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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791970/effect-of-high-intensity-resistance-circuit-based-training-in-hypoxia-on-aerobic-performance-and-repeat-sprint-ability
#1
Domingo J Ramos-Campo, Ismael Martínez-Guardado, Guillermo Olcina, Cristian Marín-Pagán, Francisco J Martínez-Noguera, Jorge Carlos-Vivas, Pedro E Alcaraz, Jacobo A Rubio-Arias
Recent acute studies have shown that high-intensity resistance circuit-based (HRC) training in hypoxia increases metabolic stress. However, no intervention studies have yet proven their effectiveness. This study aimed to analyse the effect of 8 weeks of HRC in hypoxia on aerobic performance, resting energy expenditure (REE), repeat sprint ability (RSA) and haematological variables. Twenty-eight subjects were assigned to hypoxia (FiO2 =15%; HRChyp : n=15; age: 24.6±6.8 years; height: 177.4±5.9 cm; weight: 74...
May 23, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791203/short-term-thermoneutral-housing-alters-glucose-metabolism-and-markers-of-adipose-tissue-browning-in-response-to-a-high-fat-diet-in-lean-mice
#2
Zachary Stephen Clayton, Carrie E McCurdy
Systemic insulin resistance and glucose intolerance occur with as little as 3 days of a high-fat diet (HFD) in mice and humans; the mechanisms that initiate acute insulin resistance are unknown. Most laboratories house mice at 22{degree sign}C, which is below their thermoneutral temperature (~30{degree sign}C). Cold stress has been shown to increase white adipose tissue (WAT) browning, alter lipid trafficking and impair immune function, while energy intake and expenditure decrease with increasing ambient temperature; importantly, dysregulation of these parameters have been strongly linked to obesity-induced insulin resistance...
May 23, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788444/norepinephrine-and-thyroxine-are-predictors-of-fat-mass-gain-in-humans-with-cold-induced-brown-adipose-tissue-activation
#3
Brittany Begaye, Paolo Piaggi, Marie S Thearle, Kaitlyn Haskie, Mary Walter, Mathias Schlögl, Susan Bonfiglio, Jonathan Krakoff, Karyne L Vinales
Context: In healthy adults with detectable cold-induced brown fat activation (CIBA), the relationships between sympathetic nervous system (SNS) or thyroid activity during energy balance (EBL) with CIBA and body composition change are undetermined. Objective: To investigate the relationships between CIBA and thermoneutral catecholamines and thyroid hormones measured during EBL and to determine if CIBA, catecholamines, or thyroid hormones predict body composition changes...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788014/persistently-increased-resting-energy-expenditure-predicts-short-term-mortality-in-patients-with-acute-on-chronic-liver-failure
#4
Jia Yao, Xiaoshuang Zhou, Hui Wang, Lili Yuan, Yu Chen, Zhongping Duan
OBJECTIVE: Hypermetabolism based on measurements of resting energy expenditure (REE) is suggested to be a potential biomarker for predicting the clinical outcomes of some diseases. We aimed to evaluate the potential value of hypermetabolism for predicting the short-term (28-day) mortality of patients with hepatitis B virus-related acute-on-chronic liver failure (HBV-ACLF). METHODS: A total of 105 HBV-ACLF patients, 30 chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients and 30 healthy controls (HCs) were included in this study...
May 22, 2018: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787724/disease-tolerance-linking-sickness-behaviours-to-metabolism-helps-mitigate-malaria
#5
Pedro F Vale
Malaria-infected mice exhibit a range of sickness behaviours, and experience metabolic shifts and physiological pathologies that result in reduced energy expenditure. Treating sick mice with glucose increases disease tolerance by improving the physiological and behavioural symptoms of malaria infection without affecting parasite loads.
