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Nascent adhesion

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917158/quantitative-trait-locus-mapping-in-mice-identifies-phospholipase-pla2g12a-as-novel-atherosclerosis-modifier
#1
Alexandros Nicolaou, Bernd H Northoff, Kristina Sass, Jana Ernst, Alexander Kohlmaier, Knut Krohn, Christian Wolfrum, Daniel Teupser, Lesca M Holdt
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: In a previous work, a female-specific atherosclerosis risk locus on chromosome (Chr) 3 was identified in an intercross of atherosclerosis-resistant FVB and atherosclerosis-susceptible C57BL/6 (B6) mice on the LDL-receptor deficient (Ldlr(-/-)) background. It was the aim of the current study to identify causative genes at this locus. METHODS: We established a congenic mouse model, where FVB.Chr3(B6/B6) mice carried an 80 Mb interval of distal Chr3 on an otherwise FVB...
September 4, 2017: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912124/kindlin-2-recruits-paxillin-and-arp2-3-to-promote-membrane-protrusions-during-initial-cell-spreading
#2
Ralph T Böttcher, Maik Veelders, Pascaline Rombaut, Jan Faix, Marina Theodosiou, Theresa E Stradal, Klemens Rottner, Roy Zent, Franz Herzog, Reinhard Fässler
Cell spreading requires the coupling of actin-driven membrane protrusion and integrin-mediated adhesion to the extracellular matrix. The integrin-activating adaptor protein kindlin-2 plays a central role for cell adhesion and membrane protrusion by directly binding and recruiting paxillin to nascent adhesions. Here, we report that kindlin-2 has a dual role during initial cell spreading: it binds paxillin via the pleckstrin homology and F0 domains to activate Rac1, and it directly associates with the Arp2/3 complex to induce Rac1-mediated membrane protrusions...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877491/%C3%AE-1-integrin-mediated-adhesion-is-lipid-bilayer-dependent
#3
Seoyoung Son, George J Moroney, Peter J Butler
Integrin-mediated adhesion is a central feature of cellular adhesion, locomotion, and endothelial cell mechanobiology. Although integrins are known to be transmembrane proteins, little is known about the role of membrane biophysics and dynamics in integrin adhesion. We treated human aortic endothelial cells with exogenous amphiphiles, shown previously in model membranes, and computationally, to affect bilayer thickness and lipid phase separation, and subsequently measured single-integrin-molecule adhesion kinetics using an optical trap, and diffusion using fluorescence correlation spectroscopy...
September 5, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747994/lignin-valorization-lignin-nanoparticles-as-high-value-bio-additive-for-multifunctional-nanocomposites
#4
Dong Tian, Jinguang Hu, Jie Bao, Richard P Chandra, Jack N Saddler, Canhui Lu
BACKGROUND: Although conversion of low value but high-volume lignin by-product to its usable form is one of the determinant factors for building an economically feasible integrated lignocellulose biorefinery, it has been challenged by its structural complexity and inhomogeneity. We and others have shown that uniform lignin nanoparticles can be produced from a wide range of technical lignins, despite the varied lignocellulosic biomass and the pretreatment methods/conditions applied. This value-added nanostructure lignin enriched with multifunctional groups can be a promising versatile material platform for various downstream utilizations especially in the emerging nanocomposite fields...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709379/structure-of-supported-and-unsupported-catalytic-rh-nanoparticles-effects-on-nucleation-of-single-walled-carbon-nanotubes
#5
Jose Leonardo Gomez-Ballesteros, Perla B Balbuena
Achieving a better control of the nucleation and growth of single-walled carbon nanotubes requires understanding of the changes in the catalyst structure and the interfacial phenomena occurring at the solid surface and the gaseous phase from the early stages of the synthesis process. Carbon nanotubes produced by chemical vapor deposition typically use carbon-philic metal catalysts such as Fe, Ni and Co, in which both surface C and dissolved C atoms contribute to the nanotube formation. We use density functional theory to investigate the interactions of Rh, a noble metal, with carbon both as individual atoms gradually deposited on the catalyst surface from the precursor gas decomposition and as a nucleating seed adhered to the catalyst...
