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Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy in childrens

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29885751/epidemiology-of-pediatric-tuberculosis-in-kenya-and-risk-factors-for-mortality-during-treatment-a-national-retrospective-cohort-study
#1
Dickens Otieno Onyango, Courtney M Yuen, Enos Masini, Martien Willem Borgdorff
OBJECTIVES: To describe the epidemiology of childhood tuberculosis (TB) in Kenya, assess the magnitude of TB/human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) co-infection and identify risk factors for mortality during TB treatment. STUDY DESIGN: We conducted a retrospective analysis of the Kenyan national TB program data for patients enrolled from 2013 through 2015. A total of 23 753 children aged less than 15 years were included in the analysis. Survival analysis was performed with censorship at 9 months and mortality was the main outcome...
June 6, 2018: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761291/adherence-to-highly-active-antiretroviral-therapy-among-children-in-ethiopia-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#2
REVIEW
Aklilu Endalamaw, Nega Tezera, Setegn Eshetie, Sintayehu Ambachew, Tesfa Dejenie Habtewold
Adherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) is the mainstay of the strategy in reducing morbidity and mortality of HIV-infected children. Different primary studies were conducted in Ethiopia. Thus, we aimed to conduct a meta-analysis of the national prevalence of optimal adherence to HAART in children. In addition, associated factors of HAART adherence were reviewed. A weighted inverse variance random-effects model was applied. The 88.7 and 93.7% of children were adhering to HAART at 07 and 03 days prior to an interview respectively...
May 14, 2018: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747664/adverse-effects-in-children-exposed-to-maternal-hiv-and-antiretroviral-therapy-during-pregnancy-in-brazil-a-cohort-study
#3
Adriane M Delicio, Giuliane J Lajos, Eliana Amaral, Fernanda Cavichiolli, Marina Polydoro, Helaine Milanez
BACKGROUND: Antiretroviral therapy (ART) in pregnancy was associated with a drastic reduction in HIV mother-to-child transmission (MTCT), although it was associated with neonatal adverse effects. The aim of this study was to evaluate the neonatal effects to maternal ART. METHODS: This study was a cohort of newborns from HIV pregnant women followed at the CAISM/UNICAMP Obstetric Clinic from 2000 to 2015. The following adverse effects were evaluated: anemia, thrombocytopenia, liver function tests abnormalities, preterm birth, low birth weight and congenital malformation...
May 10, 2018: Reproductive Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29734220/recovery-of-effective-hiv-specific-cd4-t-cell-activity-following-antiretroviral-therapy-in-paediatric-infection-requires-sustained-suppression-of-viraemia
#4
Emily Adland, Luisa Mori, Leana Laker, Anna Csala, Maximilian Muenchhoff, Alice Swordy, Masa Mori, Philippa Matthews, Gareth Tudor-Williams, Pieter Jooste, Philip Goulder
: The success of increasing access to antiretroviral therapy (ART) in paediatric HIV infection prompts the question of the potential for eradication of HIV infection in this age group. 'Shock-and-kill' HIV cure approaches, currently in development, may depend upon an effective antiviral T-cell response to eradicate virus-infected cells. We here investigate the ability of HIV-infected children receiving ART from early childhood (median 24 months' age) to generate effective HIV-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell immune responses that would facilitate future immune-based cure therapies...
May 3, 2018: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676342/audit-of-prevention-of-mother-to-child-transmission-programme-interventions-in-hiv-exposed-children-at-national-hospital-abuja-nigeria
#5
Mariya Mukhtar-Yola, Adekunle Tolulope Otuneye, Amsa Baba Mairami, Yewande Wey, Vincent Nwatah, Lamidi Isah Audu
Background: Ninety percentage of children acquire human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in the form of Mother-to-child Transmission (MTCT). In the absence of interventions, transmission rates range from 15% to 45%. This can be reduced to below 5% with effective interventions. The last published national guideline (NG) on prevention of MTCT (PMTCT) was in 2010. Clinical audits are essential in improving the quality of care delivered to patients. Objectives: The study objectives were to determine the rate of MTCT of HIV in exposed infants at a follow-up clinic between 2011 and 2014 and to determine the level of adherence to 2010 NG on the use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing, feeding options, antiretroviral (ARV) prophylaxis and the use of co-trimoxazole (CTZ)...
