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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338593/clinical-correlates-to-assist-with-cte-diagnosis-insights-from-a-novel-rodent-repeat-concussion-model
#1
Gretchen M Thomsen, Ara Ko, Megan Y Harada, Annie Ma, Livia Wyss, Patricia Haro, Jean-Philippe Vit, Pablo Avalos, Navpreet Dhillon, Noell Cho, Oksana Shelest, Eric J Ley
INTRODUCTION: Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is a neurodegenerative disease linked to repetitive head injuries. CTE symptoms include changes in mood, behavior, cognition and motor function, however CTE is only currently diagnosed post-mortem. Using a rat model of recurrent traumatic brain injury (TBI) we demonstrate rodent deficits that predict the severity of CTE-like brain pathology. METHODS: Bilateral, closed skull, mild TBI was administered once per week to 35 WT rats, 8 rats received 2 injuries ('2xTBI'), 27 rats received 5 injuries ('5xTBI') and 13 rats were sham controls...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335005/tdp-43-suppresses-tau-expression-via-promoting-its-mrna-instability
#2
Jianlan Gu, Feng Wu, Wen Xu, Jianhua Shi, Wen Hu, Nana Jin, Wei Qian, Xinglong Wang, Khalid Iqbal, Cheng-Xin Gong, Fei Liu
In the brains of individuals with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and chronic traumatic encephalopathy, tau pathology is accompanied usually by intracellular aggregation of transactive response DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43). However, the role of TDP-43 in tau pathogenesis is not understood. Here, we investigated the role of TDP-43 in tau expression in vitro and in vivo. We found that TDP-43 suppressed tau expression by promoting its mRNA instability through the UG repeats of its 3΄-untranslated region (3΄-UTR)...
March 15, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327371/longitudinal-changes-in-linguistic-complexity-among-professional-football-players
#3
Visar Berisha, Shuai Wang, Amy LaCross, Julie Liss, Pamela Garcia-Filion
Reductions in spoken language complexity have been associated with the onset of various neurological disorders. The objective of this study is to analyze whether similar trends are found in professional football players who are at risk for chronic traumatic encephalopathy. We compare changes in linguistic complexity (as indexed by the type-to-token ratio and lexical density) measured from the interview transcripts of players in the National Football League (NFL) to those measured from interview transcripts of coaches and/or front-office NFL executives who have never played professional football...
March 16, 2017: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326890/functional-and-molecular-correlates-following-single-and-repeated-rat-closed-head-concussion-indices-of-vulnerability-following-brain-injury
#4
Andrea Mountney, Angela Boutte, Casandra M Cartagena, William J Flerlage, David Johnson, Chanyang Rho, Xi-Chun M Lu, Angela M Yarnell, Sean R Marcsisin, Jason Sousa, Chau Vuong, Victor E Zottig, Lai Yee Leung, Ying Deng-Bryant, Janice Gilsdorf, Frank C Tortella, Deborah A Shear
Closed-head concussive injury is one of the most common causes of traumatic brain injury (TBI). Isolated concussions frequently produce acute neurological impairments; however, individuals typically recover spontaneously within a short time frame. In contrast, brain injuries resulting from multiple concussions can result in cumulative damage and elevated risk of developing chronic brain pathologies, including chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). Increased attention has focused on identification of diagnostic markers that can prognostically serve as indices of brain health after injury, revealing the temporal profile of vulnerability to a second insult...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316319/epileptic-spasms-in-paediatric-post-traumatic-epilepsy-at-a-tertiary-referral-centre
#5
Jun T Park, Harry T Chugani
To recognize epileptic spasms (ES) as a seizure type after traumatic brain injury (TBI), accidental or non-accidental, in infants and children. In the process, we aim to gain some insight into the mechanisms of epileptogenesis in ES. A retrospective electronic chart review was performed at the Children's Hospital of Michigan from 2002 to 2012. Electronic charts of 321 patients were reviewed for evidence of post-traumatic epilepsy. Various clinical variables were collected including age at TBI, mechanism of trauma, severity of brain injury, electroencephalography/neuroimaging data, and seizure semiology...