May 21, 2018: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787541/validation-of-predictive-equations-to-assess-energy-expenditure-in-acute-spinal-cord-injury
#6
Christine L Ramirez, Stacy Pelekhaty, Jennifer M Massetti, Samuel Galvagno, Laura Harmon, Isadora Botwinick, Thomas M Scalea, Deborah M Stein
BACKGROUND: Acute spinal cord injury (SCI) is devastating with morbidities compounded by inadequate nutrition. The American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition recommends indirect calorimetry (IC) to evaluate energy needs in SCI because no predictive energy equations have been validated. We sought to determine the accuracy of predictive equations to predict measured energy expenditure (MEE). METHODS: A retrospective review was performed over 2 years. Patients 18 years or older with cervical SCI who received IC were included...
April 30, 2018: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784793/camp-inducible-coactivator-crtc3-attenuates-brown-adipose-tissue-thermogenesis
#7
Young-Sil Yoon, Wen-Wei Tsai, Sam Van de Velde, Zhijiang Chen, Kuo-Fen Lee, Donald A Morgan, Kamal Rahmouni, Shigenobu Matsumura, Ezra Wiater, Youngsup Song, Marc Montminy
In response to cold exposure, placental mammals maintain body temperature by increasing sympathetic nerve activity in brown adipose tissue (BAT). Triggering of β-adrenergic receptors on brown adipocytes stimulates thermogenesis via induction of the cAMP/PKA pathway. Although cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) and its coactivators-the cAMP-regulated transcriptional coactivators (CRTCs)-mediate transcriptional effects of cAMP in most tissues, other transcription factors such as ATF2 appear critical for induction of thermogenic genes by cAMP in BAT...
May 21, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783952/differences-between-fast-and-slow-muscles-in-scallops-revealed-through-proteomics-and-transcriptomics
#8
Xiujun Sun, Zhihong Liu, Biao Wu, Liqing Zhou, Qi Wang, Wei Wu, Aiguo Yang
BACKGROUND: Scallops possess striated and catch adductor muscles, which have different structure and contractile properties. The striated muscle contracts very quickly for swimming, whereas the smooth catch muscle can keep the shells closed for long periods with little expenditure of energy. In this study, we performed proteomic and transcriptomic analyses of differences between the striated (fast) and catch (slow) adductor muscles in Yesso scallop Patinopecten yessoensis. RESULTS: Transcriptomic analysis reveals 1316 upregulated and 8239 downregulated genes in slow compared to fast adductor muscle...
May 22, 2018: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783951/the-transcriptomic-and-proteomic-responses-of-daphnia-pulex-to-changes-in-temperature-and-food-supply-comprise-environment-specific-and-clone-specific-elements
#9
Dörthe Becker, Yann Reydelet, Jacqueline A Lopez, Craig Jackson, John K Colbourne, Susan Hawat, Michael Hippler, Bettina Zeis, Rüdiger J Paul
BACKGROUND: Regulatory adjustments to acute and chronic temperature changes are highly important for aquatic ectotherms because temperature affects their metabolic rate as well as the already low oxygen concentration in water, which can upset their energy balance. This also applies to severe changes in food supply. Thus, we studied on a molecular level (transcriptomics and/or proteomics) the immediate responses to heat stress and starvation and the acclimation to different temperatures in two clonal isolates of the model microcrustacean Daphnia pulex from more or less stressful environments, which showed a higher (clone M) or lower (clone G) tolerance to heat and starvation...
