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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326171/large-scale-isolation-and-cytotoxicity-of-extracellular-vesicles-derived-from-activated-human-natural-killer-cells
#1
Ambrose Y Jong, Chun-Hua Wu, Jingbo Li, Jianping Sun, Muller Fabbri, Alan S Wayne, Robert C Seeger
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) have been the focus of great interest, as they appear to be involved in numerous important cellular processes. They deliver bioactive macromolecules such as proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids, allowing intercellular communication in multicellular organisms. EVs are secreted by all cell types, including immune cells such as natural killer cells (NK), and they may play important roles in the immune system. Currently, a large-scale procedure to obtain functional NK EVs is lacking, limiting their use clinically...
2017: Journal of Extracellular Vesicles
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325957/heat-shock-protein-hsp27-secretion-by-ovarian-cancer-cells-is-linked-to-intracellular-expression-levels-occurs-independently-of-the-endoplasmic-reticulum-pathway-and-hsp27-s-phosphorylation-status-and-is-mediated-by-exosome-liberation
#2
Matthias B Stope, Gerd Klinkmann, Karoline Diesing, Dominique Koensgen, Martin Burchardt, Alexander Mustea
The heat shock protein HSP27 has been correlated in ovarian cancer (OC) patients with aggressiveness and chemoresistance and, therefore, represents a promising potential biomarker for OC diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment response. Notably, secretion of soluble HSP27 has been described by a few cell types and may take place as well in OC cells. Therefore, we studied HSP27 secretion mechanisms under diverse cellular conditions in an OC cell model system. Secretion of HSP27 was characterized after overexpression of HSP27 by transfected plasmids and after heat shock...
2017: Disease Markers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324860/direct-detection-of-two-different-tumor-derived-extracellular-vesicles-by-sam-aunis-lspr-biosensor
#3
Abhimanyu Thakur, Guangyu Qiu, Siu-Pang Ng, Jintao Guan, Jianbo Yue, Youngjin Lee, Chi-Man Lawrence Wu
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are abundant in various biological fluids including blood, saliva, urine, as well as extracellular milieu. Accumulating evidence has indicated that EVs, which contain functional proteins and small RNAs, facilitate intercellular communication between neighbouring cells, and are critical to maintain various physiological processes. In contrast, EV-derived toxic signals can spread out over the tissues adjacent to the injured area in certain diseases, including brain tumors and neurodegenerative disorders...
March 18, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321122/the-emerging-roles-of-tumor-derived-exosomes-in-hematological-malignancies
#4
REVIEW
M Boyiadzis, T L Whiteside
Exosomes are small (30-150 nm) membranous vesicles of endocytic origin produced by all cells under physiological and pathological conditions. They have recently emerged as vehicles for intercellular transfer of molecular and genetic contents from parent to recipient cells. Exosome-mediated transfer of proteins or genes (RNA, miRNA, DNA) results in reprogramming of recipient cell functions. Exosomes carry and deliver information that is essential for health, and they participate in pathological events, including malignant transformation...
March 21, 2017: Leukemia: Official Journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288874/loss-of-exosomal-mir-320a-from-cancer-associated-fibroblasts-contributes-to-hcc-proliferation-and-metastasis
#5
Zhuochao Zhang, Xiao Li, Wei Sun, Shuqiang Yue, Jingyue Yang, Junjie Li, Ben Ma, Jianlin Wang, Xisheng Yang, Meng Pu, Bai Ruan, Ge Zhao, Qike Huang, Lin Wang, Kaishan Tao, Kefeng Dou
Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) play a pivotal role in regulating tumour progression. Therefore, understanding how CAFs communicate with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is crucial for HCC therapy. Recently, exosomes have been considered an important "messenger" between cells. In this study, we performed microRNA (miRNA) sequencing of exosomes derived from CAFs and corresponding para-cancer fibroblasts (PAFs) of HCC patients. We found a significant reduction in the miR-320a level in CAF-derived exosomes...
