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Lewy bodies

Po-Chi Chan, Cheng-Yu Wei, Guang-Uei Hung, Pai-Yi Chiu
Objectives: The association of vascular risk factors (VRFs) with incidence of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and vascular dementia (VaD) has been well studied. However, the association between VRFs and non-AD dementia is seldom investigated. In this study, we aim to compare the concurrence of VRFs of Lewy body dementia (LBD) to AD. Materials & Methods: We consecutively enrolled patients with dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD), and AD, and the prevalence of arterial hypertension, diabetes mellitus, hypercholesterolemia, hyperlipidemia, smoking, and obesity was assessed and compared...
March 2018: Brain and Behavior
Gustavo Heluani Antunes de Mesquita, Yuri Justi Jardim, Leandro Ryuchi Iuamoto, Fabio Yuji Suguita, Felipe Futema Essu, Lucas Torres Oliveira, Alberto Meyer, Alessandra Crescenzi, Vinícius Rocha-Santos, Flavio H F Galvão, Wellington Andraus, Eleazar Chaib, Luiz Augusto Carneiro D'Albuquerque
Background: Islets of Langerhans transplantation is a promising alternative for glycemic control in patients with type 1 diabetes. The graft site is a factor that has large impact on the functioning of this transplant, and the stomach appears to be a promising location. Our objective is to describe a new experimental model for the grafting of Islets of Langerhans in rat stomachs. Methodology: Islets of Langerhans were extracted from 45 isogenic male rats of the Lewis lineage and transplanted into 9 isogenic rats of the Wistar lineage; 5 in the gastric body submucosa, and 4 in the gastric fundus submucosa...
April 2018: Annals of Medicine and Surgery
Roshan Kumar, Raniki Kumari, Sanjay Kumar, Deepak Kumar Jangir, Tushar Kanti Maiti
α-Synuclein, a major constituent of proteinaceous inclusions named Lewy body, has been shown to be released and taken up by cells, which may facilitate its progressive pathological spreading and neuronal cell death in Parkinson's disease. However, the pathophysiological effect and signalling cascade initiated by extracellular α-synuclein in cellular milieu are not well understood. Herein we have investigated the perturbations induced by low molecular weight α-synuclein and different types of α-synuclein oligomers in the neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells...
March 14, 2018: Biomacromolecules
Gerd Wallukat, Harald Prüss, Johannes Müller, Ingolf Schimke
Dementia in general and Alzheimer's disease in particular is increasingly seen in association with autoimmunity being causatively or supportively involved in the pathogenesis. Besides classic autoantibodies (AABs) present in dementia patients, there is the new autoantibody class called functional autoantibodies, which is directed against G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs; GPCR-AABs) and are seen as pathogenic players. However, less is known about dementia patients' burden with functional autoantibodies. We present here for the first time a study analyzing the prevalence of GPCR-AABs in patients with different dementia forms such as unclassified, Lewy body, vascular and Alzheimer's dementia...
2018: PloS One
Hiroshige Fujishiro, Masato Okuda, Kunihiro Iwamoto, Seiko Miyata, Youta Torii, Shuji Iritani, Norio Ozaki
AIMS: REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) and psychiatric symptoms often antedate the clinical diagnosis of Parkinson's disease / dementia with Lewy bodies. The purpose of this study is to investigate RBD and its relevance to Lewy body disease (LBD) in patients with late-onset psychiatric disorders. METHODS: Study subjects included 19 patients with late-onset psychiatric disorders who exhibited REM sleep without atonia (RWA), which is a hallmark of RBD on polysomnography, at our psychiatric ward...