May 21, 2018: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780356/physiological-and-molecular-mechanisms-of-methionine-restriction
#10
REVIEW
Mary Neslund Latimer, Khalid Walid Freij, Beth M Cleveland, Peggy R Biga
Methionine restriction (MR) has been studied extensively over the last 25 years for its role in altering metabolic hallmarks of disease. Animals subjected to MR, display changes in metabolic flexibility demonstrated by increases in energy expenditure, glucose tolerance, and lifespan. These changes have been well characterized in a number of model systems and significant progress has been made in understanding how hepatic fibroblast growth factor 21 links MR to several components of its metabolic phenotype...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779817/resting-energy-expenditure-in-children-with-cerebral-palsy-accuracy-of-available-prediction-formulae-and-development-of-a-population-specific-formula
#11
Francesca Penagini, Barbara Borsani, Alessandra Bosetti, Chiara Mameli, Dario Dilillo, Giulia Ramponi, Francesco Motta, Giorgio Bedogni, Gian Vincenzo Zuccotti
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Energy requirements are difficult to estimate in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Resting energy expenditure (REE), necessary for personalized nutritional intervention, is most commonly estimated using prediction formulae because the reference method, i.e. indirect calorimetry (IC), is not available in all Nutrition Units. The main aim of the present study was to evaluate the accuracy of the most commonly used REE prediction formulae in children with CP. The secondary aim was to develop a new population-specific formula for the estimation of REE in children with CP...
June 2018: Clinical Nutrition ESPEN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779496/invited-review-improving-feed-efficiency-of-beef-cattle-the-current-state-of-the-art-and-future-challenges
#12
D A Kenny, C Fitzsimons, S M Waters, M McGee
Improvements in feed efficiency of beef cattle have the potential to increase producer profitability and simultaneously lower the environmental footprint of beef production. Although there are many different approaches to measuring feed efficiency, residual feed intake (RFI) has increasingly become the measure of choice. Defined as the difference between an animal's actual and predicted feed intake (based on weight and growth), RFI is conceptually independent of growth and body size. In addition, other measurable traits related to energy expenditure such as estimates of body composition can be included in the calculation of RFI to also force independence from these traits...
May 21, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777386/substrate-metabolism-during-ironman-triathlon-different-horses-on-the-same-courses
#13
Ed Maunder, Andrew E Kilding, Daniel J Plews
Ironman triathlons are ultra-endurance events of extreme duration. The performance level of those competing varies dramatically, with elite competitors finishing in ~ 8:00:00, and lower performing amateurs finishing in ~ 14-15:00:00. When applying appropriate values for swimming, cycling and running economies to these performance times, it is demonstrated that the absolute energy cost of these events is high, and the rate of energy expenditure increases in proportion with the athlete's competitive level...
May 18, 2018: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777235/response-of-skeletal-muscle-ucp2-expression-during-metabolic-adaptation-to-caloric-restriction
#14
Sascha Heinitz, Paolo Piaggi, Shanshan Yang, Susan Bonfiglio, Jason Steel, Jonathan Krakoff, Susanne B Votruba
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Spendthrift vs. thrifty individuals expend more energy and experience greater weight loss during caloric restriction (CR). Adaptive mechanisms in skeletal muscle, adipose tissue, and on hormone level modulate energy expenditure (EE) during weight loss. Metabolic mechanisms underlying the variability in EE during CR are unclear. The present study explored whether during long-term CR (i) gene expression changes in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue relate with the individual EE response and weight loss, and (ii) altered catecholamine and FGF21-concentrations are associated with measures of metabolic adaptation...
May 17, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776694/predictive-equations-versus-measured-energy-expenditure-by-indirect-calorimetry-a-retrospective-validation
#15
Oren Zusman, Ilya Kagan, Itai Bendavid, Miriam Theilla, Jonathan Cohen, Pierre Singer
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Measuring resting energy expenditure (REE) via indirect calorimetry (IC) in intensive care unit (ICU) patient is the gold standard recommended by guidelines. However technical difficulties hinder its use and predictive equations are largely used instead. We sought to validate commonly used equations using a large cohort of patients. METHODS: Patients hospitalized from 2003 to 2015 in a 16-bed ICU at a university-affiliated, tertiary care hospital who had IC measurement to assess caloric targets were included...
