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Lewy bodies

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349556/neuropathology-correlates-of-cognitive-assessments
#1
Francesca M Brett, Hugh Kearney
BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease and other dementias are the fourth largest contributors to neurological disability and the second largest contributor to deaths from neurological disease. Described in the 1980s as 'the silent epidemic' these disorders principally, though not exclusively, affect persons 80 years or older, and in developed countries, this 'old old' population continues to grow. Definitive diagnosis of the underlying cause of the neurodegenerative disease relies on neuropathological evaluation...
January 18, 2018: Irish Journal of Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348199/origins-of-low-symmetry-phases-in-asymmetric-diblock-copolymer-melts
#2
Kyungtae Kim, Akash Arora, Ronald M Lewis, Meijiao Liu, Weihua Li, An-Chang Shi, Kevin D Dorfman, Frank S Bates
Cooling disordered compositionally asymmetric diblock copolymers leads to the formation of nearly spherical particles, each containing hundreds of molecules, which crystallize upon cooling below the order-disorder transition temperature (TODT). Self-consistent field theory (SCFT) reveals that dispersity in the block degrees of polymerization stabilizes various Frank-Kasper phases, including the C14 and C15 Laves phases, which have been accessed experimentally in low-molar-mass poly(isoprene)-b-poly(lactide) (PI-PLA) diblock copolymers using thermal processing strategies...
January 18, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344708/treatment-of-combined-traumatic-brain-injury-and-hemorrhagic-shock-with-fractionated-blood-products-versus-fresh-whole-blood-in-a-rat-model
#3
Akiva Leibowitz, Evgeni Brotfain, Leonid Koyfman, Moti Klein, Shmuel Hess, Alexander Zlotnik, Matthew Boyko
INTRODUCTION: Treatment of combined traumatic brain injury and hemorrhagic shock, poses a particular challenge due to the possible conflicting consequences. While restoring diminished volume is the treatment goal for hypovolemia, maintaining adequate cerebral perfusion pressure and avoidance of secondary damage remains a treatment goal for the injured brain. Various treatment modalities have been proposed, but the optimal resuscitation fluid and goals have not yet been clearly defined...
January 17, 2018: European Journal of Trauma and Emergency Surgery: Official Publication of the European Trauma Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344344/acetylcholinesterase-inhibitors-in-treatment-resistant-psychotic-depression
#4
Chris Smart, Hamish McAllister-Williams, David Andrew Cousins
Dopamine receptor antagonists can be effective in psychotic depression but response is not assured. Visual hallucinations may arise from a dysregulation of brain cholinergic systems and acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AChEIs) can treat such hallucinations in dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). AChEIs have been used in schizophrenia with some success but their efficacy and tolerability in psychotic depression is unclear. This striking case illustrates AChEIs specifically targeting multimodal hallucinations in treatment-resistant depression...
January 2018: Therapeutic Advances in Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337452/-neurology
#5
Isabelle Chopard, David Benninger, Jean-François Demonet, Renaud Du Pasquier, Lorenz Hirt, Thierry Kuntzer, Patrik Michel, Bernard Nater, Jan Novy, Andrea Rossetti, Olivier Rouaud, Philippe Ryvlin, Myriam Schluep, Marie Theaudin
Ocrelizumab (Ocrevus), an anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody, has been approved for the treatment of multiple sclerosis. Eculizumab (Soliris) has been approved in several countries for refractory forms of generalized seropositive severe myasthenia gravis. A form of gene therapy, patisiran, has shown positive results in transthyretin familial amyloidosis. In the treatment of headaches, particularly migraines, non-pharmacological approaches have shown some interesting results. The criteria for Lewy body dementia have been revised...
