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Nascent adhesion

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852899/local-arp2-3-dependent-actin-assembly-modulates-applied-traction-force-during-apcam-adhesion-site-maturation
#1
Kenneth B Buck, Andrew W Schaefer, Vincent T Schoonderwoert, Matthew S Creamer, Eric R Dufresne, Paul Forscher
Homophilic binding of Ig superfamily molecules, such as apCAM, leads to actin filament assembly near nascent adhesion sites. Such actin assembly can generate significant localized forces that have not been characterized in the larger context of axon growth and guidance. We used apCAM coated bead substrates applied to the surface of neuronal growth cones to characterize the development of forces evoked by varying stiffness of mechanical restraint. Unrestrained bead propulsion matched or exceeded rates of retrograde network flow and was dependent on Arp2/3 complex activity...
November 16, 2016: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27678055/persistence-of-fan-shaped-keratocytes-is-a-matrix-rigidity-dependent-mechanism-that-requires-%C3%AE-5%C3%AE-1-integrin-engagement
#2
Maryam Riaz, Marie Versaevel, Danahe Mohammed, Karine Glinel, Sylvain Gabriele
Despite the importance of matrix rigidity on cell functions, many aspects of the mechanosensing process in highly migratory cells remain elusive. Here, we studied the migration of highly motile keratocytes on culture substrates with similar biochemical properties and rigidities spanning the range between soft tissues (~kPa) and stiff culture substrates (~GPa). We show that morphology, polarization and persistence of motile keratocytes are regulated by the matrix stiffness over seven orders of magnitude, without changing the cell spreading area...
September 28, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27669437/the-focal-adhesion-associated-proteins-dock5-and-git2-comprise-a-rheostat-in-control-of-epithelial-invasion
#3
S R Frank, C P Köllmann, J F van Lidth de Jeude, J R Thiagarajah, L H Engelholm, M Frödin, S H Hansen
DOCK proteins are guanine nucleotide exchange factors for Rac and Cdc42 GTPases. DOCK1 is the founding member of the family and acts downstream of integrins via the canonical Crk-p130Cas complex to activate Rac GTPases in numerous contexts. In contrast, DOCK5, which possesses the greatest similarity to DOCK1, remains sparingly studied. Here we establish that DOCK5 has a non-redundant role in regulating motile and invasive capacities of epithelial cells. DOCK1 is constitutively associated with sites of integrin attachment termed focal adhesions (FAs)...
September 26, 2016: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27637266/localized-translation-regulates-cell-adhesion-and-transendothelial-migration
#4
Jonathan Bergeman, Alexia Caillier, François Houle, Laurence M Gagné, Marc-Étienne Huot
By progressing through the epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT), cancer cells gain the ability to leave the primary tumor site and invade surrounding tissues. These metastatic cancers cells can further increase their plasticity by adopting an amoeboid-like morphology, by undergoing mesenchymal to amoeboid transition (MAT). We found that adhering cells producing spreading initiation centers (SIC), a transient structure localized above nascent adhesion complexes, share common biological and morphological characteristics associated with amoeboid cells...
September 16, 2016: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27354944/reconstruction-of-focal-femoral-head-cartilage-defects-with-a-chitin-based-scaffold
#5
Ahmed Al-Qarni, Matthew R Lewington, Ivan H Wong
It is well known that articular cartilage defects have little capability to heal. For grade III or IV cartilage defects, surgical intervention may be required for symptomatic patients. Microfracture is a commonly used surgical technique to address these injuries. However, microfracture has drawbacks, which include the risk of ossification of the newly formed tissue, as well as the imperfect and fragile nature of the fibrous cartilage. Given the challenges associated with microfracture, BST-CarGel (Piramal Healthcare, Laval, Quebec, Canada) has been developed to stabilize and support the nascent clot...
April 2016: Arthroscopy Techniques
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27218451/cytoplasmic-notch-and-membrane-derived-%C3%AE-catenin-link-cell-fate-choice-to-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-during-myogenesis
#6
Daniel Sieiro, Anne C Rios, Claire E Hirst, Christophe Marcelle
How cells in the embryo coordinate epithelial plasticity with cell fate decision in a fast changing cellular environment is largely unknown. In chick embryos, skeletal muscle formation is initiated by migrating Delta1-expressing neural crest cells that trigger NOTCH signaling and myogenesis in selected epithelial somite progenitor cells, which rapidly translocate into the nascent muscle to differentiate. Here, we uncovered at the heart of this response a signaling module encompassing NOTCH, GSK-3β, SNAI1 and β-catenin...