March 14, 2018: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
Ivan Martinez-Valbuena, Irene Amat-Villegas, Rafael Valenti-Azcarate, Maria Del Mar Carmona-Abellan, Irene Marcilla, Maria-Teresa Tuñon, Maria-Rosario Luquin
Parkinson's disease patients experience a wide range of non-motor symptoms that may be provoked by deposits of phosphorylated α-synuclein in the peripheral nervous system. Pre-existing diabetes mellitus might be a risk factor for developing Parkinson's disease, and indeed, nearly 60% of Parkinson's disease patients are insulin resistant. Thus, we have investigated whether phosphorylated α-synuclein is deposited in pancreatic tissue of subjects with synucleinopathies. We studied pancreatic tissue from 39 subjects diagnosed with Parkinson's disease, Lewy body Dementia or incidental Lewy bodies disease, as well as that from 34 subjects with diabetes mellitus and a normal neuropathological examination, and 52 subjects with a normal neuropathological examination...
March 13, 2018: Acta Neuropathologica
Deborah Wearne, Amanda Genetti, Sam Restifo, Alina Harriss
OBJECTIVES: We aim to explore the importance of early diagnosis of dementia with Lewy bodies in order to facilitate effective psychiatric management. We present a case where delayed diagnosis stemming from an atypical presentation illustrates the complex issues involved in identifying and treating this type of dementia. CONCLUSIONS: We discuss the difficulty of diagnosis of this disorder in the absence of obvious memory dysfunction or parkinsonian symptoms. We use the case to draw attention to the limited availability of certain investigations and treatment options in Australia...
March 1, 2018: Australasian Psychiatry: Bulletin of Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists
Vincenzo Donadio
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 13, 2018: Neurology
Imran Khan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 13, 2018: Neurology
Chafic Karam, Steven Galetta
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 13, 2018: Neurology
Waqar Haque, Vivek Verma, Gary D Lewis, Simon S Lo, Edward Brian Butler, Bin S Teh
AIM: This study evaluated national practice patterns of cT1N0M0 renal cell cancer, with a focus on stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) utilization. METHODS: The National Cancer Database was queried (2004-2013) for patients with newly-diagnosed cT1a/bN0M0 renal cell cancer that received definitive treatment. Temporal trends in utilization were tabulated. RESULTS: Altogether, 138,495 patients met inclusion criteria; 13,725 (9.9%) patients received ablative therapy, 57,924 (41...
March 12, 2018: Future Oncology
Emma Robson, Clare Tweedy, Nelson Manzanza, John-Paul Taylor, Peter Atkinson, Fiona Randall, Amy Reeve, Gavin J Clowry, Fiona E N LeBeau
Intracellular accumulation of alpha-synuclein (α-syn) is a key pathological process evident in Lewy body dementias (LBD), including Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD) and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). LBD results in marked cognitive impairments and changes in cortical networks. To assess the impact of abnormal α-syn expression on cortical network oscillations relevant to cognitive function, we studied changes in fast beta/gamma network oscillations in the hippocampus in a mouse line that over-expresses human mutant α-syn (A30P)...
March 7, 2018: Neuroscience
Eline A J Willemse, Ann De Vos, Elizabeth M Herries, Ulf Andreasson, Sebastiaan Engelborghs, Wiesje M van der Flier, Philip Scheltens, Dan Crimmins, Jack H Ladenson, Eugeen Vanmechelen, Henrik Zetterberg, Anne M Fagan, Kaj Blennow, Maria Bjerke, Charlotte E Teunissen
BACKGROUND: Neurogranin in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) correlates with cognitive decline and is a potential novel biomarker for Alzheimer disease (AD) dementia. We investigated the analytical and diagnostic performance of 3 commonly used neurogranin assays in the same cohort of patients to improve the interpretability of CSF neurogranin test results. METHODS: The neurogranin Singulex assay from Washington University, St. Louis, MO (WashU); ELISA from ADx Neurosciences; and ELISA from Gothenburg University, Mölndal, Sweden (UGot), were compared using silver staining and Western blot after gel electrophoresis...
