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traumatic encephalopathy

Stephen T Casper
OBJECTIVE: To review the intellectual history of concussion from the mid-19th century to the opening decade of the 21st century. BACKGROUND: Head injuries (HI) and their acute and long-term effects have been investigated for centuries, with major reviews of the topic appearing by 1870. Thus, while it has long been acknowledged that chronic traumatic encephalopathy was first described by Harrison Martland in 1928, an examination of the history of concussion research up to Martland's seminal report places his studies in a deeper historical context...
March 14, 2018: Headache
Gary Solomon
My objectives are to review: 1) a brief history of sport-related concussion (SRC) and chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE), 2) the evolution of CTE in American professional football, 3) the data regarding SRC/CTE as they relate to depression and suicide, 4) the data on the neurocognitive effects of subconcussion/repetitive head trauma (with emphases on heading the ball in soccer and early exposure to football), 5) the evidence related to SRC and neurodegenerative diseases, 6) the published studies of CTE, 7) the NINDS neuropathological criteria for CTE, 8) public beliefs about SRC/CTE, and 9) the scientific questions regarding CTE...
March 13, 2018: Developmental Neuropsychology
Geoffrey David Debelle, Sabine Maguire, Patrick Watts, Rosa Nieto Hernandez, Alison Mary Kemp
The Swedish Agency for Health Technology Assessment and Assessment of Social Services (SBU) has recently published what they purported to be a systematic review of the literature on 'isolated traumatic shaking' in infants, concluding that 'there is limited evidence that the so-called triad (encephalopathy, subdural haemorrhage, retinal haemorrhage) and therefore its components can be associated with traumatic shaking'. This flawed report, from a national body, demands a robust response. The conclusions of the original report have the potential to undermine medico-legal practice...
March 6, 2018: Archives of Disease in Childhood
Megan Elizabeth Huibregtse
Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is thought to be caused by repetitive head impacts. Consequently, there is a need to develop rodent models to better understand the behavioral and pathophysiological changes of repetitive mild traumatic brain injury (rmTBI) and to determine the link between rmTBI and CTE. This Neuro Forum article reviews recent rodent rmTBI models, comparing the impact methods and outcome measures in terms of translational potential.
February 21, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
Brian L Edlow, C Dirk Keene, Daniel Perl, Diego Iacono, Rebecca Folkerth, William Stewart, Christine L MacDonald, Jean Augustinack, Ramon Diaz-Arrastia, Camilo Estrada, Elissa Flannery, Wayne Gordon, Tom Grabowski, Kelly Hansen, Jeanne Hoffman, Christopher Kroenke, Eric Larson, Patricia Lee, Azma Mareyam, Jennifer A McNab, Jeanne McPhee, Allison L Moreau, Anne Renz, KatieRose Richmire, Allison Stevens, Cheuk Y Tang, Lee S Tirrell, Emily Trittschuh, Andre van der Kouwe, Ani Varjabedian, Lawrence L Wald, Ona Wu, Anastasia Yendiki, Liza Young, Lilla Zollei, Bruce Fischl, Paul K Crane, Kristen Dams-O'Connor
Epidemiological studies suggest that a single moderate-to-severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) is associated with an increased risk of neurodegenerative disease, including Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease (AD and PD). Histopathological studies describe complex neurodegenerative pathologies in individuals exposed to single moderate-to-severe TBI or repetitive mild TBI, including chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). However, the clinicopathological links between TBI and post-traumatic neurodegenerative diseases such as AD, PD, and CTE remain poorly understood...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
Damir Janigro
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 5, 2018: JAMA Neurology
Breton M Asken, Michael S Jaffee, Russell M Bauer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 5, 2018: JAMA Neurology
Jed A Diekfuss, Jessica De Larwelle, Susan H McFadden
Background/Study Context: Employing the stereotype content model and terror management theory, we examined whether stereotypes and feelings about persons with dementia vary depending on the type of dementia diagnosis and purported causes of the dementia. METHODS: Participants were randomly assigned to read one of four vignettes that depicted a man who consulted his doctor because of memory problems. All vignettes described the same symptoms and diagnostic tests, but each of four groups read a different result: all tests normal (Normal); Alzheimer's disease (AD); Wernicke-Korsakoff Syndrome (WKS) associated with alcohol abuse; and chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) associated with head injuries from playing football in high school and college...
