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child abuse and neglect

Juliana Brum Moraes, Michael Maes, Chutima Roomruangwong, Kamila Landucci Bonifacio, Decio Sabbatini Barbosa, Heber Odebrecht Vargas, George Anderson, Marta Kubera, Andre F Carvalho, Sandra Odebrecht Vargas Nunes
Early life trauma (ELT) may increase the risk towards bipolar disorder (BD) and major depression (MDD), disorders associated with activated neuro-oxidative and neuro-nitrosative stress (O&NS) pathways. It has remained elusive whether ELTs are associated with O&NS and which ELTs are associated with distinct affective disorder phenotypes. This case-control study examined patients with BD (n = 68) and MDD (n = 37) and healthy controls (n = 66). The Child Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) was used to assess specific ELT...
March 14, 2018: Metabolic Brain Disease
Manuela Deidda, Kathleen Anne Boyd, Helen Minnis, Julia Donaldson, Kevin Brown, Nicole R S Boyer, Emma McIntosh
INTRODUCTION: Children who have experienced abuse and neglect are at increased risk of mental and physical health problems throughout life. This places an enormous burden on individuals, families and society in terms of health services, education, social care and judiciary sectors. Evidence suggests that early intervention can mitigate the negative consequences of child maltreatment, exerting long-term positive effects on the health of maltreated children entering foster care. However, evidence on cost-effectiveness of such complex interventions is limited...
March 14, 2018: BMJ Open
David B Resnik, Duncan C Randall
In this article, we explore the ethical issues related to the reporting of suspected abuse or neglect in research involving children. Ethical dilemmas related to reporting child maltreatment are often complex because the rights of children and their adult caregivers may conflict and determinations of abuse or neglect are socially constructed judgments that depend on particular circumstances. We argue that when reporting is legally mandated, investigators must follow the law and report their suspicions to Child Protective Services...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Medical Ethics
Catherine L Ward, Lillian Artz, Lezanne Leoschut, Reshma Kassanjee, Patrick Burton
BACKGROUND: We aimed to complete a nationally representative study of sexual violence against children in South Africa, and its correlates, since we could identify no other such study. METHODS: For this nationally representative, cross-sectional study in South Africa, households were selected by use of a multistage sampling frame, stratified by province, urban or rural setting, and race group, and schools were selected on the basis that they were closest to the area in which households were selected...
April 2018: Lancet Global Health
Jonas Kneer, Viola Borchardt, Christian Kärgel, Christopher Sinke, Claudia Massau, Gilian Tenbergen, Jorge Ponseti, Henrik Walter, Klaus M Beier, Boris Schiffer, Kolja Schiltz, Martin Walter, Tillmann H C Kruger
BACKGROUND: Child sexual abuse and neglect have been related to an increased risk for the development of a wide range of behavioral, psychological, and sexual problems and increased rates of suicidal behavior. Contrary to the large amount of research focusing on the negative mental health consequences of child sexual abuse, very little is known about the characteristics of child sexual offenders and the neuronal underpinnings contributing to child sexual offending. METHODS AND SAMPLE: This study investigates differences in resting state functional connectivity (rs-FC) between non-pedophilic child sexual offenders (N = 20; CSO-P) and matched healthy controls (N = 20; HC) using a seed-based approach...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Hiu-Fai Fong, Margarita Alegria, Megan H Bair-Merritt, William Beardslee
Although child welfare caseworkers are responsible for facilitating mental health services access for maltreated children, little is known about caseworkers' decisions to refer children to services. We aimed to identify factors associated with caseworker referral of children to mental health services after a maltreatment investigation. We analyzed data from 1956 children 2-17 years old from the Second National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-being. We examined associations of children's predisposing, enabling, and need-related factors and caseworkers' work environment characteristics with referral to mental health services...