March 10, 2017: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288782/exosomes-a-new-horizon-in-lung-cancer
#6
REVIEW
Irene Vanni, Angela Alama, Francesco Grossi, Maria Giovanna Dal Bello, Simona Coco
Circulating exosomes are the major mediators of cell-cell communication. They have been found in various body fluids of healthy individuals and patients with malignancies as cargos of several molecules including miRNAs. Several studies have underlined the role of exosome miRNAs in different tumor types, including lung cancer, suggesting their potential use as biomarkers and therapeutic agents. An overview of the biology and function of exosomes and exosome miRNAs as indicators of diagnosis and treatment response in lung cancer is presented...
March 10, 2017: Drug Discovery Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285404/exosomes-mediated-transfer-of-long-noncoding-rna-zfas1-promotes-gastric-cancer-progression
#7
Lei Pan, Wei Liang, Min Fu, Zhen-Hua Huang, Xia Li, Wen Zhang, Peng Zhang, Hui Qian, Peng-Cheng Jiang, Wen-Rong Xu, Xu Zhang
BACKGROUND: ZFAS1 is a newly identified long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) that promotes tumor growth and metastasis. Exosomes mediate cellular communications in cancer by transmitting active molecules. The presence of ZFAS1 in the circulating exosomes and the roles of exosomal ZFAS1 in gastric cancer (GC) remains unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential roles of exosomal ZFAS1 in GC. METHODS: The expression of ZFAS1 was examined in the tumor tissues, serum samples, serum exosomes of GC patients and cell lines using qRT-PCR...
March 11, 2017: Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284981/exosomes-from-m1-polarized-macrophages-potentiate-the-cancer-vaccine-by-creating-a-pro-inflammatory-microenvironment-in-the-lymph-node
#8
Lifang Cheng, Yuhua Wang, Leaf Huang
Exosomes are small membrane-bound vesicular particles generated by most cells for intercellular communication and regulation. During biogenesis, specific lipids, RNAs, proteins, and carbohydrates are enriched and packaged into the vesicles so that the exosomal contents reflect not only the source but also the physiological conditions of the parental cells. These exosomes transport materials or signals to the target cells for diverse physiological purposes. Our study focused on the exosomes derived from M1-polarized, proinflammatory macrophages for the possibility of using M1 exosomes as an immunopotentiator for a cancer vaccine...
March 8, 2017: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272605/thermo-acoustofluidic-separation-of-vesicles-based-on-cholesterol-content
#9
Ata Dolatmoradi, Elnaz Mirtaheri, Bilal El-Zahab
Biomechanical properties of cells such as cellular stiffness have been increasingly considered as biomarkers for diseases. For instance, stiffness of cancer cells has been correlated to the malignant potential in certain cell lines. In cells, the cholesterol content plays a crucial role in determining stiffness. Changes in the cholesterol content in cellular membranes can be an indication of pathological disorders. Acoustophoresis as a separation and diagnostic tool is well positioned to help in the separation and diagnosis of cells taking advantage of its unique separation criteria of density and compressibility...
March 8, 2017: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267596/extracellular-vesicles-in-lung-cancer-from-bench-to-bedside
#10
REVIEW
Tsukasa Kadota, Yusuke Yoshioka, Yu Fujita, Kazuyoshi Kuwano, Takahiro Ochiya
Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Despite significant advances in lung cancer research and novel therapies, a better understanding of the disease is crucially needed to facilitate early detection and appropriate diagnoses and to improve treatment outcomes. Extracellular vesicles (EVs), including exosomes, microvesicles, and apoptotic bodies, are released from all tested cell types and modulate cell-cell communication. EVs transfer a wide variety of molecules, such as proteins, messenger RNAs and microRNAs...
