent attractive drug candidates to treat cognitive disorders. The present studies aimed to describe the mechanistic profile of S 38093 a novel H3 receptors inverse agonist. S 38093 displays a moderate affinity for rat, mouse and human H3 receptors (Ki = 8.8, 1.44 and 1.2µM, respectively) with no affinity for other histaminergic receptors. In cellular models, the compound was able to antagonize mice H3 receptors (KB = 0.65µM) and to suppress cAMP decrease induced by an H3 agonist via human H3 receptors (KB = 0...
March 20, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335039/brain-temporal-complexity-in-explaining-the-therapeutic-and-cognitive-effects-of-seizure-therapy
#5
Faranak Farzan, Sravya Atluri, Ye Mei, Sylvain Moreno, Andrea J Levinson, Daniel M Blumberger, Zafiris J Daskalakis
Over 350 million people worldwide suffer from depression, a third of whom are medication-resistant. Seizure therapy remains the most effective treatment in depression, even when many treatments fail. The utility of seizure therapy is limited due to its cognitive side effects and stigma. The biological targets of seizure therapy remain unknown, hindering design of new treatments with comparable efficacy. Seizures impact the brains temporal dynamicity observed through electroencephalography. This dynamicity reflects richness of information processing across distributed brain networks subserving affective and cognitive processes...
March 3, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335024/impaired-dual-tasking-in-parkinson-s-disease-is-associated-with-reduced-focusing-of-cortico-striatal-activity
#6
Freek Nieuwhof, Bastiaan R Bloem, Miriam F Reelick, Esther Aarts, Inbal Maidan, Anat Mirelman, Jeffrey M Hausdorff, Ivan Toni, Rick C Helmich
Impaired dual tasking, namely the inability to concurrently perform a cognitive and a motor task (e.g. 'stops walking while talking'), is a largely unexplained and frequent symptom of Parkinson's disease. Here we consider two circuit-level accounts of how striatal dopamine depletion might lead to impaired dual tasking in patients with Parkinson's disease. First, the loss of segregation between striatal territories induced by dopamine depletion may lead to dysfunctional overlaps between the motor and cognitive processes usually implemented in parallel cortico-striatal circuits...
March 17, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335021/mri-visible-perivascular-space-location-is-associated-with-alzheimer-s-disease-independently-of-amyloid-burden
#7
Gargi Banerjee, Hee Jin Kim, Zoe Fox, H Rolf Jäger, Duncan Wilson, Andreas Charidimou, Han Kyu Na, Duk L Na, Sang Won Seo, David J Werring
Perivascular spaces that are visible on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are a neuroimaging marker of cerebral small vessel disease. Their location may relate to the type of underlying small vessel pathology: those in the white matter centrum semi-ovale have been associated with cerebral amyloid angiopathy, while those in the basal ganglia have been associated with deep perforating artery arteriolosclerosis. As cerebral amyloid angiopathy is an almost invariable pathological finding in Alzheimer's disease, we hypothesized that MRI-visible perivascular spaces in the centrum semi-ovale would be associated with a clinical diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease, whereas those in the basal ganglia would be associated with subcortical vascular cognitive impairment...
February 17, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334883/selective-impairment-of-hippocampus-and-posterior-hub-areas-in-alzheimer-s-disease-an-meg-based-multiplex-network-study
#8
Meichen Yu, Marjolein M A Engels, Arjan Hillebrand, Elisabeth C W van Straaten, Alida A Gouw, Charlotte Teunissen, Wiesje M van der Flier, Philip Scheltens, Cornelis J Stam
Although frequency-specific network analyses have shown that functional brain networks are altered in patients with Alzheimer's disease, the relationships between these frequency-specific network alterations remain largely unknown. Multiplex network analysis is a novel network approach to study complex systems consisting of subsystems with different types of connectivity patterns. In this study, we used magnetoencephalography to integrate five frequency-band specific brain networks in a multiplex framework...
March 16, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333235/ovarian-hormones-and-obesity
#9
Brigitte Leeners, Nori Geary, Philippe N Tobler, Lori Asarian
BACKGROUND: Obesity is caused by an imbalance between energy intake, i.e. eating and energy expenditure (EE). Severe obesity is more prevalent in women than men worldwide, and obesity pathophysiology and the resultant obesity-related disease risks differ in women and men. The underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. Pre-clinical and clinical research indicate that ovarian hormones may play a major role. OBJECTIVE AND RATIONALE: We systematically reviewed the clinical and pre-clinical literature on the effects of ovarian hormones on the physiology of adipose tissue (AT) and the regulation of AT mass by energy intake and EE...