March 9, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
Elizabeth D Beatriz, Carmel Salhi, John L Griffith, Beth E Molnar
Despite indications that there are differences in rates of child maltreatment (CM) cases in the child protection system between urban and rural areas, there are no published studies examining the differences in self-reported CM prevalence and its correlates by urbanicity. The present study aimed to: (1) identify the distribution of self-reported childhood experiences of maltreatment by urbanicity, (2) assess whether differences by urbanicity persist after adjusting for known risk factors, and (3) explore whether the associations between these risk factors and CM are modified by urban-rural designation...
March 7, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
Johan Vanderfaeillie, Karolien De Ruyck, Johan Galle, Erik Van Dooren, Chris Schotte
In 2015, 523 reports of suspected child abuse and neglect (CAN) were brought to the attention of the Confidential Center of Child Abuse and Neglect (CCCAN) of Brussels. Around 38% of these reports came from school personnel. This study investigated which factors affect the recognition of CAN by school personnel of Dutch-speaking primary education in Brussels and their intervention need. Two hundred seventy-nine staff members of 16 schools professionally working with children, filled in a Questionnaire Assessment of Situations of CAN...
March 7, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
Michael McLaughlin
Prior research suggests that income and child maltreatment are related, but questions remain about the specific types of economic factors that affect the risk of maltreatment. The need to understand the role of economics in child welfare is critical, given the significant public health costs of child maltreatment. One factor that has been overlooked is regressive taxation. This study addresses this need by examining whether state-level changes in cigarette tax rates predict changes in state-level child maltreatment rates...
March 5, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
Wanjie Tang, Jingdong Zhao, Yi Lu, Yuliang Zha, Hao Liu, Yang Sun, Jun Zhang, Yanchun Yang, Jiuping Xu
BACKGROUND: Surviving an earthquake can greatly increase the risk of suicidality among children and adolescents, especially if they experience physical and emotional neglect or abuse within the family after the earthquake. How various types of childhood adversity affect the vulnerability of adolescents to suicidality after exposure to a natural disaster is not well understood. This study examined the relationships among different types of earthquake exposure, childhood trauma, psychopathology and suicidality...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
Ayumi Okato, Tasuku Hashimoto, Mami Tanaka, Masumi Tachibana, Akira Machizawa, Jun Okayama, Mamiko Endo, Masayoshi Senda, Naoki Saito, Masaomi Iyo
Background: Child abuse and/or neglect is a serious issue, and in many cases, parents are the perpetrators. Hospital-based child protection teams (CPTs) play pivotal roles in the management of not only abused and/or neglected children but also of their parents; this is generally conducted through multidisciplinary practice. The aim of this study is to survey hospital-based CPT members to determine the professions they perceive to be most applicable to participation in CPTs. Participants and methods: The participants were members of CPTs affiliated with hospitals that had pediatric emergency departments and which were located in Chiba Prefecture; specifically, 114 CPT members from 23 hospitals responded to this survey...
2018: Journal of Multidisciplinary Healthcare
Susan Yoon, Julia M Kobulsky, Dalhee Yoon, Wonhee Kim
While many studies have identified a significant relation between child maltreatment and adolescent substance use, the developmental pathways linking this relation remain sparsely explored. The current study examines posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptoms, mother-child relationships, and internalizing and externalizing problems as potential longitudinal pathways through which child maltreatment influences adolescent substance use. Structural equation modeling was conducted on 883 adolescents drawn from the Longitudinal Studies of Child Abuse and Neglect (LONGSCAN)...
November 2017: Children and Youth Services Review
Peter Sidebotham, Ameeta Retzer
A national mixed-methods study of English Serious Case Reviews (SCRs) was carried out to better understand the characteristics and circumstances of maternally perpetrated filicides, to compare these with paternally perpetrated cases, and to identify learning points for mental health professionals. Published reports for all SCRs of children in England dying as a result of abuse or neglect from 2011 to 2014 were subject to qualitative analysis using a system of layered reading and inductive thematic analysis, along with descriptive and comparative quantitative analysis...