March 2018: Experimental Aging Research
Jaime Ramos-Cejudo, Thomas Wisniewski, Charles Marmar, Henrik Zetterberg, Kaj Blennow, Mony J de Leon, Silvia Fossati
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) are devastating neurological disorders, whose complex relationship is not completely understood. Cerebrovascular pathology, a key element in both conditions, could represent a mechanistic link between Aβ/tau deposition after TBI and the development of post concussive syndrome, dementia and chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). In addition to debilitating acute effects, TBI-induced neurovascular injuries accelerate amyloid β (Aβ) production and perivascular accumulation, arterial stiffness, tau hyperphosphorylation and tau/Aβ-induced blood brain barrier damage, giving rise to a deleterious feed-forward loop...
January 30, 2018: EBioMedicine
Yoori Choi, Seunggyun Ha, Yun-Sang Lee, Yun Kyung Kim, Dong Soo Lee, Dong Jin Kim
The pathological features of Alzheimer's disease are senile plaques which are aggregates of β-amyloid peptides and neurofibrillary tangles in the brain. Neurofibrillary tangles are aggregates of hyperphosphorylated tau proteins, and these induce various other neurodegenerative diseases, such as progressive supranuclear palsy, corticobasal degeneration, frontotemporal lobar degeneration, frontotemporal dementia and parkinsonism linked to chromosome 17 (FTDP-17), and chronic traumatic encephalopathy. In the case of Alzheimer's disease, the measurement of neurofibrillary tangles associated with cognitive decline is suitable for differential diagnosis, disease progression assessment, and to monitor the effects of therapeutic treatment...
February 2018: Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Jakob Matschke, Susanne Sehner, Jürgen Gallinat, Julia Siegers, Melanie Murroni, Klaus Püschel, Markus Glatzel
Suicide ranks among the leading causes of death for individuals of all ages with highest rates in the elderly. The cause of suicide is considered a multifactorial phenomenon. A variety of neurodegenerative diseases, notably Alzheimer's disease, or, more recently, tauopathies as frontotemporal lobar degeneration or chronic traumatic encephalopathy, has been suggested as risk factor for suicide. Accordingly, we hypothesized that neurodegenerative changes typical of these diseases should be more prevalent in the brains of suicides when compared with controls...
January 30, 2018: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
Melanie D Sweeney, Abhay P Sagare, Berislav V Zlokovic
The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a continuous endothelial membrane within brain microvessels that has sealed cell-to-cell contacts and is sheathed by mural vascular cells and perivascular astrocyte end-feet. The BBB protects neurons from factors present in the systemic circulation and maintains the highly regulated CNS internal milieu, which is required for proper synaptic and neuronal functioning. BBB disruption allows influx into the brain of neurotoxic blood-derived debris, cells and microbial pathogens and is associated with inflammatory and immune responses, which can initiate multiple pathways of neurodegeneration...
January 29, 2018: Nature Reviews. Neurology
Benoit C Mouzon, Corbin Bachmeier, Joseph O Ojo, Christopher M Acker, Scott Ferguson, Daniel Paris, Ghania Ait-Ghezala, Gogce Crynen, Peter Davies, Michael Mullan, William Stewart, Fiona Crawford
Objective: Exposure to repetitive concussion, or mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), has been linked with increased risk of long-term neurodegenerative changes, specifically chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). To date, preclinical studies largely have focused on the immediate aftermath of mTBI, with no literature on the lifelong consequences of mTBI in these models. This study provides the first account of lifelong neurobehavioral and histological consequences of repetitive mTBI providing unique insight into the constellation of evolving and ongoing pathologies with late survival...
January 2018: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
Chad A Tagge, Andrew M Fisher, Olga V Minaeva, Amanda Gaudreau-Balderrama, Juliet A Moncaster, Xiao-Lei Zhang, Mark W Wojnarowicz, Noel Casey, Haiyan Lu, Olga N Kokiko-Cochran, Sudad Saman, Maria Ericsson, Kristen D Onos, Ronel Veksler, Vladimir V Senatorov, Asami Kondo, Xiao Z Zhou, Omid Miry, Linnea R Vose, Katisha R Gopaul, Chirag Upreti, Christopher J Nowinski, Robert C Cantu, Victor E Alvarez, Audrey M Hildebrandt, Erich S Franz, Janusz Konrad, James A Hamilton, Ning Hua, Yorghos Tripodis, Andrew T Anderson, Gareth R Howell, Daniela Kaufer, Garth F Hall, Kun P Lu, Richard M Ransohoff, Robin O Cleveland, Neil W Kowall, Thor D Stein, Bruce T Lamb, Bertrand R Huber, William C Moss, Alon Friedman, Patric K Stanton, Ann C McKee, Lee E Goldstein
The mechanisms underpinning concussion, traumatic brain injury, and chronic traumatic encephalopathy, and the relationships between these disorders, are poorly understood. We examined post-mortem brains from teenage athletes in the acute-subacute period after mild closed-head impact injury and found astrocytosis, myelinated axonopathy, microvascular injury, perivascular neuroinflammation, and phosphorylated tau protein pathology. To investigate causal mechanisms, we developed a mouse model of lateral closed-head impact injury that uses momentum transfer to induce traumatic head acceleration...
