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Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy in childrens

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623447/decreased-bone-turnover-in-hiv-infected-children-on-antiretroviral-therapy
#1
Stephanie Shiau, Michael T Yin, Renate Strehlau, Faeezah Patel, Ndileka Mbete, Louise Kuhn, Ashraf Coovadia, Stephen M Arpadi
In this study, we evaluated the relationships between immune activation, bone turnover, and bone mass in virally suppressed HIV-infected children and HIV-uninfected children in South Africa. We found that decreased bone mass may occur or persist independent of immune activation and altered bone turnover. PURPOSE: HIV-infected children and adolescents have deficits in skeletal growth which include decreases in bone mass and alterations in bone microarchitecture. However, the mechanism by which HIV infection compromises bone accrual in children and adolescents is unclear...
April 5, 2018: Archives of Osteoporosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29616646/morbidity-and-mortality-in-hiv-infected-children-on-antiretroviral-therapy-in-togo
#2
A Mouhari-Touré, G Mahamadou, K Kombate, A S Akakpo, J N Teclessou, A Singo, P Pitché
the aim of this study was to evaluate the mortality and morbidity of HIV-infected children on highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART) in Togo. this is a retrospective study of HIV-infected children on HAART in the 25 largest centers of HIV/AIDS care in Togo. the study included 1861 children (sex-ratio=0.99). Among them, 35.6 % were in WHO clinical stages 3 or 4 at the beginning of HAART. The most common opportunistic infections were coughing and pneumonia (37.1 %), gastroenteritis (11.3 %), various bacterial infections (10...
February 1, 2018: Médecine et Santé Tropicales
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29596110/cardiac-and-inflammatory-biomarkers-in-perinatally-hiv-infected-and-hiv-exposed-uninfected-children
#3
James D Wilkinson, Paige L Williams, Wendy Yu, Steven D Colan, Armando Mendez, Justin P V Zachariah, Russell B Van Dyke, William T Shearer, Renee E Margossian, Steven E Lipshultz
OBJECTIVES: To compare distributions of serum cardiac and inflammatory biomarkers between perinatally HIV-infected (PHIV) and perinatally HIV-exposed uninfected (PHEU) children, to evaluate their associations with echocardiographic measures, and among PHIV youth, with antiretroviral therapy (ART) and HIV disease severity measures. DESIGN: Cross-sectional analysis of temporally paired serum samples for biomarkers and echocardiograms in a prospective multicenter cohort study of PHIV and PHEU youth...
March 28, 2018: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29576815/modification-of-initial-highly-active-antiretroviral-therapy-haart-regimen-in-paediatric-hiv-patients
#4
Yee Shan Low, Farida Islahudin, Kamarul Azahar Mohd Razali, Shafnah Adnan
Background: Treatment options among Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)-infected children are limited as only a few Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) are approved worldwide for paediatric use. Among children, frequent changes in HAART regimen can rapidly exhaust treatment options, and information addressing this issue is scarce. Objective: The aim of the study was to determine factors associated with the modification of initial HAART regimen modification among HIV-infected children...
2018: Open AIDS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29575050/impact-of-hiv-infection-and-highly-active-antiretroviral-therapy-haart-on-b-cell-subpopulations-in-children
#5
Ravinder Singh, Aparna Mukherjee, Mohit Singla, Madhu Vajpayee, Neema Negi, Sushil Kumar Kabra, Rakesh Lodha, Bimal Kumar Das
Background B-cells play an important role in defending children against various infections. In view of scare data, we undertook this prospective cohort study to describe B cell compartment in HIV infected children (<5 years of age) and the effect of HAART on B cell subpopulations. Methods HIV infected children (<5 years) from Pediatric HIV services of the Department of Pediatrics, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, were recruited (April 2012 to December 2015). The enrolled HAART naive HIV-1 infected children (n = 59) were followed up regularly for 12 months; healthy controls (n = 51) included HIV uninfected children with no major illness...