March 2, 2018: Archives of Women's Mental Health
Ingfrid Vaksdal Brattabø, Ragnhild Bjørknes, Anne Nordrehaug Åstrøm
BACKGROUND: To prevent child maltreatment, the identification of vulnerable children is essential. In Norway, public dental health personnel (PDHP) report suspicion of child maltreatment to child welfare services (CWS) at a relatively high rate. However, their reasons for reporting and the response from CWS have not been investigated. The objectives of this study were to (1) explore the reasons that PDHP send reports of concern, (2) examine how CWS responds to PDHP reports, and (3) assess whether different reasons for concern are associated with a given response from CWS...
March 2, 2018: BMC Oral Health
E Yıldız, D Tanrıverdi
AIM: This systematic review was conducted in order to integrate evidence-based knowledge and experience related to child neglect and abuse into the nursing literature. BACKGROUND: The negative and intense effects of neglect and abuse on an individual can last into adulthood. Nurses who are in close contact with such cases have an important role to play in detecting child neglect and abuse and supporting the families involved. When nurses fulfil this role, it is important that evidence-based information and interventions are known to ensure that the process is a healthy one...
March 1, 2018: International Nursing Review
Susan Yoon, Jennifer L Bellamy, Wonhee Kim, Dalhee Yoon
Although there is a well-established connection between father involvement and children's positive behavioral development in general, this relation has been understudied in more vulnerable and high-risk populations. The aims of this study were to examine how the quantity (i.e., the amount of shared activities) and quality (i.e., perceived quality of the father-child relationship) of father involvement are differently related to internalizing and externalizing behavior problems among preadolescents at risk of maltreatment and test if these associations are moderated by father type and child maltreatment...
February 2018: Journal of Child and Family Studies
Grace S Hubel, Whitney L Rostad, Shannon Self-Brown, Angela D Moreland
SafeCare is an evidence-based behavioral parent training intervention that has been successfully implemented in multiple state child welfare systems. A statewide implementation in Oklahoma established the effectiveness of SafeCare with a diverse group of parents, which included adolescent parents under 21 years of age, a particularly at-risk group. The current study examined whether SafeCare is also effective for this subsample of 294 adolescent parents with regard to child welfare recidivism, depression and child abuse potential, and attainment of service goals...
February 23, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
Jacinthe Dion, Geneviève Paquette, Karine-N Tremblay, Delphine Collin-Vézina, Martin Chabot
This study aims to compare, among a representative sample of substantiated child maltreatment cases, the characteristics of those with intellectual disability (ID) from those without ID. Using the 2008 Canadian Incidence Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect, 5,797 cases of substantiated maltreatment that involved children aged between 0 and 14 years were analyzed. One in 10 children (11.3%) was identified with ID. Results revealed functional problems to be higher among children with ID and their parents...
March 2018: American Journal on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities
Rachel Lev-Wiesel, Maya First
The aim of the study was to examine the role of gender in willingness to disclose childhood sexual abuse (CSA) compared to other forms of abuse (physical, emotional and neglect) in young adolescents. Willingness was examined through two terms: reluctance- the level of unwillingness or disinclination to disclose, and urge-the need to share in order to get rid of unbearable feelings. The sample consisted of 3,156 boys (n = 1,544) and girls (n = 1,612) between the ages of 11-16 who reported having been abused at least once during their life...
February 22, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
Wing Hong Chui, Paul Vinod Khiatani
The primary aim of this article is to examine the role of triad affiliation in mediating the relationship between child maltreatment (neglect, punishment, emotional abuse, and sexual abuse) and delinquency among active young gang members in Hong Kong. A sample of 177 gang members aged 12 to 24 was recruited to complete a questionnaire with the assistance of a youth outreach social work team. Neglect was identified as the most common form of maltreatment, followed by emotional abuse, punishment, and sexual abuse...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
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