2016: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27188911/claws-disorder-and-conformational-dynamics-of-the-c-terminal-region-of-human-desmoplakin
#7
Charles E McAnany, Cameron Mura
Multicellular organisms consist of cells that interact via elaborate adhesion complexes. Desmosomes are membrane-associated adhesion complexes that mechanically tether the cytoskeletal intermediate filaments (IFs) between two adjacent cells, creating a network of tough connections in tissues such as skin and heart. Desmoplakin (DP) is the key desmosomal protein that binds IFs, and the DP·IF association poses a quandary: desmoplakin must stably and tightly bind IFs to maintain the structural integrity of the desmosome...
August 25, 2016: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27127172/integrin-signaling-via-fak-src-controls-cytokinetic-abscission-by-decelerating-plk1-degradation-and-subsequent-recruitment-of-cep55-at-the-midbody
#8
Siamak A Kamranvar, Deepesh Kumar Gupta, Ying Huang, Rajesh Kumar Gupta, Staffan Johansson
Adhesion to extracellular matrix is required for cell cycle progression through the G1 phase and for the completion of cytokinesis in normal adherent cells. Cancer cells acquire the ability to proliferate anchorage-independently, a characteristic feature of malignantly transformed cells. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying this escape of the normal control mechanisms remain unclear. The current study aimed to identify adhesion-induced reactions regulating the cytokinesis of non-transformed human fibroblasts...
May 24, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27053173/in-vivo-imaging-demonstrates-dendritic-spine-stabilization-by-syncam-1
#9
Nils Körber, Valentin Stein
Formation and stability of synapses are required for proper brain function. While it is well established that synaptic adhesion molecules are important regulators of synapse formation, their specific role during different phases of synapse development remains unclear. To investigate the function of the synaptic cell adhesion molecule SynCAM 1 in the formation, stability, and maintenance of spines we used 2-photon in vivo imaging to follow individual spines over a long period of time. In SynCAM 1 knockout mice the survival rate of existing spines was reduced and fewer filopodia-like structures were converted into stable spines...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26987342/substrate-engagement-of-integrins-%C3%AE-5%C3%AE-1-and-%C3%AE-v%C3%AE-3-is-necessary-but-not-sufficient-for-high-directional-persistence-in-migration-on-fibronectin
#10
Dimitris Missirlis, Tamás Haraszti, Catharina v C Scheele, Tina Wiegand, Carolina Diaz, Stefanie Neubauer, Florian Rechenmacher, Horst Kessler, Joachim P Spatz
The interplay between specific integrin-mediated matrix adhesion and directional persistence in cell migration is not well understood. Here, we characterized fibroblast adhesion and migration on the extracellular matrix glycoproteins fibronectin and vitronectin, focusing on the role of α5β1 and αvβ3 integrins. Fibroblasts manifested high directional persistence in migration on fibronectin-, but not vitronectin-coated substrates, in a ligand density-dependent manner. Fibronectin stimulated α5β1-dependent organization of the actin cytoskeleton into oriented, ventral stress fibers, and assembly of dynamic, polarized protrusions, characterized as regions free of stress fibers and rich in nascent adhesions at their edge...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26891724/atheroprotection-through-syk-inhibition-fails-in-established-disease-when-local-macrophage-proliferation-dominates-lesion-progression
#11
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Alexandra Lindau, Carmen Härdtner, Sonja P Hergeth, Kelly Daryll Blanz, Bianca Dufner, Natalie Hoppe, Nathaly Anto-Michel, Jan Kornemann, Jiadai Zou, Louisa M S Gerhardt, Timo Heidt, Florian Willecke, Serjosha Geis, Peter Stachon, Dennis Wolf, Peter Libby, Filip K Swirski, Clinton S Robbins, William McPheat, Shaun Hawley, Martin Braddock, Ralf Gilsbach, Lutz Hein, Constantin von zur Mühlen, Christoph Bode, Andreas Zirlik, Ingo Hilgendorf
Macrophages in the arterial intima sustain chronic inflammation during atherogenesis. Under hypercholesterolemic conditions murine Ly6C(high) monocytes surge in the blood and spleen, infiltrate nascent atherosclerotic plaques, and differentiate into macrophages that proliferate locally as disease progresses. Spleen tyrosine kinase (SYK) may participate in downstream signaling of various receptors that mediate these processes. We tested the effect of the SYK inhibitor fostamatinib on hypercholesterolemia-associated myelopoiesis and plaque formation in Apoe(-/-) mice during early and established atherosclerosis...
