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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649430/predicting-growth-of-the-healthy-infant-using-a-genome-scale-metabolic-model
#1
Avlant Nilsson, Adil Mardinoglu, Jens Nielsen
An estimated 165 million children globally have stunted growth, and extensive growth data are available. Genome scale metabolic models allow the simulation of molecular flux over each metabolic enzyme, and are well adapted to analyze biological systems. We used a human genome scale metabolic model to simulate the mechanisms of growth and integrate data about breast-milk intake and composition with the infant's biomass and energy expenditure of major organs. The model predicted daily metabolic fluxes from birth to age 6 months, and accurately reproduced standard growth curves and changes in body composition...
2017: NPJ Systems Biology and Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647296/multiple-stressors-including-contaminant-exposure-and-parasite-infection-predict-spleen-mass-and-energy-expenditure-in-breeding-ring-billed-gulls
#2
Sarah C Marteinson, David J Marcogliese, Jonathan Verreault
Daily energy expenditure (DEE) in animals is influenced by many factors although the impact of stressors remains largely unknown. The objective of this study was to determine how multiple physiological stressors (parasite infection and contaminant exposure) and natural challenges (energy-demanding activities and weather conditions) may affect DEE in nesting ring-billed gulls (Larus delawarensis) exposed to high concentrations of persistent organic contaminants (POPs). Physical activity, temperature, gastrointestinal parasitic worm abundance, relative spleen mass, plasma thyroid hormone levels and liver concentrations of POPs were determined; field metabolic rate (FMR) was used as a measure of DEE...
June 21, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645653/catalase-overexpression-modulates-metabolic-parameters-in-a-new-stress-less-leptin-deficient-mouse-model
#3
Deborah L Amos, Tanner Robinson, Melissa B Massie, Carla Cook, Alexis Hoffsted, Courtney Crain, Nalini Santanam
Oxidative stress plays a key role in obesity by modifying the function of important biological molecules, thus altering obesogenic pathways such as glucose and lipid signaling. Catalase, is an important endogenous antioxidant enzyme that catabolizes hydrogen peroxide produced by the dismutation of superoxide. Recent studies have shown knockdown of catalase exacerbates insulin resistance and leads to obesity. We hypothesized that overexpressing catalase in an obese mouse will modulate obesogenic pathways and protect against obesity...
June 20, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645541/comparison-of-the-effect-by-which-gastric-plication-and-sleeve-gastrectomy-procedures-alter-metabolic-and-physical-parameters-in-an-obese-type-2-diabetes-rodent-model
#4
Min Ye, Renhong Huang, Zhijun Min, Peng Zhang, Tingfeng Wang, Bo Yu
BACKGROUND: Gastric plication (GP) and sleeve gastrectomy (SG) are 2 restrictive bariatric surgeries that are associated with weight loss and health improvement in patients with obesity. However, differences in how these procedures exert their effects have not been systematically evaluated and compared between techniques. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effectiveness of GP and SG surgeries for obese patients with type 2 diabetes based on evaluation of energy metabolism, hormone metabolism, and gastrointestinal dynamics...
