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Cognitive neurodynamics

Ronald H Stevens, Trysha L Galloway
When performing a task it is important for teams to optimize their strategies and actions to maximize value and avoid the cost of surprise. The decisions teams make sometimes have unintended consequences and they must then reorganize their thinking, roles and/or configuration into corrective structures more appropriate for the situation. In this study we ask: What are the neurodynamic properties of these reorganizations and how do they relate to the moment-by-moment, and longer, performance-outcomes of teams?...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
Anna Fedor, István Zachar, András Szilágyi, Michael Öllinger, Harold P de Vladar, Eörs Szathmáry
In this paper, we show that a neurally implemented a cognitive architecture with evolutionary dynamics can solve the four-tree problem. Our model, called Darwinian Neurodynamics, assumes that the unconscious mechanism of problem solving during insight tasks is a Darwinian process. It is based on the evolution of patterns that represent candidate solutions to a problem, and are stored and reproduced by a population of attractor networks. In our first experiment, we used human data as a benchmark and showed that the model behaves comparably to humans: it shows an improvement in performance if it is pretrained and primed appropriately, just like human participants in Kershaw et al...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
Frank Pasemann
In the context of the dynamical system approach to cognition and supposing that brains or brain-like systems controlling the behavior of autonomous systems are permanently driven by their sensor signals, the paper approaches the question of neurodynamics in the sensorimotor loop in a purely formal way. This is carefully done by addressing the problem in three steps, using the time-discrete dynamics of standard neural networks and a fiber space representation for better clearness. Furthermore, concepts like meta-transients, parametric stability and dynamical forms are introduced, where meta-transients describe the effect of realistic sensor inputs, parametric stability refers to a class of sensor inputs all generating the "same type" of dynamic behavior, and a dynamical form comprises the corresponding class of parametrized dynamical systems...
2017: Frontiers in Neurorobotics
S Raghu, N Sriraam, G Pradeep Kumar
Electroencephalogram shortly termed as EEG is considered as the fundamental segment for the assessment of the neural activities in the brain. In cognitive neuroscience domain, EEG-based assessment method is found to be superior due to its non-invasive ability to detect deep brain structure while exhibiting superior spatial resolutions. Especially for studying the neurodynamic behavior of epileptic seizures, EEG recordings reflect the neuronal activity of the brain and thus provide required clinical diagnostic information for the neurologist...
February 2017: Cognitive Neurodynamics
Kimberly L Meidenbauer, Jason M Cowell, Melanie Killen, Jean Decety
Distinguishing between equity and equality is essential when making social and moral decisions, yet the related neurodevelopmental processes are unknown. Evaluations of contextually based third-party distributions incorporating recipient need and resource importance were examined in children and adolescents (N = 82; 8-16 years). Spatiotemporal neurodynamic responses show distinct developmental profiles to viewing such distributions. Event-related potentials (ERPs) differentially predicted real-life behaviors based on age, where older children's (8-10 years) evaluations were related to a fairly rapid, automatic ERP component (early posterior negativity), whereas adolescent and preadolescent (11-16 years) evaluations, first-person allocations, and prosocial behaviors were predicted by later, cognitively controlled ERP components (P3 and late positive potential)...
December 16, 2016: Child Development
Robert Kozma
Walter J. Freeman was a giant of the field of neuroscience whose visionary work contributed various experimental and theoretical breakthroughs to brain research in the past 60 years. He has pioneered a number of Electroencephalogram and Electrocorticogram tools and approaches that shaped the field, while "Freeman Neurodynamics" is a theoretical concept that is widely known, used, and respected among neuroscientists all over the world. His recent death is a profound loss to neuroscience and biomedical engineering...