March 2016: Basic Research in Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26842895/the-fak-arp2-3-interaction-promotes-leading-edge-advance-and-haptosensing-by-coupling-nascent-adhesions-to-lamellipodia-actin
#12
Vinay Swaminathan, R S Fischer, Clare M Waterman
Cell migration is initiated in response to biochemical or physical cues in the environment that promote actin-mediated lamellipodial protrusion followed by the formation of nascent integrin adhesions (NAs) within the protrusion to drive leading edge advance. Although FAK is known to be required for cell migration through effects on focal adhesions, its role in NA formation and lamellipodial dynamics is unclear. Live-cell microscopy of FAK(-/-)cells with expression of phosphorylation deficient or a FERM-domain mutant deficient in Arp2/3 binding revealed a requirement for FAK in promoting the dense formation, transient stabilization, and timely turnover of NA within lamellipodia to couple actin-driven protrusion to adhesion and advance of the leading edge...
April 1, 2016: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26724865/structure-of-a-chaperone-usher-pilus-reveals-the-molecular-basis-of-rod-uncoiling
#13
Manuela K Hospenthal, Adam Redzej, Karen Dodson, Marta Ukleja, Brandon Frenz, Catarina Rodrigues, Scott J Hultgren, Frank DiMaio, Edward H Egelman, Gabriel Waksman
Types 1 and P pili are prototypical bacterial cell-surface appendages playing essential roles in mediating adhesion of bacteria to the urinary tract. These pili, assembled by the chaperone-usher pathway, are polymers of pilus subunits assembling into two parts: a thin, short tip fibrillum at the top, mounted on a long pilus rod. The rod adopts a helical quaternary structure and is thought to play essential roles: its formation may drive pilus extrusion by preventing backsliding of the nascent growing pilus within the secretion pore; the rod also has striking spring-like properties, being able to uncoil and recoil depending on the intensity of shear forces generated by urine flow...
January 14, 2016: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26657767/a-new-level-of-plasticity-drosophila-smooth-like-testes-muscles-compensate-failure-of-myoblast-fusion
#14
Jessica Kuckwa, Katharina Fritzen, Detlev Buttgereit, Silke Rothenbusch-Fender, Renate Renkawitz-Pohl
The testis of Drosophila resembles an individual testis tubule of mammals. Both are surrounded by a sheath of smooth muscles, which in Drosophila are multinuclear and originate from a pool of myoblasts that are set aside in the embryo and accumulate on the genital disc later in development. These muscle stem cells start to differentiate early during metamorphosis and give rise to all muscles of the inner male reproductive system. Shortly before the genital disc and the developing testes connect, multinuclear nascent myotubes appear on the anterior tips of the seminal vesicles...
January 15, 2016: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26625956/nascent-integrin-adhesions-form-on-all-matrix-rigidities-after-integrin-activation
#15
Rishita Changede, Xiaochun Xu, Felix Margadant, Michael P Sheetz
Integrin adhesions assemble and mature in response to ligand binding and mechanical factors, but the molecular-level organization is not known. We report that ∼100-nm clusters of ∼50 β3-activated integrins form very early adhesions under a wide variety of conditions on RGD surfaces. These adhesions form similarly on fluid and rigid substrates, but most adhesions are transient on rigid substrates. Without talin or actin polymerization, few early adhesions form, but expression of either the talin head or rod domain in talin-depleted cells restores early adhesion formation...
