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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142166/fish-oil-feeding-reverses-hepatomegaly-and-disrupted-hepatic-function-due-to-the-lack-of-fxr-signaling
#1
Masaaki Miyata, Kouhei Shinno, Tomoki Kinoshita, Yuichi Kinoshita, Yoshimasa Sugiura
Mice lacking farnesoid X receptor (FXR) are used as a model for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease because their livers exhibit hepatomegaly, hepatic steatosis, and hepatic inflammation. The influence of fish oil feeding on hepatomegaly and disrupted hepatic function was investigated using female Fxr-null mice and wild-type mice fed a fish oil diet (2% fish oil and 2% corn oil) or a control diet (4% corn oil) for 4 weeks. Hepatic n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) levels, including 22:6 n-3 docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and 20:5 n-3 eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) were significantly higher in the fish oil group than those in the control group of Fxr-null mice and wild-type mice...
2017: Journal of Toxicological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096690/tlr2-stimulation-impairs-anti-inflammatory-activity-of-m2-like-macrophages-generating-a-chimeric-m1-m2-phenotype
#2
Lilian Quero, Edveena Hanser, Tobias Manigold, André N Tiaden, Diego Kyburz
BACKGROUND: Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and macrophages play an important role in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Currently, it is not clear whether inflammatory M1 or anti-inflammatory M2 predominate among the resident macrophages in the synovium. In the present study, we set out to investigate the impact of TLR stimulation on monocyte-derived M1 and M2 macrophage function and phenotype by mimicking the exposure to abundant TLR agonists as occurs in the context of RA. The response of macrophage subsets to TLR2 and TLR4 activation was evaluated on cluster of differentiation (CD) marker profile; cytokine secretion; gene expression; and NF-κB, interferon regulatory factors 3 and 7 (IRF3/7), and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation...
November 2, 2017: Arthritis Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29082606/increased-small-intestine-expression-of-non-heme-iron-transporters-in-morbidly-obese-patients-with-newly-diagnosed-type-2-diabetes
#3
José María Moreno-Navarrete, Amaia Rodríguez, Sara Becerril, Víctor Valentí, Javier Salvador, Gema Frühbeck, José Manuel Fernández-Real
SCOPE: To investigate intestinal markers of iron absorption in morbidly obese subjects according to glucose tolerance. METHODS AND RESULTS: Gene expression of both non-heme [SLC40A1 (ferroportin), SLC11A2] and heme iron [SLC46A1 (HCP1), HMOX1] transporters were analysed in 38 small intestine tissue samples [11 with normal glucose tolerance, 14 with glucose intolerance (GI) and 13 with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes (T2D)]. SLC40A1 (r = 0.43, p = 0.008) and SLC11A2 (r = 0...
October 29, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074538/tgf-%C3%AE-promotes-genomic-instability-after-loss-of-runx3
#4
Vaidehi Krishnan, Yu Lin Chong, Tuan Zea Tan, Madhura D Kulkarni, Muhammad Bakhait Bin Rahmat, Lavina Sierra Tay, Doorgesh S Jokhun, Amudha Ganesan, Linda Shyue Huey Chuang, Dominic Chih-Cheng Voon, Shivashankar Gv, Jean Paul Thiery, Yoshiaki Ito
Studies of genomic instability have historically focused on intrinsic mechanisms rather than extrinsic mechanisms based on the tumor microenvironment (TME). TGF-β is the most abundantly secreted cytokine in the TME where it imparts various aggressive characteristics including invasive migration, drug resistance and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Here we show that TGF-β also promotes genomic instability in the form of DNA double strand breaks (DSB) in cancer cells which lack the tumor suppressor gene RUNX3...
October 26, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065700/murine-bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-respond-efficiently-to-oxidative-stress-despite-the-low-level-of-heme-oxygenases-1-and-2
#5
Witold Norbert Nowak, Hevidar Taha, Neli Kachamakova-Trojanowska, Jacek Stepniewski, Joanna Agata Markiewicz, Anna Kusienicka, Krzysztof Szade, Agata Szade, Karolina Bukowska-Strakova, Karolina Hajduk, Damian Klóska, Aleksandra Kopacz, Anna Grochot-Przeczek, Kathrin Barthenheier, Camille Cauvin, Jozef Dulak, Alicja Jozkowicz
AIMS: Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are heterogeneous cells from adult tissues, able to differentiate in vitro into adipocytes, osteoblasts or chondrocytes. Such cells are widely studied in regenerative medicine. However, the success of cellular therapy depends on the cell survival. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1, encoded by the Hmox1 gene), an enzyme converting heme to biliverdin, carbon monoxide, and Fe2+, is cytoprotective and can affect stem cell performance. Therefore, our study aimed to assess if Hmox1 is critical for survival and functions of murine bone marrow MSCs...