January 10, 2018: Revue Médicale Suisse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333564/is-123i-metaiodobenzylguanidine-heart-to-mediastinum-ratio-dependent-on-age-from-japanese-society-of-nuclear-medicine-normal-database
#6
Kenichi Nakajima, Koichi Okuda, Shinro Matsuo, Hiroshi Wakabayashi, Seigo Kinuya
BACKGROUND: Heart-to-mediastinum ratios (HMRs) of 123I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) have usually been applied to prognostic evaluations of heart failure and Lewy body disease. However, whether these ratios depend on patient age has not yet been clarified using normal databases. METHODS: We analyzed 62 patients (average age 57 ± 19 years, male 45%) derived from a normal database of the Japanese Society of Nuclear Medicine working group. The HMR was calculated from early (15 min) and delayed (3-4 h) anterior planar 123I-MIBG images...
January 15, 2018: Annals of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332010/oligogenic-genetic-variation-of-neurodegenerative-disease-genes-in-980-postmortem-human-brains
#7
Michael J Keogh, Wei Wei, Juvid Aryaman, Ian Wilson, Kevin Talbot, Martin R Turner, Chris-Anne McKenzie, Claire Troakes, Johannes Attems, Colin Smith, Safa Al Sarraj, Chris M Morris, Olaf Ansorge, Stuart Pickering-Brown, Nick Jones, James W Ironside, Patrick F Chinnery
BACKGROUND: Several studies suggest that multiple rare genetic variants in genes causing monogenic forms of neurodegenerative disorders interact synergistically to increase disease risk or reduce the age of onset, but these studies have not been validated in large sporadic case series. METHODS: We analysed 980 neuropathologically characterised human brains with Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease-dementia with Lewy bodies (PD-DLB), frontotemporal dementia-amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (FTD-ALS) and age-matched controls...
January 13, 2018: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331034/effects-of-in-situ-selenium-exposure-and-maternal-transfer-on-survival-and-deformities-of-brown-trout-salmo-trutta-fry
#8
Sean M Covington, Rami B Naddy, Alan L Prouty, Steven A Werner, Mark Dunn Lewis
Offspring of wild adult brown trout exposed to a range of selenium (Se) concentrations were reared in a laboratory setting to primarily assess effects on survival and deformities. Maternal whole body Se concentrations ranged from 4.7 to 22.6 mg/kg dry weight (dw) for wild fish. Corresponding Se concentrations in embryos ranged from 6.2 to 40.3 mg/kg dw. Significant relationships were found between embryo and whole-body tissue concentrations. Increasing egg Se concentrations were correlated with decreasing survival; however, hatch success was not significantly correlated with increasing embryo Se...
January 13, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330884/synapsin-iii-is-a-key-component-of-%C3%AE-synuclein-fibrils-in-lewy-bodies-of-pd-brains
#9
Francesca Longhena, Gaia Faustini, Tatiana Varanita, Michela Zaltieri, Vanessa Porrini, Isabella Tessari, Pietro Luigi Poliani, Cristina Missale, Barbara Borroni, Alessandro Padovani, Luigi Bubacco, Marina Pizzi, PierFranco Spano, Arianna Bellucci
Lewy bodies (LB) and Lewy neurites (LN), which are primarily composed of α-synuclein (α-syn), are neuropathological hallmarks of Parkinson's disease (PD) and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). We recently found that the neuronal phosphoprotein synapsin III (syn III) controls dopamine release via cooperation with α-syn and modulates α-syn aggregation. Here, we observed that LB and LN, in the substantia nigra of PD patients and hippocampus of one subject with DLB, displayed a marked immunopositivity for syn III...
January 13, 2018: Brain Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330040/yod1-attenuates-neurogenic-proteotoxicity-through-its-deubiquitinating-activity
#10
Kunikazu Tanji, Fumiaki Mori, Yasuo Miki, Jun Utsumi, Hidenao Sasaki, Akiyoshi Kakita, Hitoshi Takahashi, Koichi Wakabayashi
Ubiquitination, a fundamental post-translational modification of intracellular proteins, is enzymatically reversed by deubiquitinase enzymes (deubiquitinases). >90 deubiquitinases have been identified. One of these enzymes, YOD1, possesses deubiquitinase activity and is similar to ovarian tumor domain-containing protein 1, which is associated with regulation of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated degradation pathway. Indeed, YOD1 is reported to be involved in the ER stress response induced by mislocalization of unfolded proteins in mammalian cells...