December 7, 2015: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26588708/a-novel-role-for-atypical-mapk-kinase-erk3-in-regulating-breast-cancer-cell-morphology-and-migration
#16
Rania Al-Mahdi, Nouf Babteen, Kiruthikah Thillai, Mark Holt, Bjarne Johansen, Hilde Ljones Wetting, Ole-Morten Seternes, Claire M Wells
ERK3 is an atypical Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK6). Despite the fact that the Erk3 gene was originally identified in 1991, its function is still unknown. MK5 (MAP kinase- activated protein kinase 5) also called PRAK is the only known substrate for ERK3. Recently, it was found that group I p21 protein activated kinases (PAKs) are critical effectors of ERK3. PAKs link Rho family of GTPases to actin cytoskeletal dynamics and are known to be involved in the regulation of cell adhesion and migration. In this study we demonstrate that ERK3 protein levels are elevated as MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells adhere to collagen I which is concomitant with changes in cellular morphology where cells become less well spread following nascent adhesion formation...
2015: Cell Adhesion & Migration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26536258/a-chemomechanical-model-of-matrix-and-nuclear-rigidity-regulation-of-focal-adhesion-size
#17
Xuan Cao, Yuan Lin, Tristian P Driscoll, Janusz Franco-Barraza, Edna Cukierman, Robert L Mauck, Vivek B Shenoy
In this work, a chemomechanical model describing the growth dynamics of cell-matrix adhesion structures (i.e., focal adhesions (FAs)) is developed. We show that there are three regimes for FA evolution depending on their size. Specifically, nascent adhesions with initial lengths below a critical value that are yet to engage in actin fibers will dissolve, whereas bigger ones will grow into mature FAs with a steady state size. In adhesions where growth surpasses the steady state size, disassembly will occur until their sizes are reduced to the equilibrium state...
November 3, 2015: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26519532/cd11c-cd18-signals-very-late-antigen-4-activation-to-initiate-foamy-monocyte-recruitment-during-the-onset-of-hypercholesterolemia
#18
Greg A Foster, Lu Xu, Alagu A Chidambaram, Stephanie R Soderberg, Ehrin J Armstrong, Huaizhu Wu, Scott I Simon
Recruitment of foamy monocytes to inflamed endothelium expressing VCAM-1 contributes to the development of plaque during atherogenesis. Foamy CD11c(+) monocytes arise in the circulation during the onset of hypercholesterolemia and recruit to nascent plaque, but the mechanism of CD11c/CD18 and very late Ag-4 (VLA-4) activation and cooperation in shear-resistant cell arrest on VCAM-1 are ill defined. Within 1 wk of the onset of a Western high-fat diet (WD) in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice, an inflammatory subset of foamy monocytes emerged that made up one fourth of the circulating population...
December 1, 2015: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26489017/nf-protocadherin-regulates-retinal-ganglion-cell-axon-behaviour-in-the-developing-visual-system
#19
Louis C Leung, William A Harris, Christine E Holt, Michael Piper
Cell adhesion molecules play a central role in mediating axonal tract development within the nascent nervous system. NF-protocadherin (NFPC), a member of the non-clustered protocadherin family, has been shown to regulate retinal ganglion cell (RGC) axon and dendrite initiation, as well as influencing axonal navigation within the mid-optic tract. However, whether NFPC mediates RGC axonal behaviour at other positions within the optic pathway remains unclear. Here we report that NFPC plays an important role in RGC axonogenesis, but not in intraretinal guidance...
2015: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26459604/surface-apposition-and-multiple-cell-contacts-promote-myoblast-fusion-in-drosophila-flight-muscles
#20
Nagaraju Dhanyasi, Dagan Segal, Eyal Shimoni, Vera Shinder, Ben-Zion Shilo, K VijayRaghavan, Eyal D Schejter
Fusion of individual myoblasts to form multinucleated myofibers constitutes a widely conserved program for growth of the somatic musculature. We have used electron microscopy methods to study this key form of cell-cell fusion during development of the indirect flight muscles (IFMs) of Drosophila melanogaster. We find that IFM myoblast-myotube fusion proceeds in a stepwise fashion and is governed by apparent cross talk between transmembrane and cytoskeletal elements. Our analysis suggests that cell adhesion is necessary for bringing myoblasts to within a minimal distance from the myotubes...
October 12, 2015: Journal of Cell Biology
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