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Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy in childrens

Noella Maria Delia Pereira, Ira Shah, Shilpa Kulkarni
Opsoclonus-myoclonus-ataxia (OMA) syndrome typically presents with chaotic eye movements and myoclonus with some patients exhibiting ataxia and behavioural disturbances. The pathogenesis may be inflammatory with an infectious or paraneoplastic trigger. We present a 13-year-old HIV-infected girl who was initially started on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in March 2013 with a CD4 count of 79 cells/cumm. Initially, the patient did not comply with treatment, resulting in a CD4+ count of 77 cells/mm(3) in November 2015 and prompting a new HAART scheme comprising lamivudine, tenofovir and ritonavir-boosted atazanavir...
October 2016: Oxford Medical Case Reports
Maximilian Muenchhoff, Emily Adland, Owen Karimanzira, Carol Crowther, Matthew Pace, Anna Csala, Ellen Leitman, Angeline Moonsamy, Callum McGregor, Jacob Hurst, Andreas Groll, Masahiko Mori, Smruti Sinmyee, Christina Thobakgale, Gareth Tudor-Williams, Andrew J Prendergast, Henrik Kloverpris, Julia Roider, Alasdair Leslie, Delane Shingadia, Thea Brits, Samantha Daniels, John Frater, Christian B Willberg, Bruce D Walker, Thumbi Ndung'u, Pieter Jooste, Penny L Moore, Lynn Morris, Philip Goulder
Disease-free infection in HIV-infected adults is associated with human leukocyte antigen-mediated suppression of viremia, whereas in the sooty mangabey and other healthy natural hosts of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), viral replication continues unabated. To better understand factors preventing HIV disease, we investigated pediatric infection, where AIDS typically develops more rapidly than in adults. Among 170 nonprogressing antiretroviral therapy-naïve children aged >5 years maintaining normal-for-age CD4 T cell counts, immune activation levels were low despite high viremia (median, 26,000 copies/ml)...
September 28, 2016: Science Translational Medicine
A E Njom Nlend, A B Loussikila
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The mortality rate of HIV-infected children can be reversed under highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). The impact of HAART on the mortality of HIV-infected children in Cameroon has not been extensively documented. We aimed to measure the mortality rate of HIV-infected children under HAART and to identify predictive factors of mortality. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study of 221 children initiated on HAART from 2005 to 2009 and followed-up until 2013...
September 5, 2016: Médecine et Maladies Infectieuses
Chet Raj Ojha, Geeta Shakya, Shyam Prakash Dumre
Antiretroviral therapy (ART) has increased the life span of the people living with HIV (PLHIV), but their virological and immunological outcomes are not well documented in Nepal. The study was conducted at a tertiary care center including 826 HIV-1 seropositive individuals undergoing ART for at least six months. Plasma viral load (HIV-1 RNA) was detected by Real Time PCR and CD4(+) T-lymphocyte (CD4(+)) counts were estimated by flow cytometry. The mean CD4(+) count of patients was 501 (95% CI = 325-579) cells/cumm, but about 35% of patients had CD4(+) T cell counts below 350 cells/cumm...
2016: BioMed Research International
Douglas de Sousa Soares, Malena Gadelha Cavalcante, Samille Maria Vasconcelos Ribeiro, Rayana Café Leitão, Ana Patrícia Freitas Vieira, Roberto da Justa Pires Neto, Geraldo Bezerra da Silva Junior, Elizabeth de Francesco Daher
OBJECTIVE: To assess clinical and laboratory data, and acute kidney injury (AKI) in HIV-infected children using and not using highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) prior to admission. METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted with HIV-infected pediatric patients (<16 years). Children who were using and not using HAART prior to admission were compared. RESULTS: Sixty-three patients were included. Mean age was 5.3±4.27 years; 55...
August 16, 2016: Jornal de Pediatria
Xiuqiong Bi, Azumi Ishizaki, Lam Van Nguyen, Kazunori Matsuda, Hung Viet Pham, Chung Thi Thu Phan, Kiyohito Ogata, Thuy Thi Thanh Giang, Thuy Thi Bich Phung, Tuyen Thi Nguyen, Masaharu Tokoro, An Nhat Pham, Dung Thi Khanh Khu, Hiroshi Ichimura
CD4⁺ T-lymphocyte destruction, microbial translocation, and systemic immune activation are the main mechanisms of the pathogenesis of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV) infection. To investigate the impact of HIV infection and antiretroviral therapy (ART) on the immune profile of and microbial translocation in HIV-infected children, 60 HIV vertically infected children (31 without ART: HIV(+) and 29 with ART: ART(+)) and 20 HIV-uninfected children (HIV(-)) aged 2-12 years were recruited in Vietnam, and their blood samples were immunologically and bacteriologically analyzed...
