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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636198/actin-filament-reorganisation-controlled-by-the-scar-wave-complex-mediates-stomatal-response-to-darkness
#1
Jean-Charles Isner, Zaoxu Xu, Joaquim Miguel Costa, Fabien Monnet, Thomas Batstone, Xiaobin Ou, Michael J Deeks, Bernard Genty, Kun Jiang, Alistair M Hetherington
Stomata respond to darkness by closing to prevent excessive water loss during the night. Although the reorganisation of actin filaments during stomatal closure is documented, the underlying mechanisms responsible for dark-induced cytoskeletal arrangement remain largely unknown. We used genetic, physiological and cell biological approaches to show that reorganisation of the actin cytoskeleton is required for dark-induced stomatal closure. The opal5 mutant does not close in response to darkness but exhibits wild-type (WT) behaviour when exposed to abscisic acid (ABA) or CaCl2 ...
June 21, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634272/the-secreted-msp-domain-of-c-elegans-vapb-homolog-vpr-1-patterns-the-adult-striated-muscle-mitochondrial-reticulum-via-smn-1
#2
Jessica Schultz, Se-Jin Lee, Tim Cole, Hieu D Hoang, Jack Vibbert, Pauline A Cottee, Michael A Miller, Sung Min Han
The major sperm protein domain (MSPd) has an extracellular signaling function implicated in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Secreted MSPds derived from the C. elegans VAPB homolog VPR-1 promote mitochondrial localization to actin-rich I-bands in body wall muscle. Here we show that the nervous system and germ line are key MSPd secretion tissues. MSPd signals are transduced through the CLR-1 Lar-like tyrosine phosphatase receptor. We show that CLR-1 is expressed throughout the muscle plasma membrane, where it is accessible to MSPd within the pseudocoelomic fluid...
June 15, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626024/intersectin-2-controls-actin-cap-formation-and-meiotic-division-in-mouse-oocytes-through-the-cdc42-pathway
#3
Jiaqi Zhang, Rujun Ma, Ling Li, Lina Wang, Xiaojing Hou, Longsen Han, Juan Ge, Mo Li, Qiang Wang
Intersectins (ITSNs), an evolutionarily conserved adaptor protein family, have been implicated in multiple biologic processes; however, their functions in mammalian oocytes have not been addressed. Here, we report delayed meiotic resumption and defective cytokinesis upon specific depletion of ITSN2 in mouse oocytes. In particular, abnormal spindle, misaligned chromosomes, and loss of cortical actin cap are readily observed in ITSN2-depleted oocytes. Similarly, a small molecule that targets the Cdc42-ITSN interaction also disrupts oocyte maturation and actin polymerization...
June 16, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620031/tspan7-effector-of-actin-nucleation-required-for-dendritic-cell-mediated-transfer-of-hiv-1-to-t-cells
#4
REVIEW
Mickaël M Ménager
Dendritic cells (DCs) have essential roles in early detection of pathogens and activation of both innate and adaptive immune responses. Whereas human DCs are resistant to productive HIV-1 replication, they have a unique ability to take up virus and transmit it efficiently to T lymphocytes. By doing that, HIV-1 may evade, at least in part, the first line of defense of the immune system, exploiting DCs instead to facilitate rapid infection of a large pool of immune cells. While performing an shRNA screen in human primary monocyte-derived DCs, to gain insights into this cell biological process, we discovered the role played by tetraspanin-7 (TSPAN7)...
June 15, 2017: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607034/tctex-1-controls-ciliary-resorption-by-regulating-branched-actin-polymerization-and-endocytosis
#5
Masaki Saito, Wataru Otsu, Kuo-Shun Hsu, Jen-Zen Chuang, Teruyuki Yanagisawa, Vincent Shieh, Taku Kaitsuka, Fan-Yan Wei, Kazuhito Tomizawa, Ching-Hwa Sung
The primary cilium is a plasma membrane-protruding sensory organelle that undergoes regulated assembly and resorption. While the assembly process has been studied extensively, the cellular machinery that governs ciliary resorption is less well understood. Previous studies showed that the ciliary pocket membrane is an actin-rich, endocytosis-active periciliary subdomain. Furthermore, Tctex-1, originally identified as a cytoplasmic dynein light chain, has a dynein-independent role in ciliary resorption upon phosphorylation at Thr94...
