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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205009/mixed-pathologies-including-chronic-traumatic-encephalopathy-account-for-dementia-in-retired-association-football-soccer-players
#1
Helen Ling, Huw R Morris, James W Neal, Andrew J Lees, John Hardy, Janice L Holton, Tamas Revesz, David D R Williams
In retired professional association football (soccer) players with a past history of repetitive head impacts, chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is a potential neurodegenerative cause of dementia and motor impairments. From 1980 to 2010, 14 retired footballers with dementia were followed up regularly until death. Their clinical data, playing career, and concussion history were prospectively collected. Next-of-kin provided consent for six to have post-mortem brain examination. Of the 14 male participants, 13 were professional and 1 was a committed amateur...
February 15, 2017: Acta Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28204864/high-bioavailability-curcumin-an-anti-inflammatory-and-neurosupportive-bioactive-nutrient-for-neurodegenerative-diseases-characterized-by-chronic-neuroinflammation
#2
REVIEW
Faheem Ullah, Andy Liang, Alejandra Rangel, Erika Gyengesi, Garry Niedermayer, Gerald Münch
Neuroinflammation is a pathophysiological process present in a number of neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease, Huntington's disease, Parkinson's disease, stroke, traumatic brain injury including chronic traumatic encephalopathy and other age-related CNS disorders. Although there is still much debate about the initial trigger for some of these neurodegenerative disorders, during the progression of disease, broad range anti-inflammatory drugs including cytokine suppressive anti-inflammatory drugs (CSAIDs) might be promising therapeutic options to limit neuroinflammation and improve the clinical outcome...
February 15, 2017: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190439/neurologic-complications-of-polytrauma
#3
R M Jha, L Shutter
Neurologic complications in polytrauma can be classified by etiology and clinical manifestations: neurovascular, delirium, and spinal or neuromuscular problems. Neurovascular complications include ischemic strokes, intracranial hemorrhage, or the development of traumatic arteriovenous fistulae. Delirium and encephalopathy have a reported incidence of 67-92% in mechanically ventilated polytrauma patients. Causes include sedation, analgesia/pain, medications, sleep deprivation, postoperative state, toxic ingestions, withdrawal syndromes, organ system dysfunction, electrolyte/metabolic abnormalities, and infections...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187811/determinants-of-prognosis-in-neurocatastrophes
#4
K Sharma, R D Stevens
A neurocatastrophe or severe brain injury (SBI) is a central nervous system insult associated with a high likelihood of death or severe disability. While many etiologic processes may lead to SBI, the most common and best-studied clinical paradigms are traumatic brain injury and anoxic-ischemic encephalopathy following cardiac arrest. Clinical phenotypes following SBI include acute and chronic disorders of consciousness as well as a range of cognitive and behavioral impairments. A fundamental task for medical teams working in the acute phase is to estimate SBI recovery probabilities with the highest degree of accuracy possible...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181891/-chronic-traumatic-encephalopathy-an-old-acquaintance-in-athletes
#5
E G B Vijverberg, A C M Pijnenburg, P Scheltens, Y A L Pijnenburg
- Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is a neurodegenerative disease caused by repetitive head injuries like those seen in sports such as boxing, American football and soccer.- The clinical features of CTE are a range of cognitive, psychiatric and motor symptoms, and histopathology involves deposits of hyperphosphorylated tau protein and the presence of TAR DNA-binding protein (TDP-43) with relatively little beta-amyloid.- CTE is difficult to differentiate clinically from Alzheimer's disease, frontotemporal dementia and psychiatric disorders because of the major symptom overlap between these conditions...
2017: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130787/insufficient-evidence-for-shaken-baby-syndrome-a-systematic-review
#6
REVIEW
Niels Lynøe, Göran Elinder, Boubou Hallberg, Måns Rosén, Pia Sundgren, Anders Eriksson
: Shaken baby syndrome has typically been associated with findings of subdural haematoma, retinal haemorrhages and encephalopathy, which are referred to as the triad. During the last decade, however, the certainty with which the triad can indicate that an infant has been violently shaken has been increasingly questioned. The aim of this study was to determine the diagnostic accuracy of the triad in detecting that an infant had been shaken. The literature search was performed using PubMed, Embase and the Cochrane Library up to October 15, 2015...
January 27, 2017: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096246/chronic-traumatic-encephalopathy-is-latency-in-symptom-onset-explained-by-tau-propagation
#7
Joshua Kriegel, Zachary Papadopoulos, Ann C McKee
Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is a neurodegenerative tauopathy associated with repetitive mild brain trauma. CTE, previously termed "dementia pugilistica," has been identified in American football, ice hockey, baseball, rugby and soccer players, boxers, wrestlers, and military personnel exposed to blast and other traumatic brain injuries. There is often a long latency period between an individual's exposure to repetitive brain trauma and the clinical symptoms of CTE. The pathology of CTE is characterized by a progression from isolated focal perivascular hyperphosphorylated tau lesions in the cerebral cortex to a widespread tauopathy that involves diffuse cortical and medial temporal lobe regions...
