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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919985/human-tumor-derived-exosomes-tex-regulate-treg-functions-via-cell-surface-signaling-rather-than-uptake-mechanisms
#1
Laurent Muller, Patricia Simms, Chang-Sook Hong, Michael I Nishimura, Edwin K Jackson, Simon C Watkins, Theresa L Whiteside
Tumor-derived exosomes (TEX) are ubiquitously present in the tumor microenvironment and plasma of cancer patients. TEX carry a cargo of multiple stimulatory and inhibitory molecules and deliver them to recipient cells, serving as a communication network for the tumor. The mechanisms TEX use for delivering messages to recipient cells were evaluated using PKH26-labeled TEX produced by cultured human tumor cells, exosomes produced by dendritic cells-derived exosomes (DEX), or exosomes isolated from plasma of cancer patients (EXO)...
2017: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916446/cancer-derived-exosomes-as-a-delivery-platform-of-crispr-cas9-confer-cancer-cell-tropism-dependent-targeting
#2
Seung Min Kim, Yoosoo Yang, Seung Ja Oh, Yeonsun Hong, Minkoo Seo, Mihue Jang
An intracellular delivery system for CRISPR/Cas9 is crucial for its application as a therapeutic genome editing technology in a broad range of diseases. Current vehicles carrying CRISPR/Cas9 limit in vivo delivery because of low tolerance and immunogenicity; thus, the in vivo delivery of genome editing remains challenging. Here, we report that cancer-derived exosomes function as natural carriers that can efficiently deliver CRISPR/Cas9 plasmids to cancer. Compared to epithelial cell-derived exosomes, cancer-derived exosomes provide potential vehicles for effective in vivo delivery via selective accumulation in ovarian cancer tumors of SKOV3 xenograft mice, most likely because of their cell tropism...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914500/comprehensive-proteomics-analysis-of-exosomes-derived-from-human-seminal-plasma
#3
C Yang, W-B Guo, W-S Zhang, J Bian, J-K Yang, Q-Z Zhou, M-K Chen, W Peng, T Qi, C-Y Wang, C-D Liu
Exosomes are membranous nanovesicles of endocytic origin that carry and transfer regulatory bioactive molecules and mediate intercellular communication between cells and tissues. Although seminal exosomes have been identified in human seminal plasma, their exact composition and possible physiologic function remain unknown. The objective of this study was to perform a comprehensive proteomics analysis of exosomes derived from human seminal plasma. Seminal exosomes were isolated and purified from 12 healthy donors using a 30% sucrose cushion-based exosome-isolation protocol, followed by characterization by western blot, transmission electron microscopy, and nanoparticle tracking analysis before performing extensive liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry proteomics analysis...
September 2017: Andrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904856/mir-101-inhibits-ovarian-carcinogenesis-by-repressing-the-expression-of-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor
#4
Ying Xu, Lei Xu, Jianbin Zheng, Lei Geng, Shuping Zhao
Ovarian cancer is one of the most lethal malignant gynecological tumors as a result of difficulties in early-stage detection and a lack of effective treatments for patients with advanced or recurrent cancer. In the present study, we aimed to explore whether some of the microRNA (miRNA) content of serum might be related to ovarian cancer, as well as the role of these miRNAs and their intercellular transport via exosomes in ovarian cancer. We first detected the expression of six candidate miRNAs in ovarian cancer tissues and adjacent nontumor ovarian samples from 36 patients and confirmed the altered expression of four miRNAs...
September 2017: FEBS Open Bio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903450/clinical-and-biological-significance-of-circulating-tumor-cells-circulating-tumor-dna-and-exosomes-as-biomarkers-in-colorectal-cancer
#5
REVIEW
Shiyu Jia, Rui Zhang, Ziyang Li, Jinming Li
Colorectal cancer (CRC) has been the fourth leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Owing to clonal evolution and selection, CRC treatment needs multimodal therapeutic approaches and due monitoring of tumor progression and therapeutic efficacy. Liquid biopsy, involving the use of circulating tumor cells (CTCs), circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA), and exosomes, may offer a promising noninvasive alternative for diagnosis and for real-time monitoring of tumor evolution and therapeutic response compared to traditional tissue biopsy...