June 12, 2017: EMBO Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602951/ced-10-wasp-arp2-3-signaling-axis-regulates-apoptotic-cell-corpse-engulfment-in-c-elegans
#6
Dou Wu, Yongping Chai, Zhiwen Zhu, Wenjing Li, Guangshuo Ou, Wei Li
Efficient clearance of apoptotic cells is essential for tissue homeostasis in metazoans. Genetic studies in Caenorhabditis elegans have identified signaling cascades that activate CED-10/Rac1 GTPase and promote actin cytoskeletal rearrangement during apoptotic cell engulfment. However, the molecular connection between CED-10 activation and actin reorganization remains elusive. Here, we provide evidence that CED-10 binds to the Arp2/3 nucleation promoting factor WASP; CED-10 recruits WASP and Arp2/3 to apoptotic cell corpses in the phagocytes...
June 9, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575439/mediator-binds-to-boundaries-of-chromosomal-interaction-domains-and-to-proteins-involved-in-dna-looping-rna-metabolism-chromatin-remodeling-and-actin-assembly
#7
Razvan V Chereji, Vasudha Bharatula, Nils Elfving, Jeanette Blomberg, Miriam Larsson, Alexandre V Morozov, James R Broach, Stefan Björklund
Mediator is a multi-unit molecular complex that plays a key role in transferring signals from transcriptional regulators to RNA polymerase II in eukaryotes. We have combined biochemical purification of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Mediator from chromatin with chromatin immunoprecipitation in order to reveal Mediator occupancy on DNA genome-wide, and to identify proteins interacting specifically with Mediator on the chromatin template. Tandem mass spectrometry of proteins in immunoprecipitates of mediator complexes revealed specific interactions between Mediator and the RSC, Arp2/Arp3, CPF, CF 1A and Lsm complexes in chromatin...
May 30, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548090/synergistic-il-6-and-il-8-paracrine-signalling-pathway-infers-a-strategy-to-inhibit-tumour-cell-migration
#8
Hasini Jayatilaka, Pranay Tyle, Jonathan J Chen, Minsuk Kwak, Julia Ju, Hyun Ji Kim, Jerry S H Lee, Pei-Hsun Wu, Daniele M Gilkes, Rong Fan, Denis Wirtz
Following uncontrolled proliferation, a subset of primary tumour cells acquires additional traits/mutations to trigger phenotypic changes that enhance migration and are hypothesized to be the initiators of metastasis. This study reveals an adaptive mechanism that harnesses synergistic paracrine signalling via IL-6/8, which is amplified by cell proliferation and cell density, to directly promote cell migration. This effect occurs in metastatic human sarcoma and carcinoma cells- but not in normal or non-metastatic cancer cells-, and likely involves the downstream signalling of WASF3 and Arp2/3...
May 26, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531800/restoration-of-arpin-suppresses-aggressive-phenotype-of-breast-cancer-cells
#9
Yi Li, Jiliang Qiu, Ting Pang, Zhixing Guo, Yonghui Su, Qingan Zeng, Xuexia Zhang
Arpin, a negative regulator of the actin-related protein-2/3 (Arp2/3) complex, is downregulated and predicts poor prognosis in breast cancer patients. However, its biological relevance in breast cancer is still unclear. This study was conducted to investigate the roles of Arpin in breast cancer growth and invasion. We overexpressed Arpin expression in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells and examined the effects of restoration of Arpin on cell proliferation, colony formation, cell cycle distribution, invasion in vitro and tumorigenesis in vivo...
May 19, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472054/a-mathematical-model-coupling-polarity-signaling-to-cell-adhesion-explains-diverse-cell-migration-patterns
#10
William R Holmes, JinSeok Park, Andre Levchenko, Leah Edelstein-Keshet
Protrusion and retraction of lamellipodia are common features of eukaryotic cell motility. As a cell migrates through its extracellular matrix (ECM), lamellipod growth increases cell-ECM contact area and enhances engagement of integrin receptors, locally amplifying ECM input to internal signaling cascades. In contrast, contraction of lamellipodia results in reduced integrin engagement that dampens the level of ECM-induced signaling. These changes in cell shape are both influenced by, and feed back onto ECM signaling...
May 4, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446721/senp3-grants-tight-junction-integrity-and-cytoskeleton-architecture-in-mouse-sertoli-cells
#11
Di Wu, Chun-Jie Huang, Faheem Ahmed Khan, Xiao-Fei Jiao, Xiao-Ming Liu, Nuruliarizki Shinta Pandupuspitasari, Rahim Dad Brohi, Li-Jun Huo
Germ cells develop in a sophisticated immune privileged microenvironment provided by specialized junctions contiguous the basement membrane of the adjacent Sertoli cells that constituted the blood-testis barrier (BTB) in seminiferous epithelium of testis in mammals. Deciphering the molecular regulatory machinery of BTB activity is central to improve male fertility and the role of post-translational modification including SUMOylation pathway is one of the key factors. Herein, we unveiled the mystery of the SUMO-2/3 specific protease SENP3 (Sentrin-specific protease 3) in BTB dynamics regulation...