March 4, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265569/functional-roles-and-therapeutic-applications-of-exosomes-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#11
REVIEW
Laura Santangelo, Cecilia Battistelli, Claudia Montaldo, Franca Citarella, Raffaele Strippoli, Carla Cicchini
Exosomes are important in intercellular communication. They assure the horizontal transfer of specific functional contents (i.e., proteins, lipids, RNA molecules, and circulating DNA) from donor to recipient cells. Notably, tumor-derived exosomes (TDEs) appear to be an important vehicle of specific signals in cancer, impacting on tumor growth and metastasis. Recent researches point to the characterization of exosomes in Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC), the major adult liver malignancy. In this review, we summarize current findings on HCC exosomes, focusing on the identification of noncoding RNAs as exosome-enriched functional regulators and new potential biomarkers...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262971/the-opportunity-of-precision-medicine-for-breast-cancer-with-context-sensitive-tumor-suppressor-maspin
#12
Margarida M Bernardo, Sijana H Dzinic, Maria J Matta, Ivory Dean, Lina Saker, Shijie Sheng
To improve the precision of molecular diagnosis and to develop and guide targeted therapies of breast cancer, it is essential to determine the mechanisms that underlie the specific tumor phenotypes. To this end, the application of a snapshot of gene expression profile for breast cancer diagnosis and prognosis is fundamentally challenged since the tissue-based data are derived from heterogonous cell types and are not likely to reflect the dynamics of context-dependent tumor progression and drug sensitivity. The intricate network of epithelial differentiation program can be concertedly controlled by tumor suppressor maspin, a homologue of clade B serine protease inhibitors (serpin), through its multifaceted molecular interactions in multiple subcellular localizations...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262028/acridine-orange-exosomes-increase-the-delivery-and-the-effectiveness-of-acridine-orange-in-human-melanoma-cells-a-new-prototype-for-theranostics-of-tumors
#13
Elisabetta Iessi, Mariantonia Logozzi, Luana Lugini, Tommaso Azzarito, Cristina Federici, Enrico Pierluigi Spugnini, Davide Mizzoni, Rossella Di Raimo, Daniela F Angelini, Luca Battistini, Serena Cecchetti, Stefano Fais
Specifically targeted drug delivery systems with low immunogenicity and toxicity are deemed to increase efficacy of cancer chemotherapy. Acridine Orange (AO) is an acidophilic dye with a strong tumoricidal action following excitation with a light source at 466 nm. However, to date the clinical use of AO is limited by the potential side effects elicited by systemic administration. The endogenous nanocarrier exosomes have been recently introduced as a natural delivery system for therapeutic molecules. In this article, we show the outcome of the administration to human melanoma cells of AO charged Exosomes (Exo-AO), in both monolayer and spheroid models...
December 2017: Journal of Enzyme Inhibition and Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258691/viewing-siglecs-through-the-lens-of-tumor-immunology
#14
REVIEW
Isabella Fraschilla, Shiv Pillai
Many Siglecs function as inhibitory receptors on innate and adaptive immune cells and may contribute to the attenuation of immune responses to tumors. Siglec 9 on neutrophils and Siglec 7 on NK cells are prominent examples of inhibitory Siglecs that can potentially dampen anti-tumor immunity. CD169 is a Siglec that may function as an adhesion molecule and a facilitator of the recognition and internalization of sialic acid decorated apoptotic bodies and exosomes derived from tumors. It can potentially contribute to both the attenuation as well as the facilitation of anti-tumor immunity...
March 2017: Immunological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253991/micrornas-as-peripheral-biomarkers-in-aging-and-age-related-diseases
#15
S Kumar, M Vijayan, J S Bhatti, P H Reddy
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are found in the circulatory biofluids considering the important molecules for biomarker study in aging and age-related diseases. Blood or blood components (serum/plasma) are primary sources of circulatory miRNAs and can release these in cell-free form either bound with some protein components or encapsulated with microvesicle particles, called exosomes. miRNAs are quite stable in the peripheral circulation and can be detected by high-throughput techniques like qRT-PCR, microarray, and sequencing...