2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Shilpa Buch, Ernest T Chivero, Jackie Hoare, Jibreel Jumare, Noeline Nakasujja, Victor Mudenda, Robert Paul, Georgette D Kanmogne, Ned Sacktor, Charles Wood, Walter Royal, Jeymohan Joseph
Despite major advances in HIV-1 treatment, the prevalence of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) remains a problem, particularly as individuals on suppressive treatment continue to live longer. To facilitate discussion on emerging and future directions in HAND research, a meeting was held in Durban, South Africa in March 2015 as part of the Society of Neuroscientists of Africa (SONA) conference. The objective of the meeting was to assess the impact of HIV subtype diversity on HAND and immunological dysfunction...
October 2016: Journal of Neurovirology
Gabriela Ricci, Eduardo Martins Netto, Estela Luz, Cynthia Rodamilans, Carlos Brites
BACKGROUND: Successful treatment of HIV-positive children requires a high level of adherence (at least 95%) to highly active antiretroviral therapy. Adherence is influenced by factors related to the child and caregivers. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate children and caregivers characteristics associated to children's adherence. METHODS: Cross-sectional study, from September 2013 to June 2015, comprising a sample of caregivers of perinatally HIV-infected children, in the age group of 1-12 years, under antiretroviral therapy for at least 6 months and on follow-up in two AIDS reference centers in Salvador, Bahia...
September 2016: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
E Tchiakpe, A Hounto-Ogouyemi, H Diop Ndiaye, A A M Diouara, A K Aïssi, R K Keke, A A Kpangon, B Lafia, D Métadokou, B Bouraïma, D Anthony, A Hounsinou, M J Alao, A Azondekon, A D Ahouidi, A K Bei, M A S Mbengue, C Touré Kane, D M Zannou
The goal of this study was to evaluate using the molecular diagnosis, infection transmission rate of HIV in children born to HIV-1 positive mothers as part of the prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) in Benin. The sample consisted of 524 dried blood spots (DBS) of children born to HIV-1 positive mothers, from 30 sites (PMTCT) taken between October 2009 and June 2010. The diagnosis of HIV-1 was performed by the qualitative detection of viral nucleic acids (RNA and DNA) in DBS on filter paper using the Abbott RealTime(®) HIV-1 Qualitative assay...
August 2016: Bulletin de la Société de Pathologie Exotique
Liesl Grobler, Sukrti Nagpal, Thambu D Sudarsanam, David Sinclair
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis and malnutrition are linked in a complex relationship. Tuberculosis may cause undernutrition through increased metabolic demands and decreased intake, and nutritional deficiencies may worsen the disease, or delay recovery by depressing important immune functions. At present, there is no evidence-based nutritional guidance for adults and children being treated for tuberculosis. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of oral nutritional supplements in people being treated with antituberculous drug therapy for active tuberculosis...
2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
M O Ajulo, M K Omole, J O Moody, O T Dixon-Umo, O L Salami
BACKGROUND: Higher mortality rates were reported in developing countries during early months of HAART initiation than in developed countries. The study aimed at assessing the effect of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) on liver function of under-fives. METHOD: Two hundred and thirty-eight under-fives children were enrolled from five hospitals in Southern Nigeria. Ethical permission and written consent were obtained. Group A involved 91 seropositive-children on HAART regimen while Group B1 involved 24 seronegative-infants who received nevirapine from birth till age 6-week...
September 2015: African Journal of Medicine and Medical Sciences
Na Zhang, Scottie Bussell, Guoyong Wang, Xiaoyan Zhu, Xingguang Yang, Tao Huang, Yuesheng Qian, Xiaorun Tao, Dianmin Kang, Ning Wang
BACKGROUND: The 90-90-90 targets recommended by the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS require strengthening human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) care, which includes diagnosis, linkage to and retention in care, assessment for treatment suitability, and optimization of HIV treatment. We sought to quantify patient engagement along the continuum, 10 years after introduction of Chinese HIV care policies. METHODS: We included patients from Shandong, China, who were diagnosed with HIV from 1992 to 2013...
July 1, 2016: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Martin Kuete, Hongfang Yuan, Qian He, Aude Laure Tchoua Kemayou, Tita Pale Ndognjem, Fan Yang, ZhiZong Hu, BoZhen Tian, Kai Zhao, HuiPing Zhang, ChengLiang Xiong
INTRODUCTION: The sexual and reproductive health of people living with HIV is fundamental for their well-being. Antiretroviral therapy and reproductive technologies have significantly improved quality of life of people living with HIV in developed countries. In sub-Saharan Africa, the epicenter of HIV, the sexual practices and fertility of women infected with HIV have been understudied. AIM: To assess the sexual behavior, fertility intentions, and awareness of preventing mother-to-child transmission of HIV in pregnant women with HIV-negative partners in Yaounde Central Hospital (Yaounde, Cameroon)...
