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Sara M K Madsen, Torsten Dau, Brian C J Moore
The ability to segregate sounds from different sound sources is thought to depend on the perceptual salience of differences between the sounds, such as differences in frequency or fundamental frequency (F0). F0 discrimination of complex tones is better for tones with low harmonics than for tones that only contain high harmonics, suggesting greater pitch salience for the former. This leads to the expectation that the sequential stream segregation (streaming) of complex tones should be better for tones with low harmonics than for tones with only high harmonics...
June 12, 2018: Hearing Research
Xiaoyi Li, Gaoming Li, Ying Li, Xiangge Kong, Liang Zhang, Jianmei Wang, Xufeng Li, Yi Yang
The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) regulates plant growth, the developmental process, and abiotic stresses. ABA signaling is induced in response to mediate plant acclimation to environmental challenges, including high salinity and drought. The ABA-binding receptors (RCAR/PYR1/PYL), composing of 14 members, are the core components of the ABA-signaling pathway. Here, we observed that the three subfamilies within the RCARs showed different expression patterns at the basal and exogenous ABA levels. Subsequently, we generated transgenic plants overexpressing subfamily III, RCAR11⁻RCAR14 , respectively...
July 2, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
C Carrasco-Orellana, Y Stappung, A Mendez-Yañez, A C Allan, R V Espley, B J Plunkett, M A Moya-Leon, R Herrera
Fragaria chiloensis is a strawberry endemic from Chile with attractive white-pink fruit, pleasant aroma and taste. However, this fruit has a limited post-harvest period due to fast softening. Several transcription factors (TFs) are involved in the regulation of fruit ripening, and members of the NAC family have been implicated in cell wall remodeling. FcNAC1 was isolated from F. chiloensis fruit, coding a protein of 332 amino acid residues and displaying a characteristic NAC domain at the N terminus. FcNAC1 protein showed nuclear localization...
July 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
Israel de Jesus Sampaio Filho, Kolby Jeremiah Jardine, Rosilena Conceição Azevedo de Oliveira, Bruno Oliva Gimenez, Leticia Oliveira Cobello, Luani Rosa de Oliveira Piva, Luiz Antonio Candido, Niro Higuchi, Jeffrey Quintin Chambers
Warming surface temperatures and increasing frequency and duration of widespread droughts threaten the health of natural forests and agricultural crops. High temperatures (HT) and intense droughts can lead to the excessive plant water loss and the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) resulting in extensive physical and oxidative damage to sensitive plant components including photosynthetic membranes. ROS signaling is tightly integrated with signaling mechanisms of the potent phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA), which stimulates stomatal closure leading to a reduction in transpiration and net photosynthesis, alters hydraulic conductivities, and activates defense gene expression including antioxidant systems...
July 12, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Pei Wang, Daojie Wang, Jinhu Lu
Based on structural controllability of complex networks and a constructed gene network with 9241 nodes for Arabidopsis thaliana, we classified nodes into five categories via their roles in control or node deletion, including indispensable, neutral, dispensable, driver and critical driver nodes. The indispensable nodes can increase the number of drivers after deletion, which are never drivers or critical drivers. About 10% nodes are indispensable. However, more than 60% nodes are neutral ones. More than 62% nodes are drivers, and indicates the gene network is very difficult to be fully controlled...
March 30, 2018: IEEE/ACM Transactions on Computational Biology and Bioinformatics
Mengliang Niu, Junjun Xie, Chen Chen, Haishun Cao, Jingyu Sun, Qiusheng Kong, Sergey Shabala, Lana Shabala, Yuan Huang, Zhilong Bie
This work aimed to reveal the physiological and molecular basis of differential salinity stress tolerance within the Cucurbita species. Five C. maxima (salt tolerant) and five C. moschata (salt-sensitive) genotypes have been comprehensively accessed for the salt tolerance mechanism. Our results show that tissue-specific transport characteristics enable the more tolerant lines to deal with the salt load. This mechanism is conferred by the ability of this species to accumulate more Na+ in the leaf vein and retain more K+ in the leaf mesophyll...
July 10, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Nadeem Khan, Chun-Mei Hu, Waleed Amjad Khan, Xilin Hou
The GSTs is one of the most important multifunctional protein families which has been playing a crucial role in the different aspects of plant growth. This extensive study about GSTs may establish a solid foundation for the brief functional analysis of BraGSTs in future. In this study, a total of 75 genes were identified in B. rapa . Phylogenetic analysis characterized them into eight different subclasses, while Tau and Phi subclasses were the most numerous. The exon-intron structure and the motif composition of BraGSTs were exhibited accordingly to their subclasses...
