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Nitrate sport

Louise Deldicque, Marc Francaux
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this article is to collect the most recent data regarding the safety of well-known or emerging dietary supplements used by athletes. RECENT FINDINGS: From January 2014 to April 2016, about 30 articles have been published in the field. New data show that 90% of sports supplements contain trace of estrogenic endocrine disruptors, with 25% of them having a higher estrogenic activity than acceptable. About 50% of the supplements are contaminated by melamine, a source of nonprotein nitrogen...
November 2016: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
Deepa Subramanian, Swati Gupta
OBJECTIVE: Nitric oxide (NO) is one of the most important signaling molecules produced within the body. Continuous generation of NO is essential for the integrity of the cardiovascular system. The aim of this study was to assess whether oral intake of a nitrate (NO3-)-rich dietary supplement (amaranth extract) is able to increase NO3- and nitrite (NO2-) levels in blood plasma and saliva of healthy adults. METHODS: In the present study, bioavailability and pharmacokinetics of NO3- and NO2- from amaranth extract (2 g as single dose) was studied in 16 healthy individuals and compared with placebo in a crossover design...
July 2016: Nutrition
Scott Mosher, S Andy Sparks, Emily Williams, David J Bentley, Lars R Mc Naughton
Studies have established that supplementation of nitrate increases nitrous oxide which in turn improves exercise performance. The current study aimed to investigate the effects of nitrate ingestion on performance of bench press resistance exercise till failure. Twelve recreationally active (age, 21 ± 2yrs, height, 177.2 ± 4.0 cm, weight, 82.49 ± 9.78 kg) resistance trained males participated in the study. The study utilised a double blind randomized cross-over design, where participants ingested either 70 ml of "BEET It Sport ®" nitrate shot containing 6...
April 2, 2016: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Takashi Suzuki, Masahiko Morita, Yoshinori Kobayashi, Ayako Kamimura
BACKGROUND: Many human studies report that nitric oxide (NO) improves sport performance. This is because NO is a potential modulator of blood flow, muscle energy metabolism, and mitochondrial respiration during exercise. L-Citrulline is an amino acid present in the body and is a potent endogenous precursor of L-arginine, which is a substrate for NO synthase. Here, we investigated the effect of oral L-citrulline supplementation on cycling time trial performance in humans. METHODS: A double-blind randomized placebo-controlled 2-way crossover study was employed...
2016: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
G L Close, D L Hamilton, A Philp, L M Burke, J P Morton
Despite over 50 years of research, the field of sports nutrition continues to grow at a rapid rate. Whilst the traditional research focus was one that centred on strategies to maximise competition performance, emerging data in the last decade has demonstrated how both macronutrient and micronutrient availability can play a prominent role in regulating those cell signalling pathways that modulate skeletal muscle adaptations to endurance and resistance training. Nonetheless, in the context of exercise performance, it is clear that carbohydrate (but not fat) still remains king and that carefully chosen ergogenic aids (e...
September 2016: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Ernest G Rimer, Linda R Peterson, Andrew R Coggan, James C Martin
: Muscle-shortening velocity and hence power have been shown to increase in the presence of nitric oxide (NO). NO availability increases after consuming nitrate (NO3(-)). Ingestion of NO3(-)rich beetroot juice (BRJ) has increased muscle power in untrained adults. PURPOSE: This study determined whether NO3(-) supplementation could acutely enhance maximal power in trained athletes. METHODS: In this double-blind, crossover study, 13 trained athletes performed maximal inertial-load cycling trials (3-4 s) immediately before (PRE) and after (POST) consuming either NO3(-)rich (NO3) or NO3(-)depleted (PLA) BRJ to assess acute changes (ie, within the same day) in maximal power (PMAX) and optimal pedaling rate (RPMopt)...