May 11, 2017: Surgery for Obesity and related Diseases: Official Journal of the American Society for Bariatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642810/association-of-the-composite-inflammatory-biomarker-glyca-with-exercise-induced-changes-in-body-habitus-in-men-and-women-with-prediabetes
#5
David B Bartlett, Cris A Slentz, Margery A Connelly, Lucy W Piner, Leslie H Willis, Lori A Bateman, Esther O Granville, Connie W Bales, Kim M Huffman, William E Kraus
GlycA is a new composite measure of systemic inflammation and a predictor of many inflammatory diseases. GlycA is the nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy-derived signal arising from glucosamine residues on acute-phase proteins. This study aimed to evaluate how exercise-based lifestyle interventions modulate GlycA in persons at risk for type 2 diabetes. GlycA, fitness, and body habitus were measured in 169 sedentary adults (45-75 years) with prediabetes randomly assigned to one of four six-month exercise-based lifestyle interventions...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640866/diet-induced-adipose-tissue-expansion-is-mitigated-in-mice-with-a-targeted-inactivation-of-mesoderm-specific-transcript-mest
#6
Rea P Anunciado-Koza, Justin Manuel, Randall L Mynatt, Jingying Zhang, Leslie P Kozak, Robert A Koza
Interindividual variation of white adipose tissue (WAT) expression of mesoderm specific transcript (Mest), a paternally-expressed imprinted gene belonging to the α/β-hydrolase fold protein family, becomes apparent among genetically inbred mice fed high fat diet (HFD) and is positively associated with adipose tissue expansion (ATE). To elucidate a role for MEST in ATE, mice were developed with global and adipose tissue inactivation of Mest. Mice with homozygous (MestgKO) and paternal allelic (MestpKO) inactivation of Mest were born at expected Mendelian frequencies, showed no behavioral or physical abnormalities, and did not perturb expression of the Mest locus-derived microRNA miR-335...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640060/individualized-estimation-of-physical-activity-in-older-adults-with-type-2-diabetes
#7
Whitney A Welch, Neil Alexander, Ann M Swartz, Nora E Miller, Erica Twardzik, Scott J Strath
PURPOSE: Compare physical activity intensity in older adults with T2DM using individualized, relative cutpoints with standard, absolute cutpoints. METHODS: One hundred older adults with T2DM (68.9±5.1y, 65% male, 32.7±6.3 kgm, 7.2±1.1% HbA1c) completed a two-speed walking protocol (varying, walking between 1-2.5 mph), followed by a modified Bruce peak exercise test. Participants wore an accelerometer-based physical activity monitor at their waist and oxygen consumption was measured...
June 21, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638944/the-effect-of-fight-cost-structure-on-fighting-behaviour-involving-simultaneous-decisions-and-variable-investment-levels
#8
Mark Broom, Michal Johanis, Jan Rychtář
In the "producer-scrounger" model, a producer discovers a resource and is in turn discovered by a second individual, the scrounger, who attempts to steal it. This resource can be food or a territory, and in some situations, potentially divisible. In a previous paper we considered a producer and scrounger competing for an indivisible resource, where each individual could choose the level of energy that they would invest in the contest. The higher the investment, the higher the probability of success, but also the higher the costs incurred in the contest...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Mathematical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637444/a-comparison-of-nutritional-intake-and-daily-physical-activity-of-girls-aged-8-11%C3%A2-years-old-in-makkah-saudi-arabia-according-to-weight-status
#9
Rabab Al-Kutbe, Anne Payne, Anne de Looy, Gail A Rees
BACKGROUND: Obesity rates in Saudi Arabia are amongst the highest in the world. It is known that teenage girls are less active than teenage boys, but less is known about the diet and activity patterns in younger girls. Therefore this study sought to investigate dietary intake and daily physical activity in girls aged 8-11 years old in Saudi Arabia. METHODS: This was a cross- sectional observational study conducted in seven schools across the city of Makkah. A total of 266 girls had anthropometric measurements taken including height, weight, waist circumference and body fat estimations...
June 21, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632997/epidemiology-of-obesity-and-pharmacologic-treatment-options
#10
Vignesh Shettar, Sarang Patel, Srividya Kidambi
Prevalence of obesity and its related morbidity have increased to alarming levels in adults and children in the United States and globally. Weight loss results in improvement of much of the obesity-related morbidity. Lifestyle changes such as dietary modifications, increased physical activity, and behavioral therapy form the crux of weight management. However, many individuals need additional assistance (pharmacologic or surgical) to initiate or sustain weight loss. Pharmacologic therapy consists of a number of agents that work by decreasing appetite, gastric emptying, or nutrient absorption or by increasing satiety...