March 25, 2018: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29534693/severe-eye-complications-from-toxic-epidermal-necrolysis-following-initiation-of-nevirapine-based-haart-regimen-in-a-child-with-hiv-infection-a-case-from-cameroon
#6
Xavier Tchetnya, Calypse Asangbe Ngwasiri, Tiayah Munge, Leopold Ndemnge Aminde
BACKGROUND: Toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) is a rare life threatening dermatological disorder characterized by extensive epidermal detachment and erosion of mucous membranes. It is typically a side effect of some medications. Nevirapine, a nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) is one of the frequently used components of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Skin rash is its common adverse reaction, usually mild and rarely progressing to TEN. Ophthalmic involvement is common as well but rarely progresses to blindness especially in the pediatric population...
March 13, 2018: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29460518/prevalence-of-hiv-related-oral-manifestations-and-their-association-with-haart-and-cd4-t-cell-count-a-review
#7
L Ottria, D Lauritano, L Oberti, V Candotto, F Cura, A Tagliabue, L Tettamanti
HIV infection is one of the major health problem of the last decades. This disease causes a chronic infection that can lead to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). According to the Global AIDS update, released in 2016 by HIV department of World Health Organization (WHO) and by the Joint United Nations Program on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS), at the end of 2015, 36.7 million people were infected by HIV: 34.9 million of these were adults and 1.8 million were children under 15 years of age. The same report shows that during 2015, 2...
January 2018: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29406463/malnutrition-growth-response-and-metabolic-changes-within-the-first-24-months-after-art-initiation-in-hiv-infected-children-treated-before-the-age-of-two-years-in-west-africa
#8
Julie Jesson, Désiré L Dahourou, Madeleine Amorissani Folquet, Karen Malateste, Caroline Yonaba, Marie-Sylvie N'Gbeche, Sylvie Ouédraogo, Véronique Mea-Assande, Clarisse Amani-Bossé, Stéphane Blanche, Marguerite Timité-Konan, Valériane Leroy
BACKGROUND: There is limited information about malnutrition, growth evolution and metabolic changes among children initiated early on lopinavir-based antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Africa. METHODS: HIV-1-infected children, age <2 years were initiated on ART, as part of the MONOD ANRS 12206 project, conducted in Burkina Faso and Côte d'Ivoire. Weight-for-age, height-for-age and weight-for-height Z-scores (WAZ, HAZ, WHZ) defined malnutrition (Z-score <-2 standard deviations [SD]) using WHO growth references...
February 3, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29368388/the-world-wide-incidence-of-kaposi-s-sarcoma-in-the-hiv-aids-era
#9
Z Liu, Q Fang, J Zuo, V Minhas, C Wood, T Zhang
OBJECTIVES: Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is a multicentric angioproliferative cancer of endothelial origin typically occurring in the context of immunosuppression or immunodeficiency. Consequently, KS is one of the most common cancers in HIV-infected individuals and frequently occurs among transplant recipients. Nevertheless, its incidence in different populations is not well understood. METHODS: We searched online databases for publications on KS incidence. A random-effect meta-analysis was performed to combine the KS incidences and incidence rate ratios (IRRs) for associated risk factors...
January 25, 2018: HIV Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353495/neurocognitive-functioning-of-hiv-positive-children-attending-the-comprehensive-care-clinic-at-kenyatta-national-hospital-exploring-neurocognitive-deficits-and-psychosocial-risk-factors
#10
Otsetswe Musindo, Paul Bangirana, Pius Kigamwa, Roselyne Okoth, Manasi Kumar
Children and adolescents are affected in different ways by HIV/AIDS. Neurocognitive deficits are one of the most significant long term effects on HIV infected children and adolescents. Several factors are thought to influence cognitive outcomes and this include immune status, Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART), education and social support. The aim of the study was to assess the neurocognitive function of HIV infected children and adolescents and correlate it with psychosocial factors. A cross sectional study was carried out involving a sample of 90 children living with HIV between 8 and 15 years (M = 11...