August 15, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900608/comparative-analysis-of-microrna-expression-among-benign-and-malignant-tongue-tissue-and-plasma-of-patients-with-tongue-cancer
#6
Guilherme Rabinowits, Michaela Bowden, Ludmila M Flores, Sigitas Verselis, Victoria Vergara, Vickie Y Jo, Nicole Chau, Jochen Lorch, Peter S Hammerman, Tom Thomas, Laura A Goguen, Donald Annino, Jonathan D Schoenfeld, Danielle N Margalit, Roy B Tishler, Robert I Haddad
BACKGROUND: Identification of a microRNA (miRNA) pattern to be used as a biomarker for HNSCC is challenging given the heterogeneity of the disease and different methodologies used. To better define the field, we performed a prospective analysis of blood, tumor, and paired benign tissues in tongue squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) patients. METHODS: Plasma samples were collected prior to surgery, and paired tumor and benign tissue blocks were collected from tongue cancer resections...
2017: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895404/exosomes-of-human-mesenchymal-stem-stromal-medicinal-signaling-cells-a-review
#7
U Altanerova, J Jakubechova, V Repiska, C Altaner
In this review, we intend to explore the potential therapeutic effects of exosomes released from mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs). MSCs gained credibility as a therapeutic tool due to their potential to differentiate into many cell types like osteoblasts, chondrocytes, adipocytes, muscular, endothelial, cardiovascular, and neurogenic cells. They possess potent wound healing activity due to their immunosuppressive and anti-inflammatory properties. MSCs are tested in large number of clinical trials for treatment of diseases, which do not have adequate therapy at present...
September 12, 2017: Neoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895255/ubr2-enriched-in-p53-mbmmsc-exosome-promoted-gastric-cancer-progression-via-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-pathway
#8
Jiahui Mao, Zhaofeng Liang, Bin Zhang, Huan Yang, Xia Li, Hailong Fu, Xu Zhang, Yongmin Yan, Wenrong Xu, Hui Qian
The deficiency or mutation of p53 has been known to be linked to several types of cancers. Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) is an important component in tumor microenvironment and exosomes secreted by MSCs can transfer bioactive molecules including proteins and nucleic acid to another cells in tumor microenvironment to influence the progress of tumor. However, whether the state of p53 in MSCs can impact the bioactive molecule secretion of exosomes to promote cancer progression and the regulatory mechanism remain elusive...
September 12, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894420/exosomes-as-potential-biomarkers-and-targeted-therapy-in-colorectal-cancer-a-mini-review
#9
REVIEW
Kha Wai Hon, Nadiah Abu, Nurul-Syakima Ab Mutalib, Rahman Jamal
The number of colorectal cancer (CRC) cases have increased gradually year by year. In fact, CRC is one of the most widely diagnosed cancer in men and women today. This disease is usually diagnosed at a later stage of the development, and by then, the chance of survival has declined significantly. Even though substantial progress has been made in understanding the basic molecular mechanism of CRC, there is still a lack of understanding in using the available information for diagnosing CRC effectively. Liquid biopsies are minimally invasive and have become the epitome of a good screening source for stage-specific diagnosis, measuring drug response and severity of the disease...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889388/quantification-of-micrornas-in-urine-derived-specimens
#10
Susanne Fuessel, Andrea Lohse-Fischer, Dana Vu Van, Karsten Salomo, Kati Erdmann, Manfred P Wirth
MicroRNAs are small noncoding RNAs which regulate the expression of genes involved in a multitude of cellular processes. Dysregulation of microRNAs and-in consequence-of the affected pathways is frequently observed in numerous pathologies including cancers. Therefore, tumor-related alterations in microRNA expression and function can reflect molecular processes of tumor onset and progression qualifying microRNAs as potential diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers.In particular, microRNAs with differential expression in bladder cancer (BCa) might represent promising tools for noninvasive tumor detection in urine...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888912/chemotherapy-induces-secretion-of-exosomes-loaded-with-heparanase-that-degrades-extracellular-matrix-and-impacts-tumor-and-host-cell-behavior
#11
Shyam K Bandari, Anurag Purushothaman, Vishnu C Ramani, Garrett J Brinkley, Darshan S Chandrashekar, Sooryanarayana Varambally, James A Mobley, Yi Zhang, Elizabeth E Brown, Israel Vlodavsky, Ralph D Sanderson
The heparan sulfate-degrading enzyme heparanase promotes the progression of many cancers by driving tumor cell proliferation, metastasis and angiogenesis. Heparanase accomplishes this via multiple mechanisms including its recently described effect on enhancing biogenesis of tumor exosomes. Because we recently discovered that heparanase expression is upregulated in myeloma cells that survive chemotherapy, we were prompted to investigate the impact of anti-myeloma drugs on exosome biogenesis. When myeloma cells were exposed to the commonly utilized anti-myeloma drugs bortezomib, carfilzomib or melphalan, exosome secretion by the cells was dramatically enhanced...