June 1, 2017: Nutrition in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631933/a-salt-reduction-smartphone-app-supports-lower-salt-food-purchases-for-people-with-cardiovascular-disease-findings-from-the-saltswitch-randomised-controlled-trial
#11
Helen Eyles, Rebecca McLean, Bruce Neal, Yannan Jiang, Robert N Doughty, Rachael McLean, Cliona Ni Mhurchu
Background SaltSwitch is an innovative smartphone application (app) that enables shoppers to scan the barcode of a packaged food and receive an immediate, interpretive, traffic light nutrition label on the screen, along with suggestions for lower salt alternatives. Our aim was to determine the effectiveness of SaltSwitch to support people with cardiovascular disease to make lower salt food choices. Design Six-week, two-arm, parallel, randomised controlled trial in Auckland, New Zealand (2 weeks baseline and 4 weeks intervention)...
January 1, 2017: European Journal of Preventive Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630807/an-overview-of-food-patterns-and-diet-quality-in-qatar-findings-from-the-national-household-income-expenditure-survey
#12
Mohammed Al-Thani, Al-Anoud Al-Thani, Nasser Al-Mahdi, Hefzi Al-Kareem, Darine Barakat, Walaa Al-Chetachi, Afaf Tawfik, Hammad Akram
INTRODUCTION: Availability of accurate data pertaining to a population's dietary patterns and associated health outcomes is critical for proper development and implementation of related policies. This article is a first attempt to share the food patterns, amounts and diet quality among households (HH) in Qatar. METHODS: Data from the 2012-2013 Qatar National Household Income and Expenditure Survey (HIES) was used. This cross-sectional survey included 3723 HH (1826 Qatari HH and 1897 non-Qatari HH)...
May 15, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629513/erythropoietin-and-hypothalamic-pituitary-axis
#13
Soumyadeep Dey, Constance T Noguchi
Erythropoietin (EPO), known primarily for its erythropoietic activity, is commonly used clinically to treat anemia of chronic kidney disease. However, the expression of EPO receptor (EpoR) beyond erythroid tissue provides for potential extrahematopoietic effects of EPO, including EPO regulation of metabolic homeostasis (Zhang et al., 2014). Small clinical studies have shown that EPO treatment in patients with end-stage renal disease improved glycemic control and insulin sensitivity. Studies in animal models have shown that EPO regulation of metabolism is mainly attributed to its response in fat, and the hypothalamus-pituitary axis (Dey et al...
2017: Vitamins and Hormones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628102/regulation-of-body-weight-and-energy-homeostasis-by-neuronal-cell-adhesion-molecule-1
#14
Thomas Rathjen, Xin Yan, Natalia L Kononenko, Min-Chi Ku, Kun Song, Leiron Ferrarese, Valentina Tarallo, Dmytro Puchkov, Gaga Kochlamazashvili, Sebastian Brachs, Luis Varela, Klara Szigeti-Buck, Chun-Xia Yi, Sonja C Schriever, Sudhir Gopal Tattikota, Anne Sophie Carlo, Mirko Moroni, Jan Siemens, Arnd Heuser, Louise van der Weyden, Andreas L Birkenfeld, Thoralf Niendorf, James F A Poulet, Tamas L Horvath, Matthias H Tschöp, Matthias Heinig, Mirko Trajkovski, Volker Haucke, Matthew N Poy
Susceptibility to obesity is linked to genes regulating neurotransmission, pancreatic beta-cell function and energy homeostasis. Genome-wide association studies have identified associations between body mass index and two loci near cell adhesion molecule 1 (CADM1) and cell adhesion molecule 2 (CADM2), which encode membrane proteins that mediate synaptic assembly. We found that these respective risk variants associate with increased CADM1 and CADM2 expression in the hypothalamus of human subjects. Expression of both genes was elevated in obese mice, and induction of Cadm1 in excitatory neurons facilitated weight gain while exacerbating energy expenditure...
June 19, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627208/irisin-is-weakly-associated-with-usual-physical-activity-in-young-overweight-women
#15
Beatriz Tenorio, Teresa Jiménez, Gladys Barrera, Sandra Hirsch, Maria Pia De la Maza, Rodrigo Troncoso, María Belén Farias, Juan Manuel Rodríguez, Daniel Bunout
PURPOSE: To determine if irisin plasma levels are associated with regular physical activity, body composition and metabolic parameters in women subjected to calorie restriction. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: We studied 42 women aged 34 ± 13 years with a body mass index of 27.7 ± 1.8 kg/m2, who were subjected to a calorie restriction for three months. At baseline and at the end of the study, weight, waist and hip circumference, laboratory parameters, body composition by DEXA, resting and activity energy expenditure by indirect calorimetry and 72 hours actigraphy were measured...