May 2018: AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287090/immune-activation-despite-preserved-cd4-t-cells-in-perinatally-hiv-infected-children-and-adolescents
#11
Patricia Alvarez, Mussa Mwamzuka, Fatma Marshed, Adam Kravietz, Tiina Ilmet, Aabid Ahmed, William Borkowsky, Alka Khaitan
BACKGROUND: HIV disease progresses more rapidly in children than adults with mortality rates exceeding 50% by 2 years of age without antiretroviral therapy (ART) in sub-Saharan Africa. Recent World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines recommend universal treatment for all living persons with HIV, yet there is limited supporting evidence in pediatric populations. The objective of this study was to determine whether CD4 cell counts reflect immunological markers associated with disease progression in ART naïve perinatally-infected HIV+ children and adolescents and their response to ART...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282143/azithromycin-versus-placebo-for-the-treatment-of-hiv-associated-chronic-lung-disease-in-children-and-adolescents-breathe-trial-study-protocol-for-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#12
Carmen Gonzalez-Martinez, Katharina Kranzer, Grace McHugh, Elizabeth L Corbett, Hilda Mujuru, Mark P Nicol, Sarah Rowland-Jones, Andrea M Rehman, Tore J Gutteberg, Trond Flaegstad, Jon O Odland, Rashida A Ferrand
BACKGROUND: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related chronic lung disease (CLD) among children is associated with substantial morbidity, despite antiretroviral therapy. This may be a consequence of repeated respiratory tract infections and/or dysregulated immune activation that accompanies HIV infection. Macrolides have anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties, and we hypothesised that azithromycin would reduce decline in lung function and morbidity through preventing respiratory tract infections and controlling systemic inflammation...
December 28, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29250072/alterations-in-b-cell-compartment-correlate-with-poor-neutralization-response-and-disease-progression-in-hiv-1-infected-children
#13
Heena Aggarwal, Lubina Khan, Omkar Chaudhary, Sanjeev Kumar, Muzamil Ashraf Makhdoomi, Ravinder Singh, Kanika Sharma, Nitesh Mishra, Rakesh Lodha, Maddur Srinivas, Bimal Kumar Das, Sushil Kumar Kabra, Kalpana Luthra
Several B cell defects are reported in HIV-1 infected individuals including variation in B cell subsets, polyclonal B cell activation and exhaustion, with broadly neutralizing antibodies elicited in less than 10-20% of the infected population. HIV-1 disease progression is faster in children than adults. B Lymphocyte Stimulator (BLyS), expressed on dendritic cells (DCs), is a key regulator of B cell homeostasis. Understanding how DCs influence B cell phenotype and functionality (viral neutralization), thereby HIV-1 disease outcome in infected children, is important to develop interventional strategies for restoration of B cell function...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209538/disclosure-of-parental-hiv-status-to-children-experiences-of-adults-receiving-antiretroviral-treatment-at-an-urban-clinic-in-kampala-uganda
#14
Charles Peter Osingada, Monica Okuga, Rose Chalo Nabirye, Nelson Kaulukusi Sewankambo, Damalie Nakanjako
Limited data are available on the experiences of parental HIV disclosure to children in Uganda. We conducted a qualitative study comprising sixteen in-depth interviews and four focus group discussions with parents receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy. Analysis was done using Atlas.ti qualitative research software. Back-and-forth triangulation was done between transcripts of the in-depth interviews and focus group discussions, and themes and subthemes were developed. Barriers to parents' disclosure included perceptions that children are too young to understand what HIV infection means and fears of secondary disclosure by the children...
2017: AIDS Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132283/predictors-of-survival-among-hiv-positive-children-on-art-in-swaziland
#15
Patrick Shabangu, Andy Beke, Samuel Manda, Nobuhle Mthethwa
The objective of the study was to determine predictors of survival among HIV-positive children (<15 years) in Swaziland. A retrospective cohort analysis of medical records for 4 167 children living with HIV who were initiated on antiretroviral therapy (ART) between 2004 and 2008, and followed up until 2014 was conducted in clinical settings at 36 health facilities. The Kaplan Meier Estimator, signed-ranks test, and the Cox proportional hazards regression model were applied to determine survival probabilities, significant difference among stratified survival functions and adjusted hazard ratios respectively...