June 2016: Sexual Medicine
Angela M Crook, Anna Turkova, Victor Musiime, Mutsa Bwakura-Dangarembizi, Sabrina Bakeera-Kitaka, Patricia Nahirya-Ntege, Margaret Thomason, Peter Mugyenyi, Philippa Musoke, Adeodata Kekitiinwa, Paula Munderi, Kusum Nathoo, Andrew J Prendergast, A Sarah Walker, Diana M Gibb
BACKGROUND: There are few data on tuberculosis (TB) incidence in HIV-infected children on antiretroviral therapy (ART). Observational studies suggest co-trimoxazole prophylaxis may prevent TB, but there are no randomized data supporting this. The ARROW trial, which enrolled HIV-infected children initiating ART in Uganda and Zimbabwe and included randomized cessation of co-trimoxazole prophylaxis, provided an opportunity to estimate the incidence of TB over time, to explore potential risk factors for TB, and to evaluate the effect of stopping co-trimoxazole prophylaxis...
2016: BMC Medicine
M Patricia George, Vikas Singh, Mark T Gladwin
The goal of this review is to describe evolving epidemiology of noninfectious, nonneoplastic pulmonary complications of HIV infection, including HIV-associated pulmonary arterial hypertension (HIV-PAH) and interstitial lung disease (ILD). The development of antiretroviral therapy has rendered HIV a chronic illness in treated patients, and the landscape of HIV-associated medical conditions continues to evolve. Although there has been a shift away from AIDS-defining infectious diseases and malignancies, HIV-PAH continues to affect survival adversely when compared with HIV-infected patients without PAH...
April 2016: Seminars in Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
Jasper F W Chan, Susanna K P Lau, Kwok-Yung Yuen, Patrick C Y Woo
Talaromyces (Penicillium) marneffei is an important pathogenic thermally dimorphic fungus causing systemic mycosis in Southeast Asia. The clinical significance of T. marneffei became evident when the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome epidemic arrived in Southeast Asia in 1988. Subsequently, a decline in the incidence of T. marneffei infection among HIV-infected patients was seen in regions with access to highly active antiretroviral therapy and other control measures for HIV...
2016: Emerging Microbes & Infections
Mehretie Kokeb, Getu Degu
BACKGROUND: The effectiveness of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in children has not been well studied specially in developing countries where the burden of HIV is high. This study was aimed to assess the immunologic response of HIV-infected children to HAART at Pediatric ART Clinic Gondar University Hospital. METHODS: Institution based cross-sectional study was conducted at the Pediatric ART Clinic Gondar University Hospital from March 01-April 30, 2014...
January 2016: Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences
Marcia Wong, Stephanie Shiau, Michael T Yin, Renate Strehlau, Faeezah Patel, Ashraf Coovadia, Lisa K Micklesfield, Louise Kuhn, Stephen M Arpadi
OBJECTIVE: To describe physical activity in South African children with and without HIV. STUDY DESIGN: Study measurements were obtained in 218 children with perinatal HIV and 180 children without HIV aged 5-9 years in a study conducted in Johannesburg, South Africa. Weight-for-age z-score, height-for-age z-score, frequency and duration of moderate and vigorous physical activity, and sedentary behaviors were obtained. These measurements were compared between children with and without HIV...
May 2016: Journal of Pediatrics
Getachew Ebissa, Negusse Deyessa, Sibhatu Biadgilign
OBJECTIVE: HIV/AIDS and malnutrition combine to undermine the immunity of individuals and are inextricably interrelated. Although the effect of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) on growth in HIV-infected children is well known, the influence of prior nutritional and immunologic status on the response to HAART is not well documented. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of HAART on nutritional and immunological status in HIV-infected children in the low-income country of Ethiopia...
June 2016: Nutrition
Vitor Guerra, Erin C Leister, Paige L Williams, Thomas J Starc, Steven E Lipshultz, James D Wilkinson, Russell B Van Dyke, Rohan Hazra, Steven D Colan
The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of in utero exposure to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) with left ventricular (LV) function and structure in HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) children. A prospective, multisite cohort study in HEU children was conducted by the Pediatric HIV/AIDS Cohort Study (PHACS). Echocardiographic measures of LV systolic and diastolic function and cardiac structure were obtained from HEU subjects aged ≥6 years enrolled in the PHACS Surveillance Monitoring of ART Toxicities study...
July 2016: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
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