January 2018: Nigerian Postgraduate Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623447/decreased-bone-turnover-in-hiv-infected-children-on-antiretroviral-therapy
#6
Stephanie Shiau, Michael T Yin, Renate Strehlau, Faeezah Patel, Ndileka Mbete, Louise Kuhn, Ashraf Coovadia, Stephen M Arpadi
In this study, we evaluated the relationships between immune activation, bone turnover, and bone mass in virally suppressed HIV-infected children and HIV-uninfected children in South Africa. We found that decreased bone mass may occur or persist independent of immune activation and altered bone turnover. PURPOSE: HIV-infected children and adolescents have deficits in skeletal growth which include decreases in bone mass and alterations in bone microarchitecture. However, the mechanism by which HIV infection compromises bone accrual in children and adolescents is unclear...
April 5, 2018: Archives of Osteoporosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29616646/morbidity-and-mortality-in-hiv-infected-children-on-antiretroviral-therapy-in-togo
#7
A Mouhari-Touré, G Mahamadou, K Kombate, A S Akakpo, J N Teclessou, A Singo, P Pitché
the aim of this study was to evaluate the mortality and morbidity of HIV-infected children on highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART) in Togo. this is a retrospective study of HIV-infected children on HAART in the 25 largest centers of HIV/AIDS care in Togo. the study included 1861 children (sex-ratio=0.99). Among them, 35.6 % were in WHO clinical stages 3 or 4 at the beginning of HAART. The most common opportunistic infections were coughing and pneumonia (37.1 %), gastroenteritis (11.3 %), various bacterial infections (10...
February 1, 2018: Médecine et Santé Tropicales
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29596110/cardiac-and-inflammatory-biomarkers-in-perinatally-hiv-infected-and-hiv-exposed-uninfected-children
#8
James D Wilkinson, Paige L Williams, Wendy Yu, Steven D Colan, Armando Mendez, Justin P V Zachariah, Russell B Van Dyke, William T Shearer, Renee E Margossian, Steven E Lipshultz
OBJECTIVES: To compare distributions of serum cardiac and inflammatory biomarkers between perinatally HIV-infected (PHIV) and perinatally HIV-exposed uninfected (PHEU) children, to evaluate their associations with echocardiographic measures, and among PHIV youth, with antiretroviral therapy (ART) and HIV disease severity measures. DESIGN: Cross-sectional analysis of temporally paired serum samples for biomarkers and echocardiograms in a prospective multicenter cohort study of PHIV and PHEU youth...
June 19, 2018: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29576815/modification-of-initial-highly-active-antiretroviral-therapy-haart-regimen-in-paediatric-hiv-patients
#9
Yee Shan Low, Farida Islahudin, Kamarul Azahar Mohd Razali, Shafnah Adnan
Background: Treatment options among Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)-infected children are limited as only a few Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) are approved worldwide for paediatric use. Among children, frequent changes in HAART regimen can rapidly exhaust treatment options, and information addressing this issue is scarce. Objective: The aim of the study was to determine factors associated with the modification of initial HAART regimen modification among HIV-infected children...
2018: Open AIDS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29575050/impact-of-hiv-infection-and-highly-active-antiretroviral-therapy-haart-on-b-cell-subpopulations-in-children
#10
Ravinder Singh, Aparna Mukherjee, Mohit Singla, Madhu Vajpayee, Neema Negi, Sushil K Kabra, Rakesh Lodha, Bimal K Das
B-cells play an important role in defending children against various infections. In view of scare data, we undertook this prospective cohort study to describe B cell compartment in HIV infected children (<5 years of age) and the effect of HAART on B cell subpopulations. HIV infected children (<5 years) from Pediatric HIV services of the Department of Pediatrics, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, were recruited (April 2012-December 2015). The enrolled HIV-1 infected children (n = 59) were followed up regularly for 12 months; healthy controls (n = 51) included HIV uninfected children with no major illness...