March 2, 2017: Human Reproduction Update
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330942/primary-angiitis-of-the-central-nervous-system-magnetic-resonance-imaging-spectrum-of-parenchymal-meningeal-and-vascular-lesions-at-baseline
#10
Grégoire Boulouis, Hubert de Boysson, Mathieu Zuber, Loïc Guillevin, Eric Meary, Vincent Costalat, Christian Pagnoux, Olivier Naggara
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Primary angiitis of the central nervous system remains challenging. To report an overview and pictorial review of brain magnetic resonance imaging findings in adult primary angiitis of the central nervous system and to determine the distribution of parenchymal, meningeal, and vascular lesions in a large multicentric cohort. METHODS: Adult patients from the French COVAC cohort (Cohort of Patients With Primary Vasculitis of the Central Nervous System), with biopsy or angiographically proven primary angiitis of the central nervous system and brain magnetic resonance imaging available at the time of diagnosis were included...
March 22, 2017: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330777/altered-visual-repetition-suppression-in-fragile-x-syndrome-new-evidence-from-erps-and-oscillatory-activity
#11
Simon Rigoulot, Inga S Knoth, Marc-Philippe Lafontaine, Phetsamone Vannasing, Philippe Major, Sébastien Jacquemont, Jacques L Michaud, Karim Jerbi, Sarah Lippe
Fragile X Syndrome (FXS) is a neurodevelopmental genetic disorder associated with cognitive and behavioural deficits. In particular, neuronal habituation processes have been shown to be altered in FXS patients. Yet, while such deficits have been primarily explored using auditory stimuli, less is known in the visual modality. Here, we investigated the putative alteration of repetition suppression using faces in FXS patients compared to controls that had the same age distribution. Electroencephalographic (EEG) signals were acquired while participants were presented with 18 different faces, each repeated ten times successively...
March 19, 2017: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329855/better-cognition-in-new-birth-cohorts-of-70-year-olds-but-greater-decline-thereafter
#12
Valgeir Thorvaldsson, Peter Karlsson, Johan Skoog, Ingmar Skoog, Boo Johansson
Objectives: To evaluate birth cohort differences in level of cognition and rate of change in old age. Methods: Data were drawn from three population-based Swedish samples including age-homogenous cohorts born 1901/02, 1906/07, and 1930, and measured on the same cognitive tests at ages 70, 75, and 79 as part of the Gerontological and Geriatric Populations Studies in Gothenburg (H70). We fitted growth curve models to the data using a Bayesian framework and derived estimates and inferences from the marginal posterior distributions...
December 9, 2016: Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329842/magnetic-resonance-imaging-reveals-progressive-brain-injury-in-rats-acutely-intoxicated-with-diisopropylfluorophosphate
#13
Brad A Hobson, Sílvia Sisó, Douglas J Rowland, Danielle J Harvey, Donald A Bruun, Joel R Garbow, Pamela J Lein
Acute intoxication with organophosphates (OPs) can trigger seizures that progress to status epilepticus, and survivors often exhibit chronic neuropathology, cognitive impairment, affective disorders and/or electroencephalographic abnormalities. Understanding how acute injury transitions to persistent neurological sequelae is critical to developing medical countermeasures for mitigating damage following OP-induced seizures. Here, we used in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to monitor the spatiotemporal patterns of neuropathology for one month after acute intoxication with diisopropylfluorophosphate (DFP)...
March 7, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329805/cognitive-function-in-low-income-and-low-literacy-settings-validation-of-the-tablet-based-oxford-cognitive-screen-in-the-health-and-aging-in-africa-a-longitudinal-study-of-an-indepth-community-in-south-africa-haalsi
#14
Glyn W Humphreys, Mihaela D Duta, Livia Montana, Nele Demeyere, Cathal McCrory, Julia Rohr, Kathleen Kahn, Stephen Tollman, Lisa Berkman
Objectives: 1. Assess validity of the Oxford Cognitive Screen (OCS-Plus), a domain-specific cognitive assessment designed for low-literacy settings, especially in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC); 2. Advance theoretical contributions in cognitive neuroscience in domain-specific cognitive function and cognitive reserve, especially related to dementia. Method: In a cross-sectional study of a sample of 1,402 men and women aged 40-79 in the Health and Aging in Africa: A Longitudinal Study of an INDEPTH Community in South Africa (HAALSI), we administered OCS-Plus along with health and sociodemographic assessments...
October 21, 2016: Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326820/patterns-of-everyday-technology-use-and-activity-involvement-in-mild-cognitive-impairment-a-five-year-follow-up-study
#15
Annicka Hedman, Anders Kottorp, Louise Nygård
OBJECTIVES: The aims were to describe longitudinal patterns in terms of perceived ability to use everyday technology (ET) and involvement in everyday activities over five years in older adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and to examine the predictive value of these patterns regarding diagnostic outcomes. METHOD: Thirty older adults diagnosed with MCI at inclusion, reported their perceived ability in using ET and involvement in everyday activities on seven occasions over five years...