January 10, 2018: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326186/factors-associated-with-neonatal-pneumonia-in-india-protocol-for-a-systematic-review-and-planned-meta-analysis
#11
Sreekumaran Nair, Leslie Edward Lewis, Myron Anthony Godinho, Shruti Murthy, Theophilus Lakiang, Bhumika T Venkatesh
INTRODUCTION: India accounts for more neonatal deaths than any other country. There is a lack of consolidated evidence from India regarding the determining factors of pneumonia in neonates. This systematic review is aimed to consolidate and appraise the evidence on risk factors and determinants of pneumonia among neonates in India. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This protocol is part of a project consisting of three reviews (two systematic reviews and one scoping review) and a qualitative study on neonatal pneumonia in India...
January 10, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324989/synaptic-markers-of-cognitive-decline-in-neurodegenerative-diseases-a-proteomic-approach
#12
Erika Bereczki, Rui M Branca, Paul T Francis, Joana B Pereira, Jean-Ha Baek, Tibor Hortobágyi, Bengt Winblad, Clive Ballard, Janne Lehtiö, Dag Aarsland
Cognitive changes occurring throughout the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases are directly linked to synaptic loss. We used in-depth proteomics to compare 32 post-mortem human brains in the prefrontal cortex of prospectively followed patients with Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease with dementia, dementia with Lewy bodies and older adults without dementia. In total, we identified 10 325 proteins, 851 of which were synaptic proteins. Levels of 25 synaptic proteins were significantly altered in the various dementia groups...
January 9, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324646/analysis-of-microcystins-in-cyanobacterial-blooms-from-freshwater-bodies-in-england
#13
Andrew D Turner, Monika Dhanji-Rapkova, Alison O'Neill, Lewis Coates, Adam Lewis, Katy Lewis
Cyanobacterial blooms in freshwater bodies in England are currently monitored reactively, with samples containing more than 20,000 cells/mL of potentially toxin-producing species by light microscopy resulting in action by the water body owner. Whilst significantly reducing the risk of microcystin exposure, there is little data describing the levels of these toxins present in cyanobacterial blooms. This study focused on the quantitative LC-MS/MS analysis of microcystins in freshwater samples, collected across England during 2016 and found to contain potentially toxin-producing cyanobacteria...
January 11, 2018: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324492/life-cycle-assessment-and-costing-methods-for-device-procurement-comparing-reusable-and-single-use-disposable-laryngoscopes
#14
Jodi D Sherman, Lewis A Raibley, Matthew J Eckelman
BACKGROUND: Traditional medical device procurement criteria include efficacy and safety, ease of use and handling, and procurement costs. However, little information is available about life cycle environmental impacts of the production, use, and disposal of medical devices, or about costs incurred after purchase. Reusable and disposable laryngoscopes are of current interest to anesthesiologists. Facing mounting pressure to quickly meet or exceed conflicting infection prevention guidelines and oversight body recommendations, many institutions may be electively switching to single-use disposable (SUD) rigid laryngoscopes or overcleaning reusables, potentially increasing both costs and waste generation...
January 9, 2018: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321140/cerebrospinal-fluid-alzheimer-biomarkers-can-be-useful-for-discriminating-dementia-with-lewy-bodies-from-alzheimer-s-disease-at-the-prodromal-stage
#15
Olivier Bousiges, Stephanie Bombois, Susanna Schraen, David Wallon, Muriel Muraine Quillard, Audrey Gabelle, Sylvain Lehmann, Claire Paquet, Elodie Amar-Bouaziz, Eloi Magnin, Carole Miguet-Alfonsi, Xavier Delbeuck, Thomas Lavaux, Pierre Anthony, Nathalie Philippi, Frederic Blanc
BACKGROUND: Differential diagnosis between dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) is not straightforward, especially in the early stages of disease. We compared AD biomarkers (phospho-Tau181, total-Tau, Aβ42 and Aβ40) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients with DLB and AD, focusing especially on the prodromal stage. METHODS: A total of 1221 CSF were collected in different memory centres (ePLM network) in France and analysed retrospectively...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320305/social-physique-anxiety-and-physical-activity-behaviour-of-male-and-female-exercisers
#16
Robert M Portman, Jane Bradbury, Kiara Lewis
Despite females consistently reporting greater social physique anxiety (SPA), previous literature has yet to demonstrate whether SPA gender differences are linked to the way males and females perform physical activity. This study investigated an association between SPA and physical activity frequency, history of exercise, and physical activity intensity. Participants were represented by currently active users (N = 33 males; N = 31 females) of an on-campus university-run gym and completed a background physical activity questionnaire and the nine-item Social Physique Anxiety Scale...