January 18, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
Elliott Jay Mufson, Bin He, Stephen D Ginsberg, Benjamin A Carper, Gayle S Bieler, Fiona C Crawford, Victor E Alverez, Bernard R Huber, Thor D Stein, Ann C McKee, Sylvia E Perez
Military personnel and athletes exposed to traumatic brain injury may develop chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). Brain pathology in CTE includes intracellular accumulation of abnormally phosphorylated tau proteins (p-tau), the main constituent of neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs). Recently, we found that cholinergic basal forebrain (CBF) neurons within the nucleus basalis of Meynert (nbM), which provide the major cholinergic innervation to the cortex, display an increasing number of NFTs across the pathological stages of CTE...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
Kevin K Wang, Zhihui Yang, Tian Zhu, Yuan Shi, Richard Rubenstein, J Adrian Tyndall, Geoff T Manley
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major worldwide neurological disorder of epidemic proportions. To date, there are still no FDA-approved therapies to treat any forms of TBI. Encouragingly, there are emerging data showing that biofluid-based TBI biomarker tests have the potential to diagnose the presence of TBI of different severities including concussion, and to predict outcome. Areas covered: The authors provide an update on the current knowledge of TBI biomarkers, including protein biomarkers for neuronal cell body injury (UCH-L1, NSE), astroglial injury (GFAP, S100B), neuronal cell death (αII-spectrin breakdown products), axonal injury (NF proteins), white matter injury (MBP), post-injury neurodegeneration (total Tau and phospho-Tau), post-injury autoimmune response (brain antigen-targeting autoantibodies), and other emerging non-protein biomarkers...
February 2018: Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics
Amy L Jones, Jeffrey W Britton, Melissa M Blessing, Joseph E Parisi, Gregory D Cascino
OBJECTIVE: To determine the occurrence of chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) in young adult patients undergoing epilepsy surgery. METHODS: Ten patients who underwent epilepsy surgery were randomly selected for this retrospective study. The patients were 18-45 years of age, had preoperative neuropsychological evaluation, and had 1 year postoperative follow-up. Microscopic sections from resections were evaluated for the presence of CTE with standard stains and antibodies to tau (clone AT8)...
February 6, 2018: Neurology
Thomas K Burroughs, James B Wade, Michael S Ellwood, Andrew Fagan, Douglas M Heuman, Michael Fuchs, Jasmohan S Bajaj
BACKGROUND: In veterans, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is often associated with substance abuse, which in turn can lead to cirrhosis. Cirrhotic patients are prone to cognitive impairment, which is typically due to covert hepatic encephalopathy (CHE), but can also be affected by PTSD. The aim was to define the impact of PTSD on cognitive performance and the diagnosis of CHE in cirrhotic patients. METHODS: Outpatient veterans with cirrhosis underwent two separate modalities for CHE cognitive testing [Psychometric Hepatic Encephalopathy Scale (PHES) and Inhibitory Control Test (ICT)]...
January 8, 2018: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
Alexander J Moszczynski, Wendy Strong, Kathy Xu, Ann McKee, Arthur Brown, Michael J Strong
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) and CTE with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (CTE-ALS) exhibit features previously observed in other tauopathies of pathologic phosphorylation of microtubule-associated protein tau at Thr175 (pThr175 tau) and Thr231 (pThr231 tau), and glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK3β) activation, and whether these pathologic features are a consequence of traumatic brain injury (TBI). METHODS: Tau isoform expression was assayed by western blot in 6 stage III CTE cases...
January 3, 2018: Neurology
Brandon Lucke-Wold, Kay Seidel, Rub Udo, Bennet Omalu, Mark Ornstein, Richard Nolan, Charles Rosen, Joel Ross
Progressive neurodegenerative diseases plague millions of individuals both in the United States and across the world. The current pathology of progressive neurodegenerative tauopathies, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), Pick's disease, frontotemporal dementia (FTD), and progressive supranuclear palsy, primarily revolves around phosphorylation and hyperphosphorylation of the tau protein. However, more recent evidence suggests acetylation of tau protein at lysine 280 may be a critical step in molecular pathology of these neurodegenerative diseases prior to the tau hyperphosphorylation...
2017: Journal of Neurology and Neurosurgery
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