July 14, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28703223/unmasking-the-molecular-link-between-arrhythmogenic-cardiomyopathy-and-brugada-syndrome
#6
REVIEW
Javier Moncayo-Arlandi, Ramon Brugada
The intercalated discs that connect cardiomyocytes control cell-to-cell adhesion and communication. Several macromolecular structures (desmosomes, fascia adherens junctions, gap junctions, and sodium-channel complexes) coexist in, and confer their mechanical and electrical properties to, the intercalated disc. Traditionally, each structure was assumed to have a unique function in the intercalated disc. However, growing evidence suggests that these complexes act together in intercellular communication and adhesion, forming a single structural and functional entity - the connexome...
July 13, 2017: Nature Reviews. Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687667/membrane-tension-controls-adhesion-positioning-at-the-leading-edge-of-cells
#7
Bruno Pontes, Pascale Monzo, Laurent Gole, Anabel-Lise Le Roux, Anita Joanna Kosmalska, Zhi Yang Tam, Weiwei Luo, Sophie Kan, Virgile Viasnoff, Pere Roca-Cusachs, Lisa Tucker-Kellogg, Nils C Gauthier
Cell migration is dependent on adhesion dynamics and actin cytoskeleton remodeling at the leading edge. These events may be physically constrained by the plasma membrane. Here, we show that the mechanical signal produced by an increase in plasma membrane tension triggers the positioning of new rows of adhesions at the leading edge. During protrusion, as membrane tension increases, velocity slows, and the lamellipodium buckles upward in a myosin II-independent manner. The buckling occurs between the front of the lamellipodium, where nascent adhesions are positioned in rows, and the base of the lamellipodium, where a vinculin-dependent clutch couples actin to previously positioned adhesions...
September 4, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654129/nanotopography-featured-polycaprolactone-polyethyleneoxide-microfibers-modulate-endothelial-cell-response
#8
Mehmet Berat Taskin, Dan Xia, Flemming Besenbacher, Mingdong Dong, Menglin Chen
Among many physical properties, surface nanotopography has been found to strongly affect cell adhesion, migration and other functions. Accurate biological interpretation requires the nanotopography to be presented in a three-dimensional (3D) micro-environment. Herein, immiscible blends of polycaprolactone (PCL)/polyethyleneoxide (PEO) were electrospun into a grounded coagulation bath, resulting in macroporous microfibers with nanotopography featured surfaces. Variations in PCL/PEO ratios enabled tunable surface nanotopographic structures, from longitudinal submicron grooves to transverse nano-lamellae...
July 6, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459445/egfr-and-her2-activate-rigidity-sensing-only-on-rigid-matrices
#9
Mayur Saxena, Shuaimin Liu, Bo Yang, Cynthia Hajal, Rishita Changede, Junqiang Hu, Haguy Wolfenson, James Hone, Michael P Sheetz
Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) interacts with integrins during cell spreading and motility, but little is known about the role of EGFR in these mechanosensing processes. Here we show, using two different cell lines, that in serum- and EGF-free conditions, EGFR or HER2 activity increase spreading and rigidity-sensing contractions on rigid, but not soft, substrates. Contractions peak after 15-20 min, but diminish by tenfold after 4 h. Addition of EGF at that point increases spreading and contractions, but this can be blocked by myosin-II inhibition...
July 2017: Nature Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448919/mechanochemical-mechanism-of-integrin-clustering-modulated-by-nanoscale-ligand-spacing-and-rigidity-of-extracellular-substrates
#10
Jing Yu, Jianyong Huang, John A Jansen, Chunyang Xiong, X Frank Walboomers
Experimental findings indicate that cell function and behavior such as cell growth, division, migration and differentiation, are subtly regulated via integrin-dependent cell adhesion. Cell adhesion is influenced by nanoscale ligand spacing and rigidity of extracellular substrates, as cell adhesion drops greatly when the ligand spacing is larger than ~60nm, and cell adhesion is stronger on stiff than soft substrates. However, how nanoscale ligand spacing and substrate stiffness jointly affect integrin clustering and hence nascent cell adhesion remains to be elucidated...