September 6, 2017: Matrix Biology: Journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880029/fluorescence-labelling-of-extracellular-vesicles-using-a-novel-thiol-based-strategy-for-quantitative-analysis-of-cellular-delivery-and-intracellular-traffic
#12
H D Roberts-Dalton, A Cocks, J M Falcon-Perez, E J Sayers, J P Webber, P Watson, A Clayton, A T Jones
Extracellular vesicles, including exosomes, are naturally derived nanovesicles generated in and released by numerous cell types. As extracellular entities they have the capacity to interact with neighbouring cells and distant tissues and affect physiological processes as well as being implicated in numerous diseases including tumorigenesis and neurodegeneration. They are also under intense investigation as delivery vectors for biotherapeutics. The ways in which EVs interact with recipient cells to influence cell physiology and deliver a macromolecular payload are at the early stages of exploration...
September 7, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878382/pleomorphic-bacteria-like-structures-in-human-blood-represent-non-living-membrane-vesicles-and-protein-particles
#13
Jan Martel, Cheng-Yeu Wu, Pei-Rong Huang, Wei-Yun Cheng, John D Young
Although human blood is believed to be a sterile environment, recent studies suggest that pleomorphic bacteria exist in the blood of healthy humans. These studies have led to the development of "live-blood analysis," a technique used by alternative medicine practitioners to diagnose various human conditions, including allergies, cancer, cardiovascular disease and septicemia. We show here that bacteria-like vesicles and refringent particles form in healthy human blood observed under dark-field microscopy. These structures gradually increase in number during incubation and show morphologies reminiscent of cells undergoing division...
September 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867585/protein-phosphorylation-and-its-role-in-the-regulation-of-annexin-a2-function
#14
REVIEW
Ann Kari Grindheim, Jaakko Saraste, Anni Vedeler
BACKGROUND: Annexin A2 (AnxA2) is a multifunctional protein involved in endocytosis, exocytosis, membrane domain organisation, actin remodelling, signal transduction, protein assembly, transcription and mRNA transport, as well as DNA replication and repair. SCOPE OF REVIEW: The current knowledge of the role of phosphorylation in the functional regulation of AnxA2 is reviewed. To provide a more comprehensive treatment of this topic, we also address in depth the phosphorylation process in general and discuss its possible conformational effects...
September 1, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28862274/high-purity-capture-and-release-of-circulating-exosomes-using-an-exosome-specific-dual-patterned-immunofiltration-exodif-device
#15
Yoon-Tae Kang, Young Jun Kim, Jiyoon Bu, Young-Ho Cho, Sae-Won Han, Byung-In Moon
We present a microfluidic device for the capture and release of circulating exosomes from human blood. The exosome-specific dual-patterned immunofiltration (ExoDIF) device is composed of two distinct immuno-patterned layers, and is capable of enhancing the chance of binding between the antibody and exosomes by generating mechanical whirling, thus achieving high-throughput exosome isolation with high specificity. Moreover, follow-up recovery after the immuno-affinity based isolation, via cleavage of a linker, enables further downstream analysis...