May 8, 2018: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776331/genome-wide-detection-of-selection-signatures-in-chinese-indigenous-laiwu-pigs-revealed-candidate-genes-regulating-fat-deposition-in-muscle
#16
Minhui Chen, Jiying Wang, Yanping Wang, Ying Wu, Jinluan Fu, Jian-Feng Liu
BACKGROUND: Currently, genome-wide scans for positive selection signatures in commercial breed have been investigated. However, few studies have focused on selection footprints of indigenous breeds. Laiwu pig is an invaluable Chinese indigenous pig breed with extremely high proportion of intramuscular fat (IMF), and an excellent model to detect footprint as the result of natural and artificial selection for fat deposition in muscle. RESULT: In this study, based on GeneSeek Genomic profiler Porcine HD data, three complementary methods, FST , iHS (integrated haplotype homozygosity score) and CLR (composite likelihood ratio), were implemented to detect selection signatures in the whole genome of Laiwu pigs...
May 18, 2018: BMC Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774616/psychological-effects-of-belonging-to-a-facebook-weight-management-group-in-overweight-and-obese-adults-results-of-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#17
Monica Jane, Jonathan Foster, Martin Hagger, Suleen Ho, Robert Kane, Sebely Pal
This study was conducted to test whether the weight outcomes in an online social networking group were mediated by changes to psychological outcome measures in overweight and obese individuals, following a weight management programme delivered via Facebook. The data analysed in this study were collected during a three-armed, randomised, controlled clinical weight management trial conducted with overweight and obese adults over 24 weeks. Two intervention groups were given the same weight management programme: one within a Facebook group, along with peer support from other group members (the Facebook Group); the other group received the same programme in a pamphlet (the Pamphlet Group)...
May 18, 2018: Health & Social Care in the Community
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773650/the-exercise-inducible-bile-acid-receptor-tgr5-improves-skeletal-muscle-function-in-mice
#18
Takashi Sasaki, Ayane Kuboyama, Moeko Mita, Shotaro Murata, Makoto Shimizu, Jun Inoue, Kazutoshi Mori, Ryuichiro Sato
TGR5 (also known as G protein-coupled bile acid receptor 1, GPBAR1) is a G protein-coupled bile acid receptor that is expressed in many diverse tissues. TGR5 is involved in various metabolic processes, including glucose metabolism and energy expenditure; however, TGR5's function in skeletal muscle is not fully understood. Using both gain- and loss-of-function mouse models, we demonstrate here that Tgr5 activation promotes muscle cell differentiation and muscle hypertrophy. Both young and old transgenic mice with muscle-specific Tgr5 expression exhibited increased muscle strength...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772667/evaluation-of-energy-expenditure-and-oxidation-of-energy-substrates-in-adult-males-after-intake-of-meals-with-varying-fat-and-carbohydrate-content
#19
Edyta Adamska-Patruno, Lucyna Ostrowska, Anna Golonko, Barbara Pietraszewska, Joanna Goscik, Adam Kretowski, Maria Gorska
Obesity is a result of positive energy balance. The aim of this study was to measure (in crossover trials) the energy expenditure and oxidation of glucose and lipids, both at the fasting state and after an intake of meals with a varying macronutrient content, in normal-weight and overweight/obese people. In the study, 46 healthy adult males (23 with normal body weight and 23 overweight/obese), aged 21⁻58, were examined. During two consecutive visits, subjects received isocaloric standardized meals (450 kcal) with different content of basic nutrients...
May 16, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772608/activity-behaviours-in-lean-and-morbidly-obese-pregnant-women
#20
Caterina Fazzi, Nor Mohd-Shukri, Fiona C Denison, David H Saunders, Jane E Norman, Rebecca M Reynolds
Interventions to increase physical activity in pregnancy are challenging for morbidly obese women. Targeting sedentary behaviours may be a suitable alternative to increase energy expenditure. We aimed to determine total energy expenditure, and energy expended in sedentary activities in morbidly obese and lean pregnant women. We administered the Pregnancy Physical Activity Questionnaire PPAQ (non-objective) and the Actical accelerometer (objective) to morbidly obese (BMI≥40kg/m²) and lean (BMI≤25Kg/M²) pregnant women recruited in early (<24 weeks), and late (≥24 weeks) gestation...
May 17, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
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