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Cognitive neurodynamics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891195/reflections-on-a-giant-of-brain-science-how-lucky-we-are-having-walter-j-freeman-as-our-beacon-in-cognitive-neurodynamics-research
#1
REVIEW
Robert Kozma
Walter J. Freeman was a giant of the field of neuroscience whose visionary work contributed various experimental and theoretical breakthroughs to brain research in the past 60 years. He has pioneered a number of Electroencephalogram and Electrocorticogram tools and approaches that shaped the field, while "Freeman Neurodynamics" is a theoretical concept that is widely known, used, and respected among neuroscientists all over the world. His recent death is a profound loss to neuroscience and biomedical engineering...
December 2016: Cognitive Neurodynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814463/mittag-leffler-stability-of-fractional-order-neural-networks-in-the-presence-of-generalized-piecewise-constant-arguments
#2
Ailong Wu, Ling Liu, Tingwen Huang, Zhigang Zeng
Neurodynamic system is an emerging research field. To understand the essential motivational representations of neural activity, neurodynamics is an important question in cognitive system research. This paper is to investigate Mittag-Leffler stability of a class of fractional-order neural networks in the presence of generalized piecewise constant arguments. To identify neural types of computational principles in mathematical and computational analysis, the existence and uniqueness of the solution of neurodynamic system is the first prerequisite...
October 14, 2016: Neural Networks: the Official Journal of the International Neural Network Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27725178/top-down-and-bottom-up-neurodynamic-evidence-in-patients-with-tinnitus
#3
Sung Kwang Hong, Sejik Park, Min-Hee Ahn, Byoung-Kyong Min
Although a peripheral auditory (bottom-up) deficit is an essential prerequisite for the generation of tinnitus, central cognitive (top-down) impairment has also been shown to be an inherent neuropathological mechanism. Using an auditory oddball paradigm (for top-down analyses) and a passive listening paradigm (for bottom-up analyses) while recording electroencephalograms (EEGs), we investigated whether top-down or bottom-up components were more critical in the neuropathology of tinnitus, independent of peripheral hearing loss...
October 8, 2016: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27515220/cycles-of-insanity-and-creativity-within-contemplative-neural-systems
#4
Stephen L Thaler
Random connection weight disturbances within an assembly of artificial neural networks (ANN) drive a progression of activation patterns that are tantamount to the memories and ideas nucleating within the brain's cortex. The numerical evaluation of these pattern-based notions by another, more placid system of ANNs governs the magnitude of weight disturbances administered to the former assembly, that perturbative intensity in turn controlling the novelty of the resulting ideational stream as well as the retention of newly formed concepts...
September 2016: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27240179/-post-stroke-cognitive-impairment-and-the-possibility-of-treatment-with-cellex
#5
A A Kulesh, V V Shestakov
OBJECTIVE: To present neuropsychological characteristics of post-stroke cognitive impairment (PSCI) in acute ischemic stroke (IS) and to assess the efficacy of the drug cellex. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A comprehensive neuropsychological testing battery was administered to 288 patients with acute IS. In addition to basic therapy, 30 patients received cellexin the dosage of 0.1 mg (1 ml) subcutaneously for 10 days, treatment was started in the acute phase. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Multifunctional PSCI were revealed in 87% of patients with acute IS...
2016: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27192841/-neurodynamic-bases-of-imitation-learning-and-episodic-memory
#6
REVIEW
V D Tsukerman
In this review, three essentially important processes in development of cognitive behavior are considered: knowledge of a spatial environment by means of physical activity, coding and a call of an existential context of episodic memory and imitation learning based on the mirror neural mechanism. The data show that the parietal and frontal system of learning by imitation, allows the developing organism to seize skills of management and motive synergies in perisomatic space, to understand intentions and the purposes of observed actions of other individuals...
March 2016: Biofizika
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27173759/frontal-preparatory-neural-oscillations-associated-with-cognitive-control-a-developmental-study-comparing-young-adults-and-adolescents
#7
Kai Hwang, Avniel S Ghuman, Dara S Manoach, Stephanie R Jones, Beatriz Luna
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies suggest that age-related changes in the frontal cortex may underlie developmental improvements in cognitive control. In the present study we used magnetoencephalography (MEG) to identify frontal oscillatory neurodynamics that support age-related improvements in cognitive control during adolescence. We characterized the differences in neural oscillations in adolescents and adults during the preparation to suppress a prepotent saccade (antisaccade trials-AS) compared to preparing to generate a more automatic saccade (prosaccade trials-PS)...