2017: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28252003/integrating-liquid-biopsies-into-the-management-of-cancer
#16
REVIEW
Giulia Siravegna, Silvia Marsoni, Salvatore Siena, Alberto Bardelli
During cancer progression and treatment, multiple subclonal populations of tumour cells compete with one another, with selective pressures leading to the emergence of predominant subclones that replicate and spread most proficiently, and are least susceptible to treatment. At present, the molecular landscapes of solid tumours are established using surgical or biopsy tissue samples. Tissue-based tumour profiles are, however, subject to sampling bias, provide only a snapshot of tumour heterogeneity, and cannot be obtained repeatedly...
March 2, 2017: Nature Reviews. Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28247946/the-emerging-role-of-exosome-and-microvesicle-emv-based-cancer-therapeutics-and-immunotherapy
#17
REVIEW
Colin Moore, Uchini Kosgodage, Sigrun Lange, Jameel M Inal
There is an urgent need to develop new combination therapies beyond existing surgery, radio- and chemo-therapy, perhaps initially combining chemotherapy with the targeting specificities of immunotherapy. For this, strategies to limit inflammation and immuno-suppression and evasion in the tumour microenvironment are also needed. To devise effective new immunotherapies we must first understand tumour immunology, including the roles of T cells, macrophages, myeloid suppressor cells and of exosomes and microvesicles (EMVs) in promoting angiogenesis, tumour growth, drug resistance and metastasis...
March 1, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245982/comparative-analysis-of-microrna-and-mrna-expression-profiles-in-cells-and-exosomes-under-toluene-exposure
#18
Jung-Hee Lim, Mi-Kyung Song, Yoon Cho, Woong Kim, Sung Ok Han, Jae-Chun Ryu
Recent studies have illustrated the growing importance of exosomes (small extracellular vesicles) and their constituent microRNAs (miRNAs) in the fields of toxicology and pathology. The mechanism of toxicity of toluene, a highly-prevalent and volatile organic compound, is largely unknown. To examine the role of miRNAs in toluene-induced toxicity, we investigated miRNAs and toluene-induced gene expression in HL-60 human promyelocytic leukemia cells and exosomes using microarrays. A total of 54 miRNAs were differentially expressed in HL-60 cell lines exposed to toluene and exosomes from the cells...
February 27, 2017: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240915/quantitative-proteomic-analysis-of-serum-exosomes-from-patients-with-locally-advanced-pancreatic-cancer-undergoing-chemoradiotherapy
#19
Mingrui An, Ines Lohse, Zhijing Tan, Jianhui Zhu, Jing Wu, Himabindu Kurapati, Meredith A Morgan, Theodore S Lawrence, Kyle C Cuneo, David M Lubman
Pancreatic cancer is the third leading cause of cancer-related death in the USA. Despite extensive research, minimal improvements in patient outcomes have been achieved. Early identification of treatment response and metastasis would be valuable to determine the appropriate therapeutic course for patients. In this work, we isolated exosomes from the serum of 10 patients with locally advanced pancreatic cancer at serial time points over a course of therapy, and quantitative analysis was performed using the iTRAQ method...
March 8, 2017: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240776/the-role-of-exosomes-and-mirnas-in-drug-resistance-of-cancer-cells
#20
REVIEW
Duc-Hiep Bach, Ji-Young Hong, Hyen Joo Park, Sang Kook Lee
Chemotherapy, one of the principal approaches for cancer patients, plays a crucial role in controlling tumor progression. Clinically, tumors reveal a satisfactory response following the first exposure to the chemotherapeutic drugs in treatment. However, most tumors sooner or later become resistant to even chemically unrelated anticancer agents after repeated treatment. The reduced drug accumulation in tumor cells is considered one of the significant mechanisms by decreasing drug permeability and/or increasing active efflux (pumping out) of the drugs across the cell membrane...
February 27, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
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