March 17, 2017: Epileptic Disorders: International Epilepsy Journal with Videotape
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291783/oesophageal-heat-exchangers-with-a-diameter-of-11mm-or-14-7mm-are-equally-effective-and-safe-for-targeted-temperature-management
#6
Daniel C Schroeder, Maria Guschlbauer, Alexandra C Maul, Daniel A Cremer, Ingrid Becker, David de la Puente Bethencourt, Peter Paal, Stephan A Padosch, Wolfgang A Wetsch, Thorsten Annecke, Bernd W Böttiger, Anja Sterner-Kock, Holger Herff
BACKGROUND: Targeted temperature management (TTM) is widely used in critical care settings for conditions including hepatic encephalopathy, hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy, meningitis, myocardial infarction, paediatric cardiac arrest, spinal cord injury, traumatic brain injury, ischemic stroke and sepsis. Furthermore, TTM is a key treatment for patients after out-of-hospital cardiac-arrest (OHCA). However, the optimal cooling method, which is quick, safe and cost-effective still remains controversial...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275351/botulinum-toxin-is-effective-in-the-management-of-neurogenic-dysphagia-clinical-electrophysiological-findings-and-tips-on-safety-in-different-neurological-disorders
#7
Enrico Alfonsi, Domenico A Restivo, Giuseppe Cosentino, Roberto De Icco, Giulia Bertino, Antonio Schindler, Massimiliano Todisco, Mauro Fresia, Andrea Cortese, Paolo Prunetti, Matteo C Ramusino, Arrigo Moglia, Giorgio Sandrini, Cristina Tassorelli
Background and Aims: Neurogenic dysphagia linked to failed relaxation of the upper esophageal sphincter (UES) can be treated by injecting botulinum toxin (BTX) into the cricopharyngeal (CP) muscle. We compared the effects of this treatment in different neurological disorders with dysphagia, to evaluate its efficacy over time including the response to a second injection. Materials and Methods: Sixty-seven patients with neurogenic dysphagia associated with incomplete or absent opening of the UES (24 with brainstem or hemispheric stroke, 21 with parkinsonian syndromes, 12 with multiple sclerosis, and 10 with spastic-dystonic syndromes secondary to post-traumatic encephalopathy) were treated with the injection of IncobotulinumtoxinA (dose 15-20 U) into the CP muscle under electromyographic guidance...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28269777/what-is-the-relationship-of-traumatic-brain-injury-to-dementia
#8
Mario F Mendez
There is a long history linking traumatic brain injury (TBI) with the development of dementia. Despite significant reservations, such as recall bias or concluding causality for TBI, a summary of recent research points to several conclusions on the TBI-dementia relationship. 1) Increasing severity of a single moderate-to-severe TBI increases the risk of subsequent Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most common type of dementia. 2) Repetitive, often subconcussive, mild TBIs increases the risk for chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE), a degenerative neuropathology...
March 2, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28254594/the-current-status-of-research-on-chronic-traumatic-encephalopathy
#9
REVIEW
Kenneth Perrine, Jacqueline Helcer, Apostolos John Tsiouris, David J Pisapia, Philip Stieg
Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy (CTE) evolved from the term "dementia pugilistica" describing the dementia found in many boxers to its current use in describing the dementia and depression sometimes found in athletes subjected to multiple concussions or sub-concussive blows to the head. Concurrently, the neuropathology evolved to specify a unique type of tauopathy found in perivascular spaces at the depth of sulci and other features not typically seen in neurodegenerative tauopathies. Four stages of CTE have been proposed, with four corresponding clinical syndromes of Traumatic Encephalopathy Syndrome...