August 1, 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26601412/-the-effect-of-audiovisual-stimulation-on-psychological-and-physiological-functions-in-athletes
#8
COMPARATIVE STUDY
M S Golovin, N V Balioz, R I Aizman, S G Krivoschekov
We studied the psychophysiological status (cognitive, psychoemotional and neurodynamic parameters), the power spectrum of EEG and heart rate variability of 18-23-year-old athletes, before and after a course of audiovisual stimulation (AVS) (experimental group) in comparison with sportsmen who did not receive AVS (control group). It was shown that a course of AVS (experimental group) has positive effect on psycho-emotional parameters (the levels of anxiety and neuroticism decreased; motivation to make progress and the level of hardiness increased), cognitive and neurodynamic parameters (the capacity of mechanical memory, the speed of attention switching and of a simple sensor-motor response increase; the range of fluctuation of reactions to a moving object is reduced)...
September 2015: Fiziologiia Cheloveka
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26554845/neural-mechanisms-of-hypnosis-and-meditation
#9
Giuseppe De Benedittis
Hypnosis has been an elusive concept for science for a long time. However, the explosive advances in neuroscience in the last few decades have provided a "bridge of understanding" between classical neurophysiological studies and psychophysiological studies. These studies have shed new light on the neural basis of the hypnotic experience. Furthermore, an ambitious new area of research is focusing on mapping the core processes of psychotherapy and the neurobiology/underlying them. Hypnosis research offers powerful techniques to isolate psychological processes in ways that allow their neural bases to be mapped...
November 10, 2015: Journal of Physiology, Paris
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26184761/a-cortical-network-model-of-cognitive-and-emotional-influences-in-human-decision-making
#10
Azadeh Hassannejad Nazir, Hans Liljenström
Decision making (DM)(2) is a complex process that appears to involve several brain structures. In particular, amygdala, orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC) seem to be essential in human decision making, where both emotional and cognitive aspects are taken into account. In this paper, we present a computational network model representing the neural information processing of DM, from perception to behavior. We model the population dynamics of the three neural structures (amygdala, OFC and LPFC), as well as their interaction...
October 2015: Bio Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26180194/amphetamine-exerts-dose-dependent-changes-in-prefrontal-cortex-attractor-dynamics-during-working-memory
#11
Christopher C Lapish, Emili Balaguer-Ballester, Jeremy K Seamans, Anthony G Phillips, Daniel Durstewitz
Modulation of neural activity by monoamine neurotransmitters is thought to play an essential role in shaping computational neurodynamics in the neocortex, especially in prefrontal regions. Computational theories propose that monoamines may exert bidirectional (concentration-dependent) effects on cognition by altering prefrontal cortical attractor dynamics according to an inverted U-shaped function. To date, this hypothesis has not been addressed directly, in part because of the absence of appropriate statistical methods required to assess attractor-like behavior in vivo...
July 15, 2015: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25948870/confidence-estimation-as-a-stochastic-process-in-a-neurodynamical-system-of-decision-making
#12
Ziqiang Wei, Xiao-Jing Wang
Evaluation of confidence about one's knowledge is key to the brain's ability to monitor cognition. To investigate the neural mechanism of confidence assessment, we examined a biologically realistic spiking network model and found that it reproduced salient behavioral observations and single-neuron activity data from a monkey experiment designed to study confidence about a decision under uncertainty. Interestingly, the model predicts that changes of mind can occur in a mnemonic delay when confidence is low; the probability of changes of mind increases (decreases) with task difficulty in correct (error) trials...
July 2015: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25948868/specific-electrophysiological-components-disentangle-affective-sharing-and-empathic-concern-in-psychopathy
#13
Jean Decety, Kimberly L Lewis, Jason M Cowell
Empathic impairment is one of the hallmarks of psychopathy, a personality dimension associated with poverty in affective reactions, lack of attachment to others, and a callous disregard for the feelings, rights, and welfare of others. Neuroscience research on the relation between empathy and psychopathy has predominately focused on the affective sharing and cognitive components of empathy in forensic populations, and much less on empathic concern. The current study used high-density electroencephalography in a community sample to examine the spatiotemporal neurodynamic responses when viewing people in physical distress under two subjective contexts: one evoking affective sharing, the other, empathic concern...
July 2015: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25823272/-association-of-cognitive-impairments-with-carbohydrate-and-lipid-metabolic-parameters-in-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-patients-undergoing-coronary-bypass-surgery
#14
COMPARATIVE STUDY
O A Trubnikova, A S Mamontova, I V Tarasova, O V Maleva, A A Kuz'mina, O L Barbarash
UNLABELLED: AIM. To comparatively analyze neuropsychological parameters in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) depending on the presence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) and to evaluate their relationship to carbohydrate and lipid metabolic parameters. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Fifty-two male patients with type 2 DM (mean age 58.0 ± 5.7 years) and 46 male patients without this condition (mean age 57.1 ± 6.2 years) were examined. Besides standard clinical examination, neurophysiological testing and determinations of glycated hemoglobin (HbA(1c),) and insulin concentrations, QUICKI index, and blood lipid profile were made...