January 17, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086912/wwl70-attenuates-pge2-production-derived-from-2-arachidonoylglycerol-in-microglia-by-abhd6-independent-mechanism
#8
Mikiei Tanaka, Sean Moran, Jie Wen, Kwame Affram, Tinghua Chen, Aviva J Symes, Yumin Zhang
BACKGROUND: α/β-Hydrolase domain 6 (ABHD6) is one of the major enzymes for endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) hydrolysis in microglia cells. Our recent studies have shown that a selective ABHD6 inhibitor WWL70 has anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects in animal models of traumatic brain injury and multiple sclerosis. However, the role of ABHD6 in the neuroinflammatory response and the mechanisms by which WWL70 suppresses inflammation has not yet been elucidated in reactive microglia...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074610/an-in%C3%A2-vitro-model-yields-importin-new-insights-into-chronic-traumatic-encephalopathy-damaged-astrocytes-stop-thrombospondin-to-the-injury-an-editorial-highlight-for-defective-synthesis-and-release-of-astrocytic-thrombospondin-1-mediates-the-neuronal-tdp-43
#9
EDITORIAL
Sausan M Jaber, Brian M Polster
Read the highlighted article 'Defective synthesis and release of astrocytic thrombospondin-1 mediates the neuronal TDP-43 proteinopathy, resulting in defects in neuronal integrity associated with chronic traumatic encephalopathy: in vitro studies' on page 645.
February 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070125/antemortem-biomarker-support-for-a-diagnosis-of-clinically-probable-chronic-traumatic-encephalopathy
#10
M Y Pullman, D L Dickstein, S T DeKosky, S Gandy
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 10, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067738/does-a-unique-neuropsychiatric-profile-currently-exist-for-chronic-traumatic-encephalopathy
#11
Faith M Hanlon, Christopher A McGrew, Andrew R Mayer
There is evidence that repetitive mild traumatic brain injury leads to specific patterns of neuropathological findings, labeled chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). However, questions remain about whether these neuropathological changes produce changes in behavior, cognition, and emotional status that are associated with a unique neuropsychiatric profile that can be assessed using currently available clinical tools. Our review of the literature indicates that insufficient evidence currently exists to suggest a distinct neuropsychiatric profile for CTE...
January 2017: Current Sports Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058207/memory-loss-five-new-things
#12
Ferenc Deak, Nidhi Kapoor, Calin Prodan, Linda A Hershey
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Memory loss can be due to a wide variety of causes. We provide new information about the biology of common genetic and acquired causes of memory loss in older adults. RECENT FINDINGS: New data are available about the genetics of Alzheimer disease (AD), dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), and frontotemporal dementia. Amyloid PET, FDG-PET, and MRI have improved our understanding of how mild cognitive impairment evolves to AD. Several studies have shown links between concussion and chronic traumatic encephalopathy...
December 2016: Neurology. Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043957/computational-modelling-of-traumatic-brain-injury-predicts-the-location-of-chronic-traumatic-encephalopathy-pathology
#13
Mazdak Ghajari, Peter J Hellyer, David J Sharp
Traumatic brain injury can lead to the neurodegenerative disease chronic traumatic encephalopathy. This condition has a clear neuropathological definition but the relationship between the initial head impact and the pattern of progressive brain pathology is poorly understood. We test the hypothesis that mechanical strain and strain rate are greatest in sulci, where neuropathology is prominently seen in chronic traumatic encephalopathy, and whether human neuroimaging observations converge with computational predictions...
February 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27980495/probiotics-and-disease-a-comprehensive-summary-part-1-mental-and-neurological-health
#14
REVIEW
Keren E Dolan, Heather J Finley, Cathleen M Burns, Margaret G Gasta, Crystal M Gossard, Emily C Parker, Jessica M Pizano, Christy B Williamson, Elizabeth A Lipski
This article series provides a literature review of the disease-specific probiotic strains studied in published clinical trials in humans and animals. The goal of the series is to provide clinically useful tools. The table designs allow for quick access to supportive data related to disease states and will be helpful as a guide for both researchers and clinicians. This first article (part 1) focuses on mental health and neurological conditions. Future articles in this series will review conditions related to cardiometabolic and fatigue syndromes; ear, nose, throat, respiratory, and infectious diseases; immune and dermatological conditions; cancer, gastrointestinal and genitourinary; followed by an article focused on food-based probiotic strains and nutritional supplements...