December 2016: Cognitive Neurodynamics
Ailong Wu, Ling Liu, Tingwen Huang, Zhigang Zeng
Neurodynamic system is an emerging research field. To understand the essential motivational representations of neural activity, neurodynamics is an important question in cognitive system research. This paper is to investigate Mittag-Leffler stability of a class of fractional-order neural networks in the presence of generalized piecewise constant arguments. To identify neural types of computational principles in mathematical and computational analysis, the existence and uniqueness of the solution of neurodynamic system is the first prerequisite...
January 2017: Neural Networks: the Official Journal of the International Neural Network Society
Sung Kwang Hong, Sejik Park, Min-Hee Ahn, Byoung-Kyong Min
Although a peripheral auditory (bottom-up) deficit is an essential prerequisite for the generation of tinnitus, central cognitive (top-down) impairment has also been shown to be an inherent neuropathological mechanism. Using an auditory oddball paradigm (for top-down analyses) and a passive listening paradigm (for bottom-up analyses) while recording electroencephalograms (EEGs), we investigated whether top-down or bottom-up components were more critical in the neuropathology of tinnitus, independent of peripheral hearing loss...
December 2016: Hearing Research
Stephen L Thaler
Random connection weight disturbances within an assembly of artificial neural networks (ANN) drive a progression of activation patterns that are tantamount to the memories and ideas nucleating within the brain's cortex. The numerical evaluation of these pattern-based notions by another, more placid system of ANNs governs the magnitude of weight disturbances administered to the former assembly, that perturbative intensity in turn controlling the novelty of the resulting ideational stream as well as the retention of newly formed concepts...
September 2016: Medical Hypotheses
A A Kulesh, V V Shestakov
OBJECTIVE: To present neuropsychological characteristics of post-stroke cognitive impairment (PSCI) in acute ischemic stroke (IS) and to assess the efficacy of the drug cellex. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A comprehensive neuropsychological testing battery was administered to 288 patients with acute IS. In addition to basic therapy, 30 patients received cellexin the dosage of 0.1 mg (1 ml) subcutaneously for 10 days, treatment was started in the acute phase. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Multifunctional PSCI were revealed in 87% of patients with acute IS...
2016: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
V D Tsukerman
In this review, three essentially important processes in development of cognitive behavior are considered: knowledge of a spatial environment by means of physical activity, coding and a call of an existential context of episodic memory and imitation learning based on the mirror neural mechanism. The data show that the parietal and frontal system of learning by imitation, allows the developing organism to seize skills of management and motive synergies in perisomatic space, to understand intentions and the purposes of observed actions of other individuals...
March 2016: Biofizika
Kai Hwang, Avniel S Ghuman, Dara S Manoach, Stephanie R Jones, Beatriz Luna
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies suggest that age-related changes in the frontal cortex may underlie developmental improvements in cognitive control. In the present study we used magnetoencephalography (MEG) to identify frontal oscillatory neurodynamics that support age-related improvements in cognitive control during adolescence. We characterized the differences in neural oscillations in adolescents and adults during the preparation to suppress a prepotent saccade (antisaccade trials-AS) compared to preparing to generate a more automatic saccade (prosaccade trials-PS)...
August 1, 2016: NeuroImage
M S Golovin, N V Balioz, R I Aizman, S G Krivoschekov
We studied the psychophysiological status (cognitive, psychoemotional and neurodynamic parameters), the power spectrum of EEG and heart rate variability of 18-23-year-old athletes, before and after a course of audiovisual stimulation (AVS) (experimental group) in comparison with sportsmen who did not receive AVS (control group). It was shown that a course of AVS (experimental group) has positive effect on psycho-emotional parameters (the levels of anxiety and neuroticism decreased; motivation to make progress and the level of hardiness increased), cognitive and neurodynamic parameters (the capacity of mechanical memory, the speed of attention switching and of a simple sensor-motor response increase; the range of fluctuation of reactions to a moving object is reduced)...