September 1, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861940/mapping-the-spatial-proteome-of-metastatic-cells-in-colorectal-cancer
#16
Marta Mendes, Alberto Peláez-García, María López-Lucendo, Rubén A Bartolomé, Eva Calviño, Rodrigo Barderas, J Ignacio Casal
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second deadliest cancer worldwide. Here, we aimed to study metastasis mechanisms using spatial proteomics in the KM12 cell model. Cells were SILAC-labeled and fractionated into five subcellular fractions corresponding to: cytoplasm, plasma, mitochondria and ER/golgi membranes, nuclear, chromatin-bound and cytoskeletal proteins and analyzed with high resolution mass spectrometry. We provide localization data of 4863 quantified proteins in the different subcellular fractions. A total of 1318 proteins with at least 1...
August 31, 2017: Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860826/mirna-221-of-exosomes-originating-from-bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stem-cells-promotes-oncogenic-activity-in-gastric-cancer
#17
Min Ma, Shilin Chen, Zhuo Liu, Hailong Xie, Hongyu Deng, Song Shang, Xiaohong Wang, Man Xia, Chaohui Zuo
Worldwide, gastric cancer (GC) is one of the deadliest malignant tumors of the digestive system. Moreover, microRNAs (miRNAs) of exosomes harbored within cancer cells have been determined to induce inflammatory conditions that accelerate tumor growth and metastasis. Interestingly, the oncogenic role of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) in the modulation of immunosuppression, tumor invasion, and metastasis was discovered to be partly mediated through the secretion of exosomes. In this article, high expression of miRNA-221 (miR-221) in exosomes of the peripheral blood was determined to be positively correlated with the poor clinical prognosis of GC, especially with respect to tumor, node, and metastases stage...
2017: OncoTargets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28858294/the-ceramide-pathway-is-involved-in-the-survival-apoptosis-and-exosome-functions-of-human-multiple-myeloma-cells-in-vitro
#18
Qian Cheng, Xin Li, Yue Wang, Min Dong, Feng-Huang Zhan, Jing Liu
Multiple myeloma (MM) is characterized by the clonal proliferation of malignant plasma cells and refractoriness to traditional therapies. It has been shown that exosomes are involved in modulating the progression and the metastasis of cancers through microRNAs (miRs). Ceramide is a type of sphingolipid; the ceramide pathway of exosomal secretion has been shown to affect the apoptosis of cancer cells. But the role of this pathway in MM cell function, exosome function and miR regulation remains unknown. In this study, we showed that C6 ceramide (an exogenous ceramide supplement, 1...
August 31, 2017: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856701/extracellular-vesicles-for-personalized-therapy-decision-support-in-advanced-metastatic-cancers-and-its-potential-impact-for-prostate-cancer
#19
REVIEW
Carolina Soekmadji, Niall M Corcoran, Irina Oleinikova, Lidija Jovanovic, Grant A Ramm, Colleen C Nelson, Guido Jenster, Pamela J Russell
The use of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) and circulating extracellular vesicles (EVs), such as exosomes, as liquid biopsy-derived biomarkers for cancers have been investigated. CTC enumeration using the CellSearch based platform provides an accurate insight on overall survival where higher CTC counts indicate poor prognosis for patients with advanced metastatic cancer. EVs provide information based on their lipid, protein, and nucleic acid content and can be isolated from biofluids and analyzed from a relatively small volume, providing a routine and non-invasive modality to monitor disease progression...
August 29, 2017: Prostate
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855522/separation-of-extracellular-nanovesicles-and-apoptotic-bodies-from-cancer-cell-culture-broth-using-tunable-microfluidic-systems
#20
Soojeong Shin, Daeyoung Han, Min Chul Park, Ji Young Mun, Jonghoon Choi, Honggu Chun, Sunghoon Kim, Jong Wook Hong
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are the cell-secreted nano- and micro-sized particles consisted of lipid bilayer containing nucleic acids and proteins for diagnosis and therapeutic applications. The inherent complexity of EVs is a source of heterogeneity in various potential applications of the biological nanovesicles including analysis. To diminish heterogeneity, EV should be isolated and separated according to their sizes and cargos. However, current technologies do not meet the requirements. We showed noninvasive and precise separation of EVs based on their sizes without any recognizable damages...
August 30, 2017: Scientific Reports
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