April 14, 2017: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388299/innovation-analysis-on-postgenomic-biomarkers-glycomics-for-chronic-diseases
#11
Eric Adua, Alyce Russell, Peter Roberts, Youxin Wang, Manshu Song, Wei Wang
Despite decades of investment in biomarker research, we still do not have robust and field-tested biomarkers for many chronic diseases so as to anticipate clinical outcomes and thus move toward personalized medicine. Biomarker innovations have tended to focus on genomics, but next-generation biomarkers from the nascent field of glycomics now offer fresh vistas for innovation in chronic disease biomarkers and systems diagnostics. Glycosylation, regarded as a complex enzymatic process where sugars (glycans) bind to proteins and lipids, affects many human biological functions, including cell signaling, adhesion, and motility...
April 2017: Omics: a Journal of Integrative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318976/assembly-of-cns-nodes-of-ranvier-in-myelinated-nerves-is-promoted-by-the-axon-cytoskeleton
#12
Veronica Brivio, Catherine Faivre-Sarrailh, Elior Peles, Diane L Sherman, Peter J Brophy
Nodes of Ranvier in the axons of myelinated neurons are exemplars of the specialized cell surface domains typical of polarized cells. They are rich in voltage-gated sodium channels (Nav) and thus underpin rapid nerve impulse conduction in the vertebrate nervous system [1]. Although nodal proteins cluster in response to myelination, how myelin-forming glia influence nodal assembly is poorly understood. An axoglial adhesion complex comprising glial Neurofascin155 and axonal Caspr/Contactin flanks mature nodes [2]...
April 3, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289087/reoxidation-of-the-thiol-disulfide-oxidoreductase-mdba-by-a-bacterial-vitamin-k-epoxide-reductase-in-the-biofilm-forming-actinobacterium-actinomyces-oris
#13
Truc Thanh Luong, Melissa E Reardon-Robinson, Sara D Siegel, Hung Ton-That
Posttranslocational protein folding in the Gram-positive biofilm-forming actinobacterium Actinomyces oris is mediated by a membrane-bound thiol-disulfide oxidoreductase named MdbA, which catalyzes oxidative folding of nascent polypeptides transported by the Sec translocon. Reoxidation of MdbA involves a bacterial vitamin K epoxide reductase (VKOR)-like protein that contains four cysteine residues, C93/C101 and C175/C178, with the latter forming a canonical CXXC thioredoxin-like motif; however, the mechanism of VKOR-mediated reoxidation of MdbA is not known...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28255705/f%C3%A3-rster-resonance-energy-transfer-to-study-tcr-pmhc-interactions-in-the-immunological-synapse
#14
Gerhard J Schütz, Johannes B Huppa
T-cell antigen recognition is remarkably efficient: when scanning the surface of antigen-presenting cells (APCs), T-cells can detect the presence of just a few single antigenic peptide/MHCs (pMHCs), which are often vastly outnumbered by structurally similar non-stimulatory endogenous pMHCs (Irvine et al., Nature 419(6909):845-849, 2002; Purbhoo et al., Nat Immunol 5(5):524-530, 2004; Huang et al., Immunity 39(5):846-857, 2013). How T-cells achieve this is still enigmatic, in particular in view of the rather moderate affinity that TCRs typically exert for antigenic pMHCs, at least when measured in vitro (Davis et al...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28156030/er-to-golgi-blockade-of-nascent-desmosomal-cadherins-in-serca2-inhibited-keratinocytes-implications-for-darier-s-disease
#15
Ning Li, Moonhee Park, Shengxiang Xiao, Zhi Liu, Luis A Diaz
Darier's disease (DD) is an autosomal dominantly inherited skin disorder caused by mutations in sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) -ATPase 2 (SERCA2), a Ca(2+) pump that transports Ca(2+) from the cytosol to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Loss of desmosomes and keratinocyte cohesion is a characteristic feature of DD. Desmosomal cadherins (DC) are Ca(2+) -dependent transmembrane adhesion proteins of desmosomes, which are mislocalized in the lesional but not perilesional skin of DD. We show here that inhibition of SERCA2 by 2 distinct inhibitors results in accumulation of DC precursors in keratinocytes, indicating ER-to-Golgi transport of nascent DC is blocked...