October 25, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056901/interleukin-10-attenuates-hypochlorous-acid-mediated-cytotoxicity-to-hei-oc1-cochlear-cells
#6
Martin Mwangi, Sung-Hee Kil, David Phak, Hun Yi Park, David J Lim, Raekil Park, Sung K Moon
Inflammatory reaction plays a crucial role in the pathophysiology of acquired hearing loss such as ototoxicity and labyrinthitis. In our earlier work, we showed the pivotal role of otic fibrocytes in cochlear inflammation and the critical involvement of proinflammatory cytokines in cisplatin ototoxicity. We also demonstrated that otic fibrocytes inhibit monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (CCL2) upregulation in response to interleukin-10 (IL-10) via heme oxygenase 1 (HMOX1) signaling, resulting in suppression of cochlear inflammation...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050310/microrna-27b-inhibition-promotes-nrf2-are-pathway-activation-and-alleviates-intracerebral-hemorrhage-induced-brain-injury
#7
Wenzhe Xu, Feng Li, Zhiguo Liu, Zhenkuan Xu, Bin Sun, Jingwei Cao, Yuguang Liu
Oxidative stress and neuroinflammation are the key factors leading to secondary brain injury after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). We investigated the effects of miR-27b, an oxidative stress-responsive microRNA, on ICH-induced brain injury in rats. The ICH model was induced by intracerebral injection of collagenase. Following ICH, miR-27b expression in the striatum was reduced, whereas expression of Nrf2 mRNA and protein was increased. In PC12 cells, overexpression of miR-27b reduced expression of Nrf2, Hmox1, Sod1 and Nqo1, while miR-27b inhibition had the opposite effects...
September 19, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048948/the-spectrum-of-sickle-hemoglobin-related-nephropathy-from-sickle-cell-disease-to-sickle-trait
#8
Rakhi P Naik, Vimal K Derebail
Renal dysfunction is among the most common complication of sickle cell disease (SCD), from hyposthenuria in children to progression to overt chronic kidney disease (CKD) in young adults. Emerging evidence now suggests that sickle hemoglobin-related nephropathy extends to individuals with sickle cell trait (SCT). Areas covered: This review will highlight the pathophysiology, epidemiology, and management recommendations for sickle nephropathy in both SCD and SCT. In addition, it will focus on the major demographic and genetic modifiers of renal disease in sickling hemoglobinopathies...
October 19, 2017: Expert Review of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033950/glutathione-fine-tunes-the-innate-immune-response-toward-antiviral-pathways-in-a-macrophage-cell-line-independently-of-its-antioxidant-properties
#9
Marina Diotallevi, Paola Checconi, Anna Teresa Palamara, Ignacio Celestino, Lucia Coppo, Arne Holmgren, Kahina Abbas, Fabienne Peyrot, Manuela Mengozzi, Pietro Ghezzi
Glutathione (GSH), a major cellular antioxidant, is considered an inhibitor of the inflammatory response involving reactive oxygen species (ROS). However, evidence is largely based on experiments with exogenously added antioxidants/reducing agents or pro-oxidants. We show that depleting macrophages of 99% of GSH does not exacerbate the inflammatory gene expression profile in the RAW264 macrophage cell line or increase expression of inflammatory cytokines in response to the toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) agonist lipopolysaccharide (LPS); only two small patterns of LPS-induced genes were sensitive to GSH depletion...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033051/genetics-of-restless-legs-syndrome-an-update
#10
REVIEW
Félix J Jiménez-Jiménez, Hortensia Alonso-Navarro, Elena García-Martín, José A G Agúndez
A major role of genetic factors in the risk of developing restless legs syndrome (RLS) is supported by the high frequency of positive family history of RLS in patients affected with this disease, and the higher concordance rates in monozygotic twins compared with dizygotic ones in twin studies. In this review we have focused on those reports describing inheritance patterns of RLS, genetic anticipation, the results of studies performed on positivity of family history of RLS, twin studies, linkage studies in familial RLS, genome-wide association studies (GWAS), exome sequencing studies, and case-control association studies on candidate genes in RLS...