September 2016: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
Lee J Wylie, Stephen J Bailey, James Kelly, James R Blackwell, Anni Vanhatalo, Andrew M Jones
PURPOSE: This study tested the hypothesis that nitrate (NO3-) supplementation would improve performance during high-intensity intermittent exercise featuring different work and recovery intervals. METHOD: Ten male team-sport players completed high-intensity intermittent cycling tests during separate 5-day supplementation periods with NO3 (-)-rich beetroot juice (BR; 8.2 mmol NO3- day(-1)) and NO3 (-)-depleted beetroot juice (PL; 0.08 mmol NO3- day(-1)). Subjects completed: twenty-four 6-s all-out sprints interspersed with 24 s of recovery (24 × 6-s); seven 30-s all-out sprints interspersed with 240 s of recovery (7 × 30-s); and six 60-s self-paced maximal efforts interspersed with 60 s of recovery (6 × 60-s); on days 3, 4, and 5 of supplementation, respectively...
February 2016: European Journal of Applied Physiology
Jacques R Poortmans, Bruno Gualano, Alain Carpentier
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Ergogenic supplements in sport events are widely used by popular and competitive athletes to enhance performance and reduce oxygen cost. Beetroot juice and nitrate salts have been increasingly used for the past 5-6 years. The present review discusses the scientific background, the efficiency and potential adverse effects of excessive nitrate supplementation. RECENT FINDINGS: There is clear evidence that nitrate from different food ingredients (such as beetroot juice and other vegetables) is converted into nitrite and possibly into nitric oxide, which may promote vasodilation, angiogenesis and mitochondrial biogenesis...
November 2015: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
Kathryn L Beck, Jasmine S Thomson, Richard J Swift, Pamela R von Hurst
A number of factors contribute to success in sport, and diet is a key component. An athlete's dietary requirements depend on several aspects, including the sport, the athlete's goals, the environment, and practical issues. The importance of individualized dietary advice has been increasingly recognized, including day-to-day dietary advice and specific advice before, during, and after training and/or competition. Athletes use a range of dietary strategies to improve performance, with maximizing glycogen stores a key strategy for many...
2015: Open Access Journal of Sports Medicine
Christopher Thompson, Lee J Wylie, Jonathan Fulford, James Kelly, Matthew I Black, Sinead T J McDonagh, Asker E Jeukendrup, Anni Vanhatalo, Andrew M Jones
UNLABELLED: It is possible that dietary nitrate (NO3 (-)) supplementation may improve both physical and cognitive performance via its influence on blood flow and cellular energetics. PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of dietary NO3 (-) supplementation on exercise performance and cognitive function during a prolonged intermittent sprint test (IST) protocol, which was designed to reflect typical work patterns during team sports. METHODS: In a double-blind randomised crossover study, 16 male team-sport players received NO3 (-)-rich (BR; 140 mL day(-1); 12...
September 2015: European Journal of Applied Physiology
Andrea J Braakhuis, Will G Hopkins
Many athletes supplement with antioxidants in the belief this will reduce muscle damage, immune dysfunction and fatigue, and will thus improve performance, while some evidence suggests it impairs training adaptations. Here we review the effect of a range of dietary antioxidants and their effects on sport performance, including vitamin E, quercetin, resveratrol, beetroot juice, other food-derived polyphenols, spirulina and N-acetylcysteine (NAC). Older studies suggest vitamin E improves performance at altitude, with possible harmful effects on sea-level performance...
July 2015: Sports Medicine
Jin-Kwang Kim, David J Moore, David G Maurer, Daniel B Kim-Shapiro, Swati Basu, Michael P Flanagan, Ann C Skulas-Ray, Penny Kris-Etherton, David N Proctor
Despite the popularity of dietary nitrate supplementation and the growing evidence base of its potential ergogenic and vascular health benefits, there is no direct information about its effects on exercising limb blood flow in humans. We hypothesized that acute dietary nitrate supplementation from beetroot juice would augment the increases in forearm blood flow, as well as the progressive dilation of the brachial artery, during graded handgrip exercise in healthy young men. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study, 12 young (22 ± 2 years) healthy men consumed a beetroot juice (140 mL Beet-It Sport, James White Juice Company) that provided 12...
February 2015: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
Ambreen Bhatti, Malcolm S Cresser
Water- and KCl-extractable ammonium-N and nitrate-N concentrations have been monitored at approximately monthly intervals over a year in soils from 0-10 and 10-20 cm depths under permanent grass at a sports field in York, UK. Measurements were made on both fresh, field-moist soils and after the same soils had been incubated for 7 days at ambient outdoor temperatures, to assess seasonal changes in the capacity of the soils to produce mineral-N species in the absence of plant uptake and other effects. Water extracts allowed potential mobility of N species to be assessed...