2015: Terapevticheskiĭ Arkhiv
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25706744/self-organized-criticality-plasticity-and-sensorimotor-coupling-explorations-with-a-neurorobotic-model-in-a-behavioural-preference-task
#15
Miguel Aguilera, Xabier E Barandiaran, Manuel G Bedia, Francisco Seron
During the last two decades, analysis of 1/ƒ noise in cognitive science has led to a considerable progress in the way we understand the organization of our mental life. However, there is still a lack of specific models providing explanations of how 1/ƒ noise is generated in coupled brain-body-environment systems, since existing models and experiments typically target either externally observable behaviour or isolated neuronal systems but do not address the interplay between neuronal mechanisms and sensorimotor dynamics...
2015: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25536108/stochastic-cortical-neurodynamics-underlying-the-memory-and-cognitive-changes-in-aging
#16
Edmund T Rolls, Gustavo Deco
The relatively random spiking times of individual neurons provide a source of noise in the brain. We show how this noise interacting with altered depth in the basins of attraction of networks involved in short-term memory, attention, and episodic memory provide an approach to understanding some of the cognitive changes in normal aging. The effects of the neurobiological changes in aging that are considered include reduced synaptic modification and maintenance during learning produced in part through reduced acetylcholine in normal aging, reduced dopamine which reduces NMDA-receptor mediated effects, reduced noradrenaline which increases cAMP and thus shunts excitatory synaptic inputs, and the effects of a reduction in acetylcholine in increasing spike frequency adaptation...
February 2015: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25532892/the-neuroscience-of-implicit-moral-evaluation-and-its-relation-to-generosity-in-early-childhood
#17
Jason M Cowell, Jean Decety
Despite cultural and individual variation, humans are a judgmental bunch. There is accumulating evidence for early social and moral evaluation as shown by research with infants and children documenting the notion that some behaviors are perceived as right and others are perceived as wrong. Moreover, social interactions are governed by a concern for fairness and others' well-being. However, although generosity increases between infancy and late childhood, it is less clear what mechanisms guide this change. Early predispositions toward prosociality are thought to arise in concert with the social and cultural environment, developing into adult morality, a complex incorporation of emotional, motivational, and cognitive processes...
January 5, 2015: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25358705/neurocomputational-models-of-time-perception
#18
REVIEW
Joachim Hass, Daniel Durstewitz
Mathematical modeling is a useful tool for understanding the neurodynamical and computational mechanisms of cognitive abilities like time perception, and for linking neurophysiology to psychology. In this chapter, we discuss several biophysical models of time perception and how they can be tested against experimental evidence. After a brief overview on the history of computational timing models, we list a number of central psychological and physiological findings that such a model should be able to account for, with a focus on the scaling of the variability of duration estimates with the length of the interval that needs to be estimated...
2014: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25346675/putting-reins-on-the-brain-how-the-body-and-environment-use-it
#19
Dobromir G Dotov
Radical embodied cognitive neuroscience (RECN) will probably rely on dynamical systems theory (DST) and complex systems theory for methods and formalism. Yet, there have been plenty of non-radical neurodynamicists out there for quite some time. How much of their work fits with radical embodied cognitive science, what do they need RECN for, and what are the inconsistencies between RECN and established neurodynamics that would have to be resolved? This paper is both theoretical hypothesis and review. First, it provides a brief overview of the typical, purely structural considerations why the central nervous systems (CNS) should be treated as a nonlinear dynamical system and what this entails...
2014: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25241212/role-of-cortical-neurodynamics-for-understanding-the-neural-basis-of-motivated-behavior-lessons-from-auditory-category-learning
#20
REVIEW
Frank W Ohl
Rhythmic activity appears in the auditory cortex in both microscopic and macroscopic observables and is modulated by both bottom-up and top-down processes. How this activity serves both types of processes is largely unknown. Here we review studies that have recently improved our understanding of potential functional roles of large-scale global dynamic activity patterns in auditory cortex. The experimental paradigm of auditory category learning allowed critical testing of the hypothesis that global auditory cortical activity states are associated with endogenous cognitive states mediating the meaning associated with an acoustic stimulus rather than with activity states that merely represent the stimulus for further processing...
April 2015: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
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