April 7, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399395/spectraplakin-induces-positive-feedback-between-fusogens-and-the-actin-cytoskeleton-to-promote-cell-cell-fusion
#12
Yihong Yang, Yan Zhang, Wen-Jun Li, Yuxiang Jiang, Zhiwen Zhu, Huifang Hu, Wei Li, Jia-Wei Wu, Zhi-Xin Wang, Meng-Qiu Dong, Shanjin Huang, Guangshuo Ou
Cell-cell fusion generally requires cellular fusogenic proteins and actin-propelled membrane protrusions. However, the molecular connections between fusogens and the actin cytoskeleton remain unclear. Here, we show that the Caenorhabditis elegans fusogen EFF-1 and F-actin are enriched at the cortex of the post-embryonic fusing cells, and conditional mutations of WASP and Arp2/3 delay cell-cell fusion by impairing EFF-1 localization. Our affinity purification and mass spectrometry analyses determined that an actin-binding protein, spectraplakin/VAB-10A, binds to EFF-1...
April 10, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380416/actin-cytoskeleton-regulator-arp2-3-complex-is-required-for-dll1-activating-notch1-signaling-to-maintain-the-stem-cell-phenotype-of-glioma-initiating-cells
#13
Chen Zhang, Long Hai, Meng Zhu, Shengping Yu, Tao Li, Yu Lin, Bo Liu, Xingchen Zhou, Lei Chen, Pengfei Zhao, Hua Zhou, Yubao Huang, Kai Zhang, Bingcheng Ren, Xuejun Yang
Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common and lethal primary intracranial tumor. Actin cytoskeleton regulator Arp2/3 complex stimulates glioma cell motility and migration, and thus triggers tumor invasion. However, little is known regarding the role of actin cytoskeleton in maintaining the stem cell phenotype. Here, we showed that Arp2/3 complex improved stem cell phenotype maintenance through sustaining the activated Notch signaling. ShRNA targeting Notch ligand Delta-like 1 (DLL1) decreased CD133 and Nestin expression, and impaired the self-renewal ability of CD133+ U87-MG and U251-MG glioma cells, indicating DLL1/Notch1 signaling promoted stem cell phenotype maintenance...
May 16, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371128/intranuclear-actin-structure-modulates-mesenchymal-stem-cell-differentiation
#14
Buer Sen, Gunes Uzer, Rebekah M Samsonraj, Zhihui Xie, Cody McGrath, Maya Styner, Amel Dudakovic, Andre J van Wijnen, Janet Rubin
Actin structure contributes to physiologic events within the nucleus to control mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC) differentiation. Continuous cytochalasin D (Cyto D) disruption of the MSC actin cytoskeleton leads to osteogenic or adipogenic differentiation, both requiring mass transfer of actin into the nucleus. Cyto D remains extranuclear, thus intranuclear actin polymerization is potentiated by actin transfer: we asked whether actin structure affects differentiation. We show that secondary actin filament branching via the Arp2/3 complex is required for osteogenesis and that preventing actin branching stimulates adipogenesis, as shown by expression profiling of osteogenic and adipogenic biomarkers and unbiased RNA-seq analysis...
June 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368018/loss-of-the-arp2-3-complex-component-arpc1b-causes-platelet-abnormalities-and-predisposes-to-inflammatory-disease
#15
Walter H A Kahr, Fred G Pluthero, Abdul Elkadri, Neil Warner, Marko Drobac, Chang Hua Chen, Richard W Lo, Ling Li, Ren Li, Qi Li, Cornelia Thoeni, Jie Pan, Gabriella Leung, Irene Lara-Corrales, Ryan Murchie, Ernest Cutz, Ronald M Laxer, Julia Upton, Chaim M Roifman, Rae S M Yeung, John H Brumell, Aleixo M Muise
Human actin-related protein 2/3 complex (Arp2/3), required for actin filament branching, has two ARPC1 component isoforms, with ARPC1B prominently expressed in blood cells. Here we show in a child with microthrombocytopenia, eosinophilia and inflammatory disease, a homozygous frameshift mutation in ARPC1B (p.Val91Trpfs*30). Platelet lysates reveal no ARPC1B protein and greatly reduced Arp2/3 complex. Missense ARPC1B mutations are identified in an unrelated patient with similar symptoms and ARPC1B deficiency...