March 25, 2018: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29534693/severe-eye-complications-from-toxic-epidermal-necrolysis-following-initiation-of-nevirapine-based-haart-regimen-in-a-child-with-hiv-infection-a-case-from-cameroon
#11
Xavier Tchetnya, Calypse Asangbe Ngwasiri, Tiayah Munge, Leopold Ndemnge Aminde
BACKGROUND: Toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) is a rare life threatening dermatological disorder characterized by extensive epidermal detachment and erosion of mucous membranes. It is typically a side effect of some medications. Nevirapine, a nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) is one of the frequently used components of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Skin rash is its common adverse reaction, usually mild and rarely progressing to TEN. Ophthalmic involvement is common as well but rarely progresses to blindness especially in the pediatric population...
March 13, 2018: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29460518/prevalence-of-hiv-related-oral-manifestations-and-their-association-with-haart-and-cd4-t-cell-count-a-review
#12
L Ottria, D Lauritano, L Oberti, V Candotto, F Cura, A Tagliabue, L Tettamanti
HIV infection is one of the major health problem of the last decades. This disease causes a chronic infection that can lead to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). According to the Global AIDS update, released in 2016 by HIV department of World Health Organization (WHO) and by the Joint United Nations Program on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS), at the end of 2015, 36.7 million people were infected by HIV: 34.9 million of these were adults and 1.8 million were children under 15 years of age. The same report shows that during 2015, 2...
January 2018: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29406463/malnutrition-growth-response-and-metabolic-changes-within-the-first-24-months-after-art-initiation-in-hiv-infected-children-treated-before-the-age-of-two-years-in-west-africa
#13
Julie Jesson, Désiré L Dahourou, Madeleine Amorissani Folquet, Karen Malateste, Caroline Yonaba, Marie-Sylvie N'Gbeche, Sylvie Ouédraogo, Véronique Mea-Assande, Clarisse Amani-Bossé, Stéphane Blanche, Marguerite Timité-Konan, Valériane Leroy
BACKGROUND: There is limited information about malnutrition, growth evolution and metabolic changes among children initiated early on lopinavir-based antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Africa. METHODS: HIV-1-infected children, age <2 years were initiated on ART, as part of the MONOD ANRS 12206 project, conducted in Burkina Faso and Côte d'Ivoire. Weight-for-age, height-for-age and weight-for-height Z-scores (WAZ, HAZ, WHZ) defined malnutrition (Z-score <-2 standard deviations [SD]) using WHO growth references...
February 3, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29368388/the-world-wide-incidence-of-kaposi-s-sarcoma-in-the-hiv-aids-era
#14
Z Liu, Q Fang, J Zuo, V Minhas, C Wood, T Zhang
OBJECTIVES: Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is a multicentric angioproliferative cancer of endothelial origin typically occurring in the context of immunosuppression or immunodeficiency. Consequently, KS is one of the most common cancers in HIV-infected individuals and frequently occurs among transplant recipients. Nevertheless, its incidence in different populations is not well understood. METHODS: We searched online databases for publications on KS incidence. A random-effect meta-analysis was performed to combine the KS incidences and incidence rate ratios (IRRs) for associated risk factors...
January 25, 2018: HIV Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353495/neurocognitive-functioning-of-hiv-positive-children-attending-the-comprehensive-care-clinic-at-kenyatta-national-hospital-exploring-neurocognitive-deficits-and-psychosocial-risk-factors
#15
Otsetswe Musindo, Paul Bangirana, Pius Kigamwa, Roselyne Okoth, Manasi Kumar
Children and adolescents are affected in different ways by HIV/AIDS. Neurocognitive deficits are one of the most significant long term effects on HIV infected children and adolescents. Several factors are thought to influence cognitive outcomes and this include immune status, Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART), education and social support. The aim of the study was to assess the neurocognitive function of HIV infected children and adolescents and correlate it with psychosocial factors. A cross sectional study was carried out involving a sample of 90 children living with HIV between 8 and 15 years (M = 11...