February 27, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229128/repetitive-head-impact-exposure-and-later-life-plasma-total-tau-in-former-national-football-league-players
#10
Michael L Alosco, Yorghos Tripodis, Johnny Jarnagin, Christine M Baugh, Brett Martin, Christine E Chaisson, Nate Estochen, Linan Song, Robert C Cantu, Andreas Jeromin, Robert A Stern
INTRODUCTION: Blood protein analysis of total tau (t-tau) may be a practical screening biomarker for chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE), a neurodegenerative tauopathy associated with repetitive head impact (RHI) exposure. We examined plasma t-tau in symptomatic former National Football League (NFL) players compared with controls and the relationship between RHI exposure and later-life plasma t-tau. METHODS: Ninety-six former NFL players (age 40-69) and 25 same-age controls underwent blood draw to determine plasma t-tau levels...
2017: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214960/axonal-disruption-in-white-matter-underlying-cortical-sulcus-tau-pathology-in-chronic-traumatic-encephalopathy
#11
Laurena Holleran, Joong Hee Kim, Mihika Gangolli, Thor Stein, Victor Alvarez, Ann McKee, David L Brody
Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is a progressive degenerative disorder associated with repetitive traumatic brain injury. One of the primary defining neuropathological lesions in CTE, based on the first consensus conference, is the accumulation of hyperphosphorylated tau in gray matter sulcal depths. Post-mortem CTE studies have also reported myelin loss, axonal injury and white matter degeneration. Currently, the diagnosis of CTE is restricted to post-mortem neuropathological analysis. We hypothesized that high spatial resolution advanced diffusion MRI might be useful for detecting white matter microstructural changes directly adjacent to gray matter tau pathology...
March 2017: Acta Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205009/mixed-pathologies-including-chronic-traumatic-encephalopathy-account-for-dementia-in-retired-association-football-soccer-players
#12
Helen Ling, Huw R Morris, James W Neal, Andrew J Lees, John Hardy, Janice L Holton, Tamas Revesz, David D R Williams
In retired professional association football (soccer) players with a past history of repetitive head impacts, chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is a potential neurodegenerative cause of dementia and motor impairments. From 1980 to 2010, 14 retired footballers with dementia were followed up regularly until death. Their clinical data, playing career, and concussion history were prospectively collected. Next-of-kin provided consent for six to have post-mortem brain examination. Of the 14 male participants, 13 were professional and 1 was a committed amateur...
March 2017: Acta Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28204864/high-bioavailability-curcumin-an-anti-inflammatory-and-neurosupportive-bioactive-nutrient-for-neurodegenerative-diseases-characterized-by-chronic-neuroinflammation
#13
REVIEW
Faheem Ullah, Andy Liang, Alejandra Rangel, Erika Gyengesi, Garry Niedermayer, Gerald Münch
Neuroinflammation is a pathophysiological process present in a number of neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease, Huntington's disease, Parkinson's disease, stroke, traumatic brain injury including chronic traumatic encephalopathy and other age-related CNS disorders. Although there is still much debate about the initial trigger for some of these neurodegenerative disorders, during the progression of disease, broad range anti-inflammatory drugs including cytokine suppressive anti-inflammatory drugs (CSAIDs) might be promising therapeutic options to limit neuroinflammation and improve the clinical outcome...