August 31, 2017: Sleep Medicine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991044/mountain-cycling-ultramarathon-impacts-in-inflammatory-and-hemoglobin-responses
#11
Isanete Alonso, Andreia Matos, Ricardo Ribeiro, Ângela Gil, Carlos Cardoso, Luís B Sardinha, Manuel Bicho
PURPOSE: To analyze the cumulative physiological burden of repetitive, strenuous exercise held during mountain cycling ultramarathon on regulatory mechanisms of hemoglobin degradation. METHODS: Fifty-five non-professional athletes (mean age 44.8±7.1 years old) participating in a 9-consecutive-day mountain cycling ultramarathon (TransPortugal), underwent anthropometric, hematological and biochemical assessments before and immediately after the race. Participants were further stratified as completers (9 courses) or non-completers, and divided according to the time they took to complete the race...
October 3, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984888/consumption-of-a-single-serving-of-red-raspberries-per-day-reduces-metabolic-syndrome-parameters-in-high-fat-fed-mice
#12
T Luo, O Miranda-Garcia, G Sasaki, N F Shay
Using an animal model for diet-induced metabolic disease, we have shown previously that the addition of raspberry juice concentrate (RJC) and raspberry puree concentrate (RPC) at a level of 10% of kcal, equivalent to four servings per day, to an obesogenic high-fat, western-style diet (HF) significantly reduced body weight gain, serum resistin levels, and altered the expression of hepatic genes related to lipid metabolism and oxidative stress. This study was designed to examine the effect of a lower level of RJC or RPC consumption, at a level representing a single serving of food per day (2...
October 6, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28976231/dietary-quercetin-ameliorates-experimental-colitis-in-mouse-by-remodeling-the-function-of-colonic-macrophages-via-a-heme-oxygenase-1-dependent-pathway
#13
Songwen Ju, Yan Ge, Ping Li, Xinxin Tian, Haiyan Wang, Xiaocui Zheng, Songguang Ju
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) results from a chronic intestinal inflammation and tissue destruction via an aberrant immune-driven inflammatory response towards an altered gut microbiota. Dietary intervention is becoming an attractive avenue for the therapy of colitis because diet is a key determinant of the mucosal immune response. Quercetin (QCN) is the most common in nature and the major representative of dietary antioxidant flavonoids, which has been demonstrated to influence the progression of colitis...
October 4, 2017: Cell Cycle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28970059/structural-requirements-of-flavonoids-to-induce-heme-oxygenase-1-expression
#14
K D Croft, D Zhang, R Jiang, A Ayer, S Shengule, R J Payne, N C Ward, R Stocker
Population studies suggest cardiovascular health benefits of consuming fruits and vegetables rich in polyphenolic compounds such as flavonoids. We reported previously that the flavonoid quercetin protects arteries from oxidant-induced endothelial dysfunction and attenuates atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E gene knockout mice, with induction of heme oxygenase-1 (Hmox1) playing a critical role. The present study investigated the structural requirements of flavonoids to induce Hmox1 in human aortic endothelial cells (HAEC)...
September 29, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28967703/mir-155-induces-ros-generation-through-downregulation-of-antioxidation-related-genes-in-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#15
Yuta Onodera, Takeshi Teramura, Toshiyuki Takehara, Kayoko Obora, Tatsufumi Mori, Kanji Fukuda
Inflammation-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) are implicated in cellular dysfunction and an important trigger for aging- or disease-related tissue degeneration. Inflammation-induced ROS in stem cells lead to deterioration of their properties, altering tissue renewal or regeneration. Pathological ROS generation can be induced by multiple steps, and dysfunction of antioxidant systems is a major cause. The identification of the central molecule mediating the above-mentioned processes would pave the way for the development of novel therapeutics for aging, aging-related diseases, or stem cell therapies...