May 2018: AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287090/immune-activation-despite-preserved-cd4-t-cells-in-perinatally-hiv-infected-children-and-adolescents
#16
Patricia Alvarez, Mussa Mwamzuka, Fatma Marshed, Adam Kravietz, Tiina Ilmet, Aabid Ahmed, William Borkowsky, Alka Khaitan
BACKGROUND: HIV disease progresses more rapidly in children than adults with mortality rates exceeding 50% by 2 years of age without antiretroviral therapy (ART) in sub-Saharan Africa. Recent World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines recommend universal treatment for all living persons with HIV, yet there is limited supporting evidence in pediatric populations. The objective of this study was to determine whether CD4 cell counts reflect immunological markers associated with disease progression in ART naïve perinatally-infected HIV+ children and adolescents and their response to ART...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282143/azithromycin-versus-placebo-for-the-treatment-of-hiv-associated-chronic-lung-disease-in-children-and-adolescents-breathe-trial-study-protocol-for-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#17
Carmen Gonzalez-Martinez, Katharina Kranzer, Grace McHugh, Elizabeth L Corbett, Hilda Mujuru, Mark P Nicol, Sarah Rowland-Jones, Andrea M Rehman, Tore J Gutteberg, Trond Flaegstad, Jon O Odland, Rashida A Ferrand
BACKGROUND: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related chronic lung disease (CLD) among children is associated with substantial morbidity, despite antiretroviral therapy. This may be a consequence of repeated respiratory tract infections and/or dysregulated immune activation that accompanies HIV infection. Macrolides have anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties, and we hypothesised that azithromycin would reduce decline in lung function and morbidity through preventing respiratory tract infections and controlling systemic inflammation...
December 28, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29250072/alterations-in-b-cell-compartment-correlate-with-poor-neutralization-response-and-disease-progression-in-hiv-1-infected-children
#18
Heena Aggarwal, Lubina Khan, Omkar Chaudhary, Sanjeev Kumar, Muzamil Ashraf Makhdoomi, Ravinder Singh, Kanika Sharma, Nitesh Mishra, Rakesh Lodha, Maddur Srinivas, Bimal Kumar Das, Sushil Kumar Kabra, Kalpana Luthra
Several B cell defects are reported in HIV-1 infected individuals including variation in B cell subsets, polyclonal B cell activation and exhaustion, with broadly neutralizing antibodies elicited in less than 10-20% of the infected population. HIV-1 disease progression is faster in children than adults. B Lymphocyte Stimulator (BLyS), expressed on dendritic cells (DCs), is a key regulator of B cell homeostasis. Understanding how DCs influence B cell phenotype and functionality (viral neutralization), thereby HIV-1 disease outcome in infected children, is important to develop interventional strategies for restoration of B cell function...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209538/disclosure-of-parental-hiv-status-to-children-experiences-of-adults-receiving-antiretroviral-treatment-at-an-urban-clinic-in-kampala-uganda
#19
Charles Peter Osingada, Monica Okuga, Rose Chalo Nabirye, Nelson Kaulukusi Sewankambo, Damalie Nakanjako
Limited data are available on the experiences of parental HIV disclosure to children in Uganda. We conducted a qualitative study comprising sixteen in-depth interviews and four focus group discussions with parents receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy. Analysis was done using Atlas.ti qualitative research software. Back-and-forth triangulation was done between transcripts of the in-depth interviews and focus group discussions, and themes and subthemes were developed. Barriers to parents' disclosure included perceptions that children are too young to understand what HIV infection means and fears of secondary disclosure by the children...
2017: AIDS Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132283/predictors-of-survival-among-hiv-positive-children-on-art-in-swaziland
#20
Patrick Shabangu, Andy Beke, Samuel Manda, Nobuhle Mthethwa
The objective of the study was to determine predictors of survival among HIV-positive children (<15 years) in Swaziland. A retrospective cohort analysis of medical records for 4 167 children living with HIV who were initiated on antiretroviral therapy (ART) between 2004 and 2008, and followed up until 2014 was conducted in clinical settings at 36 health facilities. The Kaplan Meier Estimator, signed-ranks test, and the Cox proportional hazards regression model were applied to determine survival probabilities, significant difference among stratified survival functions and adjusted hazard ratios respectively...
December 2017: African Journal of AIDS Research: AJAR
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