April 3, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366661/synthetic-triterpenoids-inhibit-gsk3%C3%AE-activity-and-localization-and-affect-focal-adhesions-and-cell-migration
#16
Ciric To, Ashbeel Roy, Eddie Chan, Marco A M Prado, Gianni M Di Guglielmo
Synthetic triterpenoids are a class of anti-cancer compounds that target many cellular functions, including apoptosis and cell growth in both cell culture and animal models. We have shown that triterpenoids inhibit cell migration in part by interfering with Arp2/3-dependent branched actin polymerization in lamellipodia (To et al., 2010). Our current studies reveal that Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 beta (GSK3β), a kinase that regulates many cellular processes, including cell adhesion dynamics, is a triterpenoid-binding protein...
March 30, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333264/single-cell-transcriptomics-mega-phylogeny-and-the-genetic-basis-of-morphological-innovations-in-rhizaria
#17
Anders K Krabberød, Russell J S Orr, Jon Bråte, Tom Kristensen, Kjell R Bjørklund, Kamran Shalchian-Tabrizi
The innovation of the eukaryote cytoskeleton enabled phagocytosis, intracellular transport, and cytokinesis, and is largely responsible for the diversity of morphologies among eukaryotes. Still, the relationship between phenotypic innovations in the cytoskeleton and their underlying genotype is poorly understood. To explore the genetic mechanism of morphological evolution of the eukaryotic cytoskeleton, we provide the first single cell transcriptomes from uncultured, free-living unicellular eukaryotes: the polycystine radiolarian Lithomelissa setosa (Nassellaria) and Sticholonche zanclea (Taxopodida)...
July 1, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332566/a-conformational-change-within-the-wave2-complex-regulates-its-degradation-following-cellular-activation
#18
Noah Joseph, Guy Biber, Sophia Fried, Barak Reicher, Omer Levy, Batel Sabag, Elad Noy, Mira Barda-Saad
WASp family Verprolin-homologous protein-2 (WAVE2), a member of the Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASp) family of actin nucleation promoting factors, is a central regulator of actin cytoskeleton polymerization and dynamics. Multiple signaling pathways operate via WAVE2 to promote the actin-nucleating activity of the actin-related protein 2/3 (Arp2/3) complex. WAVE2 exists as a part of a pentameric protein complex known as the WAVE regulatory complex (WRC), which is unstable in the absence of its individual proteins...
March 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331069/efficiency-of-lamellipodia-protrusion-is-determined-by-the-extent-of-cytosolic-actin-assembly
#19
Georgi Dimchev, Anika Steffen, Frieda Kage, Vanessa Dimchev, Julien Pernier, Marie-France Carlier, Klemens Rottner
Cell migration and cell-cell communication involve the protrusion of actin-rich cell surface projections such as lamellipodia and filopodia. Lamellipodia are networks of actin filaments generated and turned over by filament branching through the Arp2/3 complex. Inhibition of branching is commonly agreed to eliminate formation and maintenance of lamellipodial actin networks, but the regulation of nucleation or elongation of Arp2/3-independent filament populations within the network by, for example, formins or Ena/VASP family members and its influence on the effectiveness of protrusion have been unclear...
May 15, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327544/fmnl-formins-boost-lamellipodial-force-generation
#20
Frieda Kage, Moritz Winterhoff, Vanessa Dimchev, Jan Mueller, Tobias Thalheim, Anika Freise, Stefan Brühmann, Jana Kollasser, Jennifer Block, Georgi Dimchev, Matthias Geyer, Hans-Joachim Schnittler, Cord Brakebusch, Theresia E B Stradal, Marie-France Carlier, Michael Sixt, Josef Käs, Jan Faix, Klemens Rottner
Migration frequently involves Rac-mediated protrusion of lamellipodia, formed by Arp2/3 complex-dependent branching thought to be crucial for force generation and stability of these networks. The formins FMNL2 and FMNL3 are Cdc42 effectors targeting to the lamellipodium tip and shown here to nucleate and elongate actin filaments with complementary activities in vitro. In migrating B16-F1 melanoma cells, both formins contribute to the velocity of lamellipodium protrusion. Loss of FMNL2/3 function in melanoma cells and fibroblasts reduces lamellipodial width, actin filament density and -bundling, without changing patterns of Arp2/3 complex incorporation...
March 22, 2017: Nature Communications
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