December 2017: Aging Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28951772/serum-bilirubin-levels-and-promoter-variations-in-hmox1-and-ugt1a1-genes-in-patients-with-fabry-disease
#16
Alena Jirásková, Giulia Bortolussi, Gabriela Dostálová, Lenka Eremiášová, Lubor Golaň, Vilém Danzig, Aleš Linhart, Libor Vítek
The aim of our study was to assess the possible relationships among heme oxygenase (HMOX), bilirubin UDP-glucuronosyl transferase (UGT1A1) promoter gene variations, serum bilirubin levels, and Fabry disease (FD). The study included 56 patients with FD (M : F ratio = 0.65) and 185 healthy individuals. Complete standard laboratory and clinical work-up was performed on all subjects, together with the determination of total peroxyl radical-scavenging capacity. The (GT)n and (TA)n dinucleotide variations in the HMOX1 and UGT1A1 gene promoters, respectively, were determined by DNA fragment analysis...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916792/smartflares-fail-to-reflect-their-target-transcripts-levels
#17
Maria Czarnek, Joanna Bereta
SmartFlare probes have recently emerged as a promising tool for visualisation and quantification of specific RNAs in living cells. They are supposed to overcome the common drawbacks of current methods for RNA analysis: the need of cell fixation or lysis, or the requirements for genetic manipulations. In contrast to the traditional methods, SmartFlare probes are also presumed to provide information on RNA levels in single cells. Disappointingly, the results of our comprehensive study involving probes specific to five different transcripts, HMOX1, IL6, PTGS2, Nrg1, and ERBB4, deny the usefulness of SmartFlare probes for RNA analysis...
September 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880262/acceleration-of-pancreatic-tumorigenesis-under-immunosuppressive-microenvironment-induced-by-reg3g-overexpression
#18
Xiulan Liu, Zhongshi Zhou, Qi Cheng, Hongjie Wang, Hui Cao, Qianqian Xu, Yali Tuo, Li Jiang, You Zou, Hongyu Ren, Ming Xiang
Reg3g is a potential risk for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). We previously demonstrated that Reg3g promoted pancreatic carcinogenesis via a STAT3 signaling pathway in a murine model of chronic pancreatitis. Whether the immune response is involved in tumorigenesis induced by Reg3g remains unknown. In this study, Reg3g-regulated tumor immunity was evaluated in tumor-implanted murine models, immune cells, and tumor microenvironment. In mice that had been orthotopically or ectopically implanted with Panc02 cells, Reg3g overexpression increased EGFR and Ki67, diminished MHC-I and caspase-3 expression, and accelerated growth of tumors...
September 7, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874754/ros-induced-oxidative-injury-involved-in-pathogenesis-of-fungal-keratitis-via-p38-mapk-activation
#19
Xia Hua, Wei Chi, Long Su, Jin Li, Zongduan Zhang, Xiaoyong Yuan
This study was to explore the mechanism by which reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced oxidative stress involved in the pathogenesis of fungal keratitis using an in vivo experimental keratitis mouse model and an in vitro culture model of human corneal epithelial cells (HCECs). Compared to normal control mice and HCECs, ROS production was markedly increased in fungal corneas and HCECs exposed to Candida albicans, accompanied by p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) activation. Increased products of oxidative markers, malondialdehyde (MDA), 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE), mitochondria DNA 8-OHdG and aconitase-2 were observed in fungal infected corneas and HCECs...
September 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864908/antitumor-activity-and-expression-profiles-of-genes-induced-by-sulforaphane-in-human-melanoma-cells
#20
Paola Arcidiacono, Francesco Ragonese, Anna Stabile, Alessandra Pistilli, Ekaterina Kuligina, Mario Rende, Ugo Bottoni, Stefano Calvieri, Andrea Crisanti, Roberta Spaccapelo
PURPOSE: Human melanoma is a highly aggressive incurable cancer due to intrinsic cellular resistance to apoptosis, reprogramming, proliferation and survival during tumour progression. Sulforaphane (SFN), an isothiocyanate found in cruciferous vegetables, plays a role in carcinogenesis in many cancer types. However, the cytotoxic molecular mechanisms and gene expression profiles promoted by SFN in human melanoma remain unknown. METHODS: Three different cell lines were used: two human melanoma A375 and 501MEL and human epidermal melanocytes (HEMa)...
September 1, 2017: European Journal of Nutrition
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