June 5, 2017: Nutrición Hospitalaria: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Nutrición Parenteral y Enteral
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624805/rcan2-and-estradiol-independently-regulate-body-weight-in-female-mice
#16
Ling-Cui Ding, Qian-Qian Gong, Shi-Wei Li, Xiao-Long Fu, Ye-Cheng Jin, Jian Zhang, Jian-Gang Gao, Xiao-Yang Sun
Rcan2 increases food intake and plays an important role in the development of age- and diet- induced obesity in male mice. However, in females, wild-type mice grow almost at a similar rate as Rcan2-/- mice on normal chow diet from 6 weeks of age. Here we showed that the ability of Rcan2 to promote weight gain was attenuated by energy expenditure mediated by 17β-estradiol in female mice. Using ovariectomy-operated models, we found that 17β-estradiol deprivation did not alter food intake, but induced more weight gain in wild-type mice than Rcan2-/- mice...
May 29, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623186/assessment-of-active-video-gaming-using-adapted-controllers-by-individuals-with-physical-disabilities-a-protocol
#17
Laurie A Malone, Sangeetha Padalabalanarayanan, Justin McCroskey, Mohanraj Thirumalai
BACKGROUND: Individuals with disabilities are typically more sedentary and less fit compared to their peers without disabilities. Furthermore, engaging in physical activity can be extremely challenging due to physical impairments associated with disability and fewer opportunities to participate. One option for increasing physical activity is playing active video games (AVG), a category of video games that requires much more body movement for successful play than conventional push-button or joystick actions...
June 16, 2017: JMIR Research Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623168/access-to-nicotine-in-drinking-water-reduces-weight-gain-without-changing-caloric-intake-on-high-fat-diet-in-male-c57bl-6j-mice
#18
Cali A Calarco, Somin Lee, Marina R Picciotto
Nicotine and tobacco use is associated with lower body weight, and many smokers report concerns about weight. In animal studies, nicotine reduces weight gain, reduces food consumption, and alters energy expenditure, but these effects vary with duration and route of nicotine administration. Previous studies have used standardized nicotine doses, however, in this study, male and female mice had free access to nicotine drinking water for 30 days while fed either a high fat diet (HFD) or chow, allowing animals to titrate their nicotine intake...
June 13, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620484/the-effect-of-changing-the-moisture-levels-of-dry-extruded-and-wet-canned-diets-on-physical-activity-in-cats
#19
D G Thomas, M Post, G Bosch
Obesity levels in cats are increasing and the main causative factor is higher energy intake v. energy expenditure over time. Therefore, altering energy expenditure by enhancing physical activity of the cat could be a strategy to reduce obesity. Hydrating commercial dry diets with water increased activity in cats; however, no study has compared this approach with feeding high-moisture canned diets. Eight healthy male neutered domestic shorthair cats were fed four different dietary treatments in a Latin square design...
2017: Journal of Nutritional Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620480/reduction-of-hba1c-levels-by-fucoxanthin-enriched-akamoku-oil-possibly-involves-the-thrifty-allele-of-uncoupling-protein-1-ucp1-a-randomised-controlled-trial-in-normal-weight-and-obese-japanese-adults
#20
Nana Mikami, Masashi Hosokawa, Kazuo Miyashita, Hitoshi Sohma, Yoichi M Ito, Yasuo Kokai
Lifestyle-related problems are becoming a major health threat in East Asian countries. Therefore, finding an efficacious nutraceutical for this population is important. One candidate is fucoxanthin (Fx), a carotenoid abundantly found in edible brown seaweed that has been associated with a number of valuable health-promoting benefits. Unfortunately, clinical studies of Fx are limited. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate the effects of Fx on obesity-related parameters in Japanese subjects harbouring an SNP associated with lifestyle-related problems...
2017: Journal of Nutritional Science
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