2018: BioMed Research International
Qiong Wu, Xiaoya Tao, Xinzi Ai, Zisheng Luo, Linchun Mao, Tiejin Ying, Li Li
Fruit aroma development depends on ripening. Abscisic acid (ABA) has been reported to be involved in the regulation of tomato fruit ripening. In the present study, the effects of exogenous ABA on aromatic volatiles in tomato fruit during postharvest ripening were studied. The results showed that exogenous ABA accelerated color development and ethylene production as well as the accumulation of carotenoids, total phenolics and linoleic acid in tomato fruit during ripening. Moreover, exogenous ABA increased the accumulation of volatile compounds such as 1-peten-3-one (2...
June 30, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Rangjin Xie, Ting Ge, Jing Zhang, Xiaoting Pan, Yanyan Ma, Shilai Yi, Yongqiang Zheng
Citrus fruits possess two abscission zones (AZ), AZ A and AZ C located at the pedicel and calyx, respectively. Early citrus fruitlet abscission (CFA) exclusively occurs at AZ A. Previous data have shown that indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) could inhibit fruitlet abscission. However, its role in CFA remains vague. In this study, we first removed the ovaries of fruitlets in order to exclude their interferences. Then, the calyxes were treated with IAA, gibberellin 3 (GA3 ) and 6-benzylaminopurine (6-BA), respectively...
July 5, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Ravi Gupta, Cheol Woo Min, Qingfeng Meng, Ganesh Kumar Agrawal, Randeep Rakwal, Sun Tae Kim
Abscisic acid (ABA) and ethylene play key roles in growth and development of plants. Several attempts have been made to investigate the ABA and ethylene-induced signaling in plants, however, the involvement of phosphorylation and dephosphorylation in fine-tuning of the induced response has not been investigated much. Here, a phosphoproteomic analysis was carried out to identify the phosphoproteins in response to ABA, ethylene (ET) and combined ABA + ET treatments in soybean leaves. Phosphoproteome analysis led to the identification of 802 phosphopeptides, representing 422 unique protein groups...
July 4, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Wim Dejonghe, Masanori Okamoto, Sean R Cutler
The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) mediates many physiological and developmental responses and its key role in plant water relations has fueled efforts to improve crop water productivity by manipulating ABA responses. ABA's core signaling components are encoded by large gene families, which has hampered functional studies using classical genetic approaches due to redundancy. Chemical approaches can complement genetic approaches and have the advantage of delivering both biological probes and potential agrochemical leads; these benefits have spawned the discovery and design of new chemical modulators of ABA signaling and biosynthesis, which have contributed to the identification of ABA receptors and helped to define PYR1 and related subfamily III receptors as key cellular targets for chemically manipulating water productivity...
July 9, 2018: Plant & Cell Physiology
Christina G Katsiari, Theodora Simopoulou, Ioannis Alexiou, Lazaros I Sakkas
Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a chronic systemic disease characterized by microvasculopathy, immune activation, and extensive collagen deposition. Microvasculopathy and immune activation occur very early in the disease process. Evidence from animal models and in vitro studies indicate that T-cells and B-cells activate fibroblasts to produce collagen. Traditional immunosuppressants, cyclophosphamide(CyP), methotrexate(MTX), and more recently mycophenolate mofetil(MMF), may prove more effective if used very early in the disease course...
July 9, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Aba Losi, Kevin H Gardner, Andreas Möglich
Sensory photoreceptors underpin light-dependent adaptations of organismal physiology, development, and behavior in nature. Adapted for optogenetics, sensory photoreceptors become genetically encoded actuators and reporters to enable the noninvasive, spatiotemporally accurate and reversible control by light of cellular processes. Rooted in a mechanistic understanding of natural photoreceptors, artificial photoreceptors with customized light-gated function have been engineered that greatly expand the scope of optogenetics beyond the original application of light-controlled ion flow...
July 9, 2018: Chemical Reviews
Nicole Bridges, Gwyneth Howell, Virginia Schmied
Background: Lack of breastfeeding support is often cited by mothers as one of the key reasons for premature weaning. The experiences and perceptions of breastfeeding mothers in a range of contexts and their support needs have been studied, but there has been little exploration of the specific breastfeeding topics that women are investigating via social networking sites (SNSs) such as Facebook, and how breastfeeding peer supporters respond to queries about breastfeeding concerns on a SNS...