March 22, 2017: Aging & Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323583/pilots-attention-distributions-between-chasing-a-moving-target-and-a-stationary-target
#16
Wen-Chin Li, Chung-San Yu, Graham Braithwaite, Matthew Greaves
INTRODUCTION: Attention plays a central role in cognitive processing; ineffective attention may induce accidents in flight operations. The objective of the current research was to examine military pilots' attention distributions between chasing a moving target and a stationary target. METHOD: In the current research, 37 mission-ready F-16 pilots participated. Subjects' eye movements were collected by a portable head-mounted eye-tracker during tactical training in a flight simulator...
December 1, 2016: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322476/optimizing-exposure-based-cbt-for-anxiety-disorders-via-enhanced-extinction-design-and-methods-of-a-multicentre-randomized-clinical-trial
#17
Ingmar Heinig, Andre Pittig, Jan Richter, Katrin Hummel, Isabel Alt, Kristina Dickhöver, Jennifer Gamer, Maike Hollandt, Katja Koelkebeck, Anne Maenz, Sophia Tennie, Christina Totzeck, Yunbo Yang, Volker Arolt, Jürgen Deckert, Katharina Domschke, Thomas Fydrich, Alfons Hamm, Jürgen Hoyer, Tilo Kircher, Ulrike Lueken, Jürgen Margraf, Peter Neudeck, Paul Pauli, Winfried Rief, Silvia Schneider, Benjamin Straube, Andreas Ströhle, Hans-Ulrich Wittchen
Exposure-based psychological interventions currently represent the empirically best established first line form of cognitive-behavioural therapy for all types of anxiety disorders. Although shown to be highly effective in both randomized clinical and other studies, there are important deficits: (1) the core mechanisms of action are still under debate, (2) it is not known whether such treatments work equally well in all forms of anxiety disorders, including comorbid diagnoses like depression, (3) it is not known whether an intensified treatment with more frequent sessions in a shorter period of time provides better outcome than distributed sessions over longer time intervals...
March 21, 2017: International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320132/early-markers-of-kidney-dysfunction-and-cognitive-impairment-among-older-adults
#18
Yudan Wei, Yinan Kevin Wei, Jianmin Zhu
BACKGROUND: Age-related decline in kidney function can be an important risk factor for cognitive impairment in older adults. In this study, we examined several kidney function measures for the association with cognitive function in older adults in hope to identify early and sensitive markers that can be used for the detection or screening for cognitive impairment. METHODS: A total of 1982 older participants (aged ≥60years) in the 1999-2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey was analyzed for the association between kidney function and cognitive impairment using multivariate logistic regression and general linear models...
April 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319238/behavioral-and-neural-constraints-on-hierarchical-representations
#19
Odelia Schwartz, Luis Gonzalo Sanchez Giraldo
Central to behavior and cognition is the way that sensory stimuli are represented in neural systems. The distributions over such stimuli enjoy rich structure; however, how the brain captures and exploits these regularities is unclear. Here, we consider different sources of perhaps the most prevalent form of structure, namely hierarchies, in one of its most prevalent cases, namely the representation of images. We review experimental approaches across a range of subfields, spanning inference, memory recall, and visual adaptation, to investigate how these constrain hierarchical representations...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318984/safety-and-efficacy-of-thrombectomy-in-acute-ischaemic-stroke-revascat-1-year-follow-up-of-a-randomised-open-label-trial
#20
Antoni Dávalos, Erik Cobo, Carlos A Molina, Angel Chamorro, M Angeles de Miquel, Luis San Román, Joaquín Serena, Elena López-Cancio, Marc Ribó, Mónica Millán, Xabier Urra, Pere Cardona, Alejandro Tomasello, Carlos Castaño, Jordi Blasco, Lucía Aja, Marta Rubiera, Meritxell Gomis, Arturo Renú, Blanca Lara, Joan Martí-Fàbregas, Brian Jankowitz, Neus Cerdà, Tudor G Jovin
BACKGROUND: The REVASCAT trial and other studies have shown that the neurovascular thrombectomy improves outcomes at 90 days post stroke. However, whether the observed benefit is sustained in the long term remains unknown. We report the results of the prespecified 12-month analysis of the REVASCAT trial. METHODS: Patients with acute ischaemic stroke who could be treated within 8 h of symptom onset were randomly assigned to medical therapy (including intravenous alteplase when eligible) and neurovascular thrombectomy with Solitaire FR or medical therapy alone...
March 16, 2017: Lancet Neurology
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