February 15, 2017: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190439/neurologic-complications-of-polytrauma
#14
R M Jha, L Shutter
Neurologic complications in polytrauma can be classified by etiology and clinical manifestations: neurovascular, delirium, and spinal or neuromuscular problems. Neurovascular complications include ischemic strokes, intracranial hemorrhage, or the development of traumatic arteriovenous fistulae. Delirium and encephalopathy have a reported incidence of 67-92% in mechanically ventilated polytrauma patients. Causes include sedation, analgesia/pain, medications, sleep deprivation, postoperative state, toxic ingestions, withdrawal syndromes, organ system dysfunction, electrolyte/metabolic abnormalities, and infections...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187811/determinants-of-prognosis-in-neurocatastrophes
#15
REVIEW
K Sharma, R D Stevens
A neurocatastrophe or severe brain injury (SBI) is a central nervous system insult associated with a high likelihood of death or severe disability. While many etiologic processes may lead to SBI, the most common and best-studied clinical paradigms are traumatic brain injury and anoxic-ischemic encephalopathy following cardiac arrest. Clinical phenotypes following SBI include acute and chronic disorders of consciousness as well as a range of cognitive and behavioral impairments. A fundamental task for medical teams working in the acute phase is to estimate SBI recovery probabilities with the highest degree of accuracy possible...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181891/-chronic-traumatic-encephalopathy-an-old-acquaintance-in-athletes
#16
E G B Vijverberg, A C M Pijnenburg, P Scheltens, Y A L Pijnenburg
- Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is a neurodegenerative disease caused by repetitive head injuries like those seen in sports such as boxing, American football and soccer.- The clinical features of CTE are a range of cognitive, psychiatric and motor symptoms, and histopathology involves deposits of hyperphosphorylated tau protein and the presence of TAR DNA-binding protein (TDP-43) with relatively little beta-amyloid.- CTE is difficult to differentiate clinically from Alzheimer's disease, frontotemporal dementia and psychiatric disorders because of the major symptom overlap between these conditions...
2017: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130787/insufficient-evidence-for-shaken-baby-syndrome-a-systematic-review
#17
REVIEW
Niels Lynøe, Göran Elinder, Boubou Hallberg, Måns Rosén, Pia Sundgren, Anders Eriksson
Shaken baby syndrome has typically been associated with findings of subdural haematoma, retinal haemorrhages and encephalopathy, which are referred to as the triad. During the last decade, however, the certainty with which the triad can indicate that an infant has been violently shaken has been increasingly questioned. The aim of this study was to determine the diagnostic accuracy of the triad in detecting that an infant had been shaken. The literature search was performed using PubMed, Embase and the Cochrane Library up to October 15, 2015...
January 27, 2017: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096246/chronic-traumatic-encephalopathy-is-latency-in-symptom-onset-explained-by-tau-propagation
#18
Joshua Kriegel, Zachary Papadopoulos, Ann C McKee
Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is a neurodegenerative tauopathy associated with repetitive mild brain trauma. CTE, previously termed "dementia pugilistica," has been identified in American football, ice hockey, baseball, rugby and soccer players, boxers, wrestlers, and military personnel exposed to blast and other traumatic brain injuries. There is often a long latency period between an individual's exposure to repetitive brain trauma and the clinical symptoms of CTE. The pathology of CTE is characterized by a progression from isolated focal perivascular hyperphosphorylated tau lesions in the cerebral cortex to a widespread tauopathy that involves diffuse cortical and medial temporal lobe regions...
January 17, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086912/wwl70-attenuates-pge2-production-derived-from-2-arachidonoylglycerol-in-microglia-by-abhd6-independent-mechanism
#19
Mikiei Tanaka, Sean Moran, Jie Wen, Kwame Affram, Tinghua Chen, Aviva J Symes, Yumin Zhang
BACKGROUND: α/β-Hydrolase domain 6 (ABHD6) is one of the major enzymes for endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) hydrolysis in microglia cells. Our recent studies have shown that a selective ABHD6 inhibitor WWL70 has anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects in animal models of traumatic brain injury and multiple sclerosis. However, the role of ABHD6 in the neuroinflammatory response and the mechanisms by which WWL70 suppresses inflammation has not yet been elucidated in reactive microglia...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074610/an-in%C3%A2-vitro-model-yields-importin-new-insights-into-chronic-traumatic-encephalopathy-damaged-astrocytes-stop-thrombospondin-to-the-injury-an-editorial-highlight-for-defective-synthesis-and-release-of-astrocytic-thrombospondin-1-mediates-the-neuronal-tdp-43
#20
EDITORIAL
Sausan M Jaber, Brian M Polster
Read the highlighted article 'Defective synthesis and release of astrocytic thrombospondin-1 mediates the neuronal TDP-43 proteinopathy, resulting in defects in neuronal integrity associated with chronic traumatic encephalopathy: in vitro studies' on page 645.
February 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
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