2018: International Breastfeeding Journal
Jianyun Yue, Changjian Du, Jing Ji, Tiantian Xie, Wei Chen, Ermei Chang, Lanzhen Chen, Zeping Jiang, Shengqing Shi
Blocking α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase results in up-regulation of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) shunt activity, and inhibits the growth of poplar adventitious roots (ARs), indicating that AR growth is closely associated with GABA shunt. γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) shunt starts from α-ketoglutarate in the tricarboxylic acid cycle, which is thought to represent the cross road between carbon and nitrogen metabolism. Previous studies (Araújo et al. 2012b, Plant Cell 24: 2328-2351) have shown that blocking α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase (α-KGDH) affects the GABA shunt activity, and inhibits growth...
July 7, 2018: Planta
Hongwen Wang, Wanxin Chen, Kai Eggert, Tatsiana Charnikhova, Harro Bouwmeester, Patrick Schweizer, Mohammad R Hajirezaei, Christiane Seiler, Nese Sreenivasulu, Nicolaus von Wirén, Markus Kuhlmann
Strigolactones (SLs) represent a class of plant hormones that are involved in inhibiting shoot branching and in promoting abiotic stress responses. There is evidence that the biosynthetic pathways of SLs and abscisic acid (ABA) are functionally connected. However, little is known about the mechanisms underlying the interaction of SLs and ABA, and the relevance of this interaction for shoot architecture. Based on sequence homology, four genes (HvD27, HvMAX1, HvCCD7, and HvCCD8) involved in SL biosynthesis were identified in barley and functionally verified by complementation of Arabidopsis mutants or by virus-induced gene silencing...
July 5, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Jing Xia, Yan Jun Ma, Yue Wang, Jian Wen Wang
To investigate on the effects of autopolyploidization on growth and artemisinin biosynthesis in Artemisia annua, we performed a comprehensive transcriptomic characterization of diploid and induced autotetraploid A. annua. The polyploidization treatment not only enhanced photosynthetic capacity and endogenous contents of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), abscisic acid (ABA) and jasmonic acid (JA), oxidative stress, but increased the average level of artemisinin in tetraploids from 42.0 to 63.6%. The obvious phenotypic alterations in tetraploids were observed including shorter stems, larger size of stomata and glandular secretory trichomes (GSTs), larger leaves, more branches and roots...
June 18, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Romina Molina, Diego Rivera, Verónica Mora, Gastón López, Susana Rosas, Stijn Spaepen, Jos Vanderleyden, Fabricio Cassán
Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) is one of the most important molecules produced by Azospirillum sp., given that it affects plant growth and development. Azospirillum brasilense strains Sp245 and Az39 (pFAJ64) were pre-incubated in MMAB medium plus 100 mg/mL L-tryptophan and treated with or exposed to the following (a) abiotic and (b) biotic stress effectors: (a) 100 mM NaCl or Na2 SO4, 4.0% (w/v) PEG6000, 0.5 mM H2 O2, 0.1 mM abscisic acid, 0.1 mM 1-aminocyclopropane 1-carboxylic acid, 45 °C or daylight, and (b) 4...
July 6, 2018: Current Microbiology
Peter Grones, Melinda Abas, Jakub Hajný, Angharad Jones, Sascha Waidmann, Jürgen Kleine-Vehn, Jiří Friml
Intercellular distribution of the plant hormone auxin largely depends on the polar subcellular distribution of the plasma membrane PIN-FORMED (PIN) auxin transporters. PIN polarity switches in response to different developmental and environmental signals have been shown to redirect auxin fluxes mediating certain developmental responses. PIN phosphorylation at different sites and by different kinases is crucial for PIN function. Here we investigate the role of PIN phosphorylation during gravitropic response...
July 6, 2018: Scientific Reports
Chin Theng Ng, Lai Yen Fong, Jun Jie Tan, Nor Fadilah Rajab, Faridah Abas, Khozirah Shaari, Kok Meng Chan, Fariza Juliana, Yoke Keong Yong
BACKGROUND: Clinacanthus nutans (Burm. f.) Lindau. has traditionally been using in South East Asia countries to manage cancer. However, scientific evidence is generally lacking to support this traditional claim. This study aims to investigate the in vitro, ex-vivo and in vivo effects of C. nutans extracts on angiogenesis. METHODS: C. nutans leaves was extracted with 50-100% ethanol or deionised water at 1% (w/v). Human umbilical veins endothelial cell (HUVEC) proliferation was examined using MTT assay...
July 6, 2018: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
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