November 1, 2014: Science of the Total Environment
Kyle R Barnes, Andrew E Kilding
Running economy (RE) represents a complex interplay of physiological and biomechanical factors that is typically defined as the energy demand for a given velocity of submaximal running and expressed as the submaximal oxygen uptake (VO2) at a given running velocity. This review considered a wide range of acute and chronic interventions that have been investigated with respect to improving economy by augmenting one or more components of the metabolic, cardiorespiratory, biomechanical or neuromuscular systems...
January 2015: Sports Medicine
Andrew M Jones
Dietary nitrate supplementation, usually in the form of beetroot juice, has been heralded as a possible new ergogenic aid for sport and exercise performance. Early studies in recreationally active participants indicated that nitrate ingestion significantly reduces the O2 cost of submaximal exercise and improves performance during high-intensity endurance exercise. Subsequent studies have begun to address the physiological mechanisms underpinning these observations and to investigate the human populations in whom, and the exercise conditions (high- vs...
September 2014: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
Karen Davies, Kadambari Batra, Rania Mehanna, Ivan Keogh
OBJECTIVE: Epistaxis in the pediatric population is a common problem for both primary care physicians (PCPs) and otolaryngologists. Although a frequent reason for referral to ENT clinics, data is lacking regarding causes, effects on quality of life and common treatment modalities. METHODS: Prospective, clinical and questionnaire based study, with ethical approval. We identified 50 cases of pediatric epistaxis (<16 years old) over a 6-month period. A thorough clinical history was taken, first aid measures and management outcome was recorded...
August 2014: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
Andrew M Jones
Dietary nitrate is growing in popularity as a sports nutrition supplement. This article reviews the evidence base for the potential of inorganic nitrate to enhance sports and exercise performance. Inorganic nitrate is present in numerous foodstuffs and is abundant in green leafy vegetables and beetroot. Following ingestion, nitrate is converted in the body to nitrite and stored and circulated in the blood. In conditions of low oxygen availability, nitrite can be converted into nitric oxide, which is known to play a number of important roles in vascular and metabolic control...
May 2014: Sports Medicine
Kristy Martin, Disa Smee, Kevin G Thompson, Ben Rattray
PURPOSE: Nitrate supplementation improves endurance exercise and single bouts of high-intensity activity, but its effect on repeated sprints is unclear. This study is the first to investigate the effects of acute dietary nitrate supplementation during a high-intensity intermittent-sprint test to exhaustion. METHODS: Team-sport athletes (9 male, age 22.3 ± 2.1 y, VO2max 57.4 ± 8.5 mL · kg-1 · min-1; 7 female, age 20.7 ± 1.3 y, VO2max 47.2 ± 8.5 mL · kg-1 · min-1) were assigned to a double-blind, randomized, crossover design...
September 2014: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
J Gabarró, L Batchelli, M D Balaguer, S Puig, J Colprim
Grey water has long been considered a promising option for dealing with water scarcity and reuse. However, factors such as lack of macronutrients and low carbon content make its treatment challenging. The aim of this paper was to investigate the applicability of sequencing batch reactor (SBR) technology to on-site grey water treatment at a sports centre for reuse in irrigation. The results demonstrated that the regenerated water complied with microbiological parameters concerning restriction of solids and organic matter removal...
May 2013: Environmental Technology
Tolga Akşit, Faruk Turgay, Emine Kutlay, Mehmet Z Özkol, Faik Vural
Tennis performance requires a good aerobic endurance and recovering capacity. Nitric oxide (NO) is a gas which is not only a vasodilator and antioxidant but it also regulates the use of oxygen and glucose. The aim of this study was to examine the relationships between simulated tennis performance test (PT) and NOx (sum of nitrate+nitrite) levels and lactate elimination speed (LES). Twenty well trained male tennis players with game levels of ITN 4 (International Tennis Number) and lower (mean ± SD; age 22.9 ± 2...
2013: Journal of Sports Science & Medicine
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