January 10, 2018: European Journal of Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316343/circulating-monocyte-chemoattractant-protein-1-mcp-1-is-associated-with-cachexia-in-treatment-na%C3%A3-ve-pancreatic-cancer-patients
#17
Erin E Talbert, Heather L Lewis, Matthew R Farren, Mitchell L Ramsey, Jeffery M Chakedis, Priyani Rajasekera, Ericka Haverick, Angela Sarna, Mark Bloomston, Timothy M Pawlik, Teresa A Zimmers, Gregory B Lesinski, Phil A Hart, Mary E Dillhoff, Carl R Schmidt, Denis C Guttridge
BACKGROUND: Cancer-associated wasting, termed cancer cachexia, has a profound effect on the morbidity and mortality of cancer patients but remains difficult to recognize and diagnose. While increases in circulating levels of a number of inflammatory cytokines have been associated with cancer cachexia, these associations were generally made in patients with advanced disease and thus may be associated with disease progression rather than directly with the cachexia syndrome. Thus, we sought to assess potential biomarkers of cancer-induced cachexia in patients with earlier stages of disease...
January 7, 2018: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314195/methylene-blue-induced-heinz-body-hemolytic-anemia-in-a-premature-neonate
#18
Lewis Vanhinsbergh, Sabita Uthaya, Barbara J Bain
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 5, 2018: American Journal of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313531/fluorescence-spectroscopy-reveals-n-terminal-order-in-fibrillar-forms-of-%C3%AE-synuclein
#19
Conor M Haney, E James Petersson
The neuronal protein α-synuclein (αS) plays a key role in Parkinson's disease, forming inclusions termed Lewy bodies and Lewy neurites. Recent improvements in cryo-electron diffraction and solid state NMR (ssNMR) have led to the elucidation of the structures of peptides derived from the αS fibril core and full-length human αS in fibrils. Despite the valuable insight offered by these methods, there are still several questions about the structures' relevance to pathological aggregates. Herein, we present fluorescence data collected in vitro under the conditions which fibrils are typically assembled...
January 9, 2018: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311330/gba1-deficiency-negatively-affects-physiological-%C3%AE-synuclein-tetramers-and-related-multimers
#20
Sangjune Kim, Seung Pil Yun, Saebom Lee, George Essien Umanah, Veera Venkata Ratnam Bandaru, Xiling Yin, Peter Rhee, Senthilkumar S Karuppagounder, Seung-Hwan Kwon, Hojae Lee, Xiaobo Mao, Donghoon Kim, Akhilesh Pandey, Gabsang Lee, Valina L Dawson, Ted M Dawson, Han Seok Ko
Accumulating evidence suggests that α-synuclein (α-syn) occurs physiologically as a helically folded tetramer that resists aggregation. However, the mechanisms underlying the regulation of formation of α-syn tetramers are still mostly unknown. Cellular membrane lipids are thought to play an important role in the regulation of α-syn tetramer formation. Since glucocerebrosidase 1 (GBA1) deficiency contributes to the aggregation of α-syn and leads to changes in neuronal glycosphingolipids (GSLs) including gangliosides, we hypothesized that GBA1 deficiency may affect the formation of α-syn tetramers...
January 8, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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