April 2017: Traffic
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28147641/monitoring-in-real-time-focal-adhesion-protein-dynamics-in-response-to-a-discrete-mechanical-stimulus
#16
Catalina von Bilderling, Martín Caldarola, Martín E Masip, Andrea V Bragas, Lía I Pietrasanta
The adhesion of cells to the extracellular matrix is a hierarchical, force-dependent, multistage process that evolves at several temporal scales. An understanding of this complex process requires a precise measurement of forces and its correlation with protein responses in living cells. We present a method to quantitatively assess live cell responses to a local and specific mechanical stimulus. Our approach combines atomic force microscopy with fluorescence imaging. Using this approach, we evaluated the recruitment of adhesion proteins such as vinculin, focal adhesion kinase, paxillin, and zyxin triggered by applying forces in the nN regime to live cells...
January 2017: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102310/coordinated-cell-motility-is-regulated-by-a-combination-of-lkb1-farnesylation-and-kinase-activity
#17
S Wilkinson, Y Hou, J T Zoine, J Saltz, C Zhang, Z Chen, L A D Cooper, A I Marcus
Cell motility requires the precise coordination of cell polarization, lamellipodia formation, adhesion, and force generation. LKB1 is a multi-functional serine/threonine kinase that associates with actin at the cellular leading edge of motile cells and suppresses FAK. We sought to understand how LKB1 coordinates these multiple events by systematically dissecting LKB1 protein domain function in combination with live cell imaging and computational approaches. We show that LKB1-actin colocalization is dependent upon LKB1 farnesylation leading to RhoA-ROCK-mediated stress fiber formation, but membrane dynamics is reliant on LKB1 kinase activity...
January 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005397/tensin-1-is-essential-for-myofibroblast-differentiation-and-extracellular-matrix-formation
#18
Ksenija Bernau, Elizabeth E Torr, Michael D Evans, Jason K Aoki, Caitlyn R Ngam, Nathan Sandbo
Myofibroblasts, the primary effector cells that mediate matrix remodeling during pulmonary fibrosis, rapidly assemble an extracellular fibronectin matrix. Tensin (TNS) 1 is a key component of specialized cellular adhesions (fibrillar adhesions) that bind to extracellular fibronectin fibrils. We hypothesized that TNS1 may play a role in modulating myofibroblast-mediated matrix formation. We found that TNS1 expression is increased in fibroblastic foci from lungs with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β profoundly up-regulates TNS1 expression with kinetics that parallel the expression of the myofibroblast marker, smooth muscle α-actin...
April 2017: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852899/local-arp2-3-dependent-actin-assembly-modulates-applied-traction-force-during-apcam-adhesion-site-maturation
#19
Kenneth B Buck, Andrew W Schaefer, Vincent T Schoonderwoert, Matthew S Creamer, Eric R Dufresne, Paul Forscher
Homophilic binding of immunoglobulin superfamily molecules such as the Aplysia cell adhesion molecule (apCAM) leads to actin filament assembly near nascent adhesion sites. Such actin assembly can generate significant localized forces that have not been characterized in the larger context of axon growth and guidance. We used apCAM-coated bead substrates applied to the surface of neuronal growth cones to characterize the development of forces evoked by varying stiffness of mechanical restraint. Unrestrained bead propulsion matched or exceeded rates of retrograde network flow and was dependent on Arp2/3 complex activity...
January 1, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27678055/persistence-of-fan-shaped-keratocytes-is-a-matrix-rigidity-dependent-mechanism-that-requires-%C3%AE-5%C3%AE-1-integrin-engagement
#20
Maryam Riaz, Marie Versaevel, Danahe Mohammed, Karine Glinel, Sylvain Gabriele
Despite the importance of matrix rigidity on cell functions, many aspects of the mechanosensing process in highly migratory cells remain elusive. Here, we studied the migration of highly motile keratocytes on culture substrates with similar biochemical properties and rigidities spanning the range between soft tissues (~kPa) and stiff culture substrates (~GPa). We show that morphology, polarization and persistence of motile keratocytes are regulated by the matrix stiffness over seven orders of magnitude, without changing the cell spreading area...
September 28, 2016: Scientific Reports
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