March 9, 2018: Clinical Chemistry
Morten Gersel Stokholm, Alex Iranzo, Karen Østergaard, Mónica Serradell, Marit Otto, Kristina Bacher Svendsen, Alicia Garrido, Dolores Vilas, Peter Parbo, Per Borghammer, Joan Santamaria, Arne Møller, Carles Gaig, David J Brooks, Eduardo Tolosa, Nicola Pavese
BACKGROUND: The majority of patients diagnosed with idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder (iRBD) progress over time to a Lewy-type α-synucleinopathy such as Parkinson's disease or dementia with Lewy bodies. This in vivo molecular imaging study aimed to investigate if extrastriatal monoaminergic systems are affected in iRBD patients and if this coincides with neuroinflammation. METHODS: We studied twenty-one polysomnography-confirmed iRBD patients with18 F-DOPA and11 C-PK11195 positron emission tomography (PET) to investigate extrastriatal monoaminergic function and microglial activation...
March 6, 2018: Neurobiology of Disease
Liying Yang, Hongyan Wang, Lijun Liu, Anmu Xie
Dementia, a condition that frequently afflicts patients in advanced stages of Parkinson's disease (PD), results in decreased quality of life and survival time. Nevertheless, the pathological mechanisms underlying Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD) are not completely understood. The symptoms characteristic of PDD may be the result of functional and structural deficiencies. The present study implicates the accumulation of Lewy bodies in the cortex and limbic system as a potent trigger in the development of PDD...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Paul L Wood, Soumya Tippireddy, Joshua Feriante, Randall L Woltjer
BACKGROUND: Research from our laboratory, and that of other investigators, has demonstrated augmented levels of diacylglycerols (DAG) in the frontal cortex and plasma of subjects with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI). We have extended these observations to investigate the frontal cortex of subjects with Parkinson's disease (PD) and Lewy Body Disease (LBD), with and without coexisting pathologic features of AD. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Utilizing a high-resolution mass spectrometry analytical platform, we clearly demonstrate that DAG levels are significantly increased in the frontal cortex of subjects with PD, LBD with intermediate neocortical AD neuropathology, and in LBD with established neocortical AD neuropathology...
2018: PloS One
Marion M Ortner
The diagnosis of dementia probably due to Alzheimer's disease is still primarily a clinical one. In cases that remain clinically unclear, however, biomarkers for amyloid deposition and neuronal injury can help to identify the underlying cause. One biomarker even for early neuronal injury in the stage of mild cognitive impairment is cerebral glucose hypometabolism measured by18 F-FDG PET. Distinct patterns of hypometabolism can be seen, for example, in dementia due to Alzheimer's disease, frontotemporal lobar degeneration, and dementia with Lewy bodies...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Wolfgang Reith
Neurodegenerative diseases are sporadic and rare hereditary disorders of the central nervous system, which cause a slowly progressive loss of function of specific neuron populations and their connections. Severe impairments and care dependency can be the sequelae. Neurodegenerative disorders are diseases of older people; therefore, the demographic shift leads to an increase in the number of affected patients. Radiologists will also become more involved. For this reason important neurodegenerative diseases are presented in this article...
March 2018: Der Radiologe
Kurt A Jellinger, Amos D Korczyn
BACKGROUND: Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) and Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD), which share many clinical, neurochemical, and morphological features, have been incorporated into DSM-5 as two separate entities of major neurocognitive disorders with Lewy bodies. Despite clinical overlap, their diagnosis is based on an arbitrary distinction concerning the time of onset of motor and cognitive symptoms, namely as early cognitive impairment in DLB and later onset following that of motor symptoms in PDD...
March 6, 2018: BMC Medicine
Caroline Petus, Michelle Devlin, Eduardo Teixera da Silva, Stephen Lewis, Jane Waterhouse, Amelia Wenger, Zoe Bainbridge, Dieter Tracey
Optically active water quality components (OAC) transported by flood plumes to nearshore marine environments affect light levels. The definition of minimum OAC concentrations that must be maintained to sustain sufficient light levels for conservation of light-dependant coastal ecosystems exposed to flood waters is necessary to guide management actions in adjacent catchments. In this study, a framework for defining OAC target concentrations using empirical light attenuation models is proposed and applied to the Wet Tropics region of the Great Barrier Reef (GBR) (Queensland, Australia)...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
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