September 2015: Fiziologiia Cheloveka
Giuseppe De Benedittis
Hypnosis has been an elusive concept for science for a long time. However, the explosive advances in neuroscience in the last few decades have provided a "bridge of understanding" between classical neurophysiological studies and psychophysiological studies. These studies have shed new light on the neural basis of the hypnotic experience. Furthermore, an ambitious new area of research is focusing on mapping the core processes of psychotherapy and the neurobiology/underlying them. Hypnosis research offers powerful techniques to isolate psychological processes in ways that allow their neural bases to be mapped...
December 2015: Journal of Physiology, Paris
Azadeh Hassannejad Nazir, Hans Liljenström
Decision making (DM)(2) is a complex process that appears to involve several brain structures. In particular, amygdala, orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC) seem to be essential in human decision making, where both emotional and cognitive aspects are taken into account. In this paper, we present a computational network model representing the neural information processing of DM, from perception to behavior. We model the population dynamics of the three neural structures (amygdala, OFC and LPFC), as well as their interaction...
October 2015: Bio Systems
Christopher C Lapish, Emili Balaguer-Ballester, Jeremy K Seamans, Anthony G Phillips, Daniel Durstewitz
Modulation of neural activity by monoamine neurotransmitters is thought to play an essential role in shaping computational neurodynamics in the neocortex, especially in prefrontal regions. Computational theories propose that monoamines may exert bidirectional (concentration-dependent) effects on cognition by altering prefrontal cortical attractor dynamics according to an inverted U-shaped function. To date, this hypothesis has not been addressed directly, in part because of the absence of appropriate statistical methods required to assess attractor-like behavior in vivo...
July 15, 2015: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Ziqiang Wei, Xiao-Jing Wang
Evaluation of confidence about one's knowledge is key to the brain's ability to monitor cognition. To investigate the neural mechanism of confidence assessment, we examined a biologically realistic spiking network model and found that it reproduced salient behavioral observations and single-neuron activity data from a monkey experiment designed to study confidence about a decision under uncertainty. Interestingly, the model predicts that changes of mind can occur in a mnemonic delay when confidence is low; the probability of changes of mind increases (decreases) with task difficulty in correct (error) trials...
July 2015: Journal of Neurophysiology
Jean Decety, Kimberly L Lewis, Jason M Cowell
Empathic impairment is one of the hallmarks of psychopathy, a personality dimension associated with poverty in affective reactions, lack of attachment to others, and a callous disregard for the feelings, rights, and welfare of others. Neuroscience research on the relation between empathy and psychopathy has predominately focused on the affective sharing and cognitive components of empathy in forensic populations, and much less on empathic concern. The current study used high-density electroencephalography in a community sample to examine the spatiotemporal neurodynamic responses when viewing people in physical distress under two subjective contexts: one evoking affective sharing, the other, empathic concern...
July 2015: Journal of Neurophysiology
О А Trubnikova, A S Mamontova, I V Tarasova, O V Maleva, A A Kuzmina, O L Barbarash
UNLABELLED: AIM. To comparatively analyze neuropsychological parameters in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) depending on the presence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) and to evaluate their relationship to carbohydrate and lipid metabolic parameters. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Fifty-two male patients with type 2 DM (mean age 58.0 ± 5.7 years) and 46 male patients without this condition (mean age 57.1 ± 6.2 years) were examined. Besides standard clinical examination, neurophysiological testing and determinations of glycated hemoglobin (HbA(1c),) and insulin concentrations, QUICKI index, and blood lipid profile were made...
2015: Terapevticheskiĭ Arkhiv
Miguel Aguilera, Xabier E Barandiaran, Manuel G Bedia, Francisco Seron
During the last two decades, analysis of 1/ƒ noise in cognitive science has led to a considerable progress in the way we understand the organization of our mental life. However, there is still a lack of specific models providing explanations of how 1/ƒ noise is generated in coupled brain-body-environment systems, since existing models and experiments typically target either externally observable behaviour or isolated neuronal systems but do not address the interplay between neuronal mechanisms and sensorimotor dynamics...
2015: PloS One
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