December 2017: African Journal of AIDS Research: AJAR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100708/safety-and-immune-response-after-two-dose-meningococcal-c-conjugate-immunization-in-hiv-infected-children-and-adolescents-in-rio-de-janeiro-brazil
#16
Ana Cristina C Frota, Bianca Ferreira, Lee H Harrison, Gisele S Pereira, Wania Pereira-Manfro, Elizabeth S Machado, Ricardo Hugo de Oliveira, Thalita F Abreu, Lucimar G Milagres, Cristina B Hofer
We aimed to evaluate immunogenicity and adverse events (AEs) after a booster dose of Meningococcal C conjugated (MCC) vaccine in HIV-infected children and adolescents, who had a previous low seroconversion rate after priming with MCC, at a reference HIV-care center in Rio de Janeiro. METHODS: 2-18 years old HIV-infected subjects with CD4+ T-lymphocyte cell (CD4) ≥15%, without active infection or antibiotic use, were enrolled to receive 2 doses of conjugated meningococcal C oligosaccharide-CRM197 12-18 months apart...
December 15, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095954/pyrazinamide-clearance-is-impaired-among-hiv-tuberculosis-patients-with-high-levels-of-systemic-immune-activation
#17
Christopher Vinnard, Shruthi Ravimohan, Neo Tamuhla, Jotam Pasipanodya, Shashikant Srivastava, Chawangwa Modongo, Nicola M Zetola, Drew Weissman, Tawanda Gumbo, Gregory P Bisson
Pyrazinamide is the main driver of sterilizing effect in the standard regimen in adults and older children, and this effect is concentration-dependent. Tuberculosis patients co-infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have an increased risk for poor tuberculosis treatment outcomes and adverse drug events. We sought to determine whether measures of systemic immune activation were related to pyrazinamide pharmacokinetics among HIV/tuberculosis patients. We conducted a prospective cohort study of pyrazinamide pharmacokinetics in HIV/tuberculosis patients in Gaborone, Botswana...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29073951/cardiac-effects-of-highly-active-antiretroviral-therapy-in-perinatally-hiv-infected-children-the-chaart-2-study
#18
MULTICENTER STUDY
Steven E Lipshultz, James D Wilkinson, Bruce Thompson, Irene Cheng, David A Briston, William T Shearer, E John Orav, Joslyn A Westphal, Tracie L Miller, Steven D Colan
BACKGROUND: Before the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), cardiac mortality and morbidity were common in HIV-infected children. OBJECTIVES: This study sought to identify long-term cardiovascular effects of HAART in HIV-infected children. METHODS: The CHAART-2 (HAART-Associated Cardiotoxicity in HIV-Infected Children) study prospectively compared 148 echocardiograms from 74 HAART-exposed children to 860 echocardiograms from 140 HAART-unexposed but HIV-infected children from the Pulmonary and Cardiac Complications of Vertically Transmitted HIV Infection (P(2)C(2) HIV) study...
October 31, 2017: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048352/effects-of-short-term-probiotic-ingestion-on-immune-profiles-and-microbial-translocation-among-hiv-1-infected-vietnamese-children
#19
Azumi Ishizaki, Xiuqiong Bi, Lam Van Nguyen, Kazunori Matsuda, Hung Viet Pham, Chung Thi Thu Phan, Dung Thi Khanh Khu, Hiroshi Ichimura
Here, we investigated the effects of the probiotic strain Lactobacillus casei Shirota (LcS) on immune profiles and intestinal microbial translocation among children infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). This prospective study included 60 HIV-infected children-including 31 without antiretroviral therapy (ART) (HIV(+)) and 29 who received ART for a median of 3.5 years (ART(+)) and 20 children without HIV infection (HIV(-)). Participants were recruited in Vietnam. All children were given fermented milk containing LcS (6...
October 19, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934428/hiv-infected-children-have-elevated-levels-of-pd-1-memory-cd4-t-cells-with-low-proliferative-capacity-and-high-inflammatory-cytokine-effector-functions
#20
Julia Foldi, Lina Kozhaya, Bret McCarty, Mussa Mwamzuka, Fatma Marshed, Tiina Ilmet, Max Kilberg, Adam Kravietz, Aabid Ahmed, William Borkowsky, Derya Unutmaz, Alka Khaitan
Background: During human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease, chronic immune activation leads to T-cell exhaustion. PD-1 identifies "exhausted" CD8 T cells with impaired HIV-specific effector functions, but its role on CD4 T cells and in HIV-infected children is poorly understood. Methods: In a Kenyan cohort of vertically HIV-infected children, we measured PD-1+ CD4 T-cell frequencies and phenotype by flow cytometry and their correlation with HIV disease progression and immune activation...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
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