October 2016: Integrative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27951526/long-term-health-outcomes-after-exposure-to-repeated-concussion-in-elite-level-rugby-union-players
#15
T M McMillan, P McSkimming, J Wainman-Lefley, L M Maclean, J Hay, A McConnachie, W Stewart
BACKGROUND: There is continuing concern about effects of concussion in athletes, including risk of the neurodegenerative disease chronic traumatic encephalopathy. However, information on long-term health and wellbeing in former athletes is limited. METHOD: Outcome after exposure to repeated brain injury was investigated in 52 retired male Scottish international rugby players (RIRP) and 29 male controls who were similar in age and social deprivation. Assessment included history of playing rugby and traumatic brain injury, general and mental health, life stress, concussion symptoms, cognitive function, disability and markers of chronic stress (allostatic load)...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940600/the-prion-like-behavior-of-assembled-tau-in-transgenic-mice
#16
Florence Clavaguera, Markus Tolnay, Michel Goedert
Tauopathies constitute neurodegenerative diseases that are characterized by the intracellular deposition of filaments made of hyperphosphorylated tau protein. The pattern of tau deposition in Alzheimer's disease follows a stereotypical progression, with the first lesions appearing in the locus coeruleus and entorhinal cortex, from where they appear to spread to the hippocampus and neocortex. Propagation of pathological tau is also characteristic of argyrophilic grain disease, where the lesions seem to spread through distinct regions of the limbic system...
December 9, 2016: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911827/tau-prions-from-alzheimer-s-disease-and-chronic-traumatic-encephalopathy-patients-propagate-in-cultured-cells
#17
Amanda L Woerman, Atsushi Aoyagi, Smita Patel, Sabeen A Kazmi, Iryna Lobach, Lea T Grinberg, Ann C McKee, William W Seeley, Steven H Olson, Stanley B Prusiner
Tau prions are thought to aggregate in the central nervous system, resulting in neurodegeneration. Among the tauopathies, Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common, whereas argyrophilic grain disease (AGD), corticobasal degeneration (CBD), chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE), Pick's disease (PiD), and progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) are less prevalent. Brain extracts from deceased individuals with PiD, a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by three-repeat (3R) tau prions, were used to infect HEK293T cells expressing 3R tau fused to yellow fluorescent protein (YFP)...
December 13, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885636/glutamine-synthetase-role-in-neurological-disorders
#18
Arumugam R Jayakumar, Michael D Norenberg
Glutamine synthetase (GS) is an ATP-dependent enzyme found in most species that synthesizes glutamine from glutamate and ammonia. In brain, GS is exclusively located in astrocytes where it serves to maintain the glutamate-glutamine cycle, as well as nitrogen metabolism. Changes in the activity of GS, as well as its gene expression, along with excitotoxicity, have been identified in a number of neurological conditions. The literature describing alterations in the activation and gene expression of GS, as well as its involvement in different neurological disorders, however, is incomplete...
2016: Advances in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885490/localized-cortical-chronic-traumatic-encephalopathy-pathology-after-single-severe-axonal-injury-in-human-brain
#19
Sharon B Shively, Sarah L Edgerton, Diego Iacono, Dushyant P Purohit, Bao-Xi Qu, Vahram Haroutunian, Kenneth L Davis, Ramon Diaz-Arrastia, Daniel P Perl
Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is a neurodegenerative disease associated with repetitive mild impact traumatic brain injury from contact sports. Recently, a consensus panel defined the pathognomonic lesion for CTE as accumulations of abnormally hyperphosphorylated tau (p-tau) in neurons (neurofibrillary tangles), astrocytes and cell processes distributed around small blood vessels at sulcal depths in irregular patterns within the cortex. The pathophysiological mechanism for this lesion is unknown. Moreover, a subset of CTE cases harbors cortical β-amyloid plaques...
November 24, 2016: Acta Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879177/-retinal-haemorrhages-as-a-symptom-of-child-abuse
#20
C M L van den Hoven, F M C van Berkestijn, I M B Russel-Kampschoer, W A Karst, E S M Voskuil-Kerkhof
Inflicted traumatic brain injury (ITBI) - a possible result of child abuse - is difficult to diagnose, yet the diagnosis bears great impact on patients and their relatives. The purpose of this paper is to describe ophthalmologic findings that can be seen in relation to ITBI. For exemplification, three different cases are described in detail. ITBI is diagnosed through a multidisciplinary approach by exclusion of other causes that could explain the clinical findings, and by linking factors that together raise a high suspicion of ITBI...
2016: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde
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