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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651361/epigallocatechin-gallate-inhibits-the-type-iii-secretion-system-of-gram-negative-enteropathogenic-bacteria-under-model-condition
#1
Noboru Nakasone, Naomi Higa, Claudia Toma, Yasunori Ogura, Toshihiko Suzuki, Tetsu Yamashiro
Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), a major polyphenol in green tea, inhibits the type III secretion system (T3SS) of enteropathogenic and enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EPEC and EHEC, respectively), Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis. The inhibitory effect causes the inhibition of hemolysis, cell invasion, cell adhesion, and apoptosis, which are functions of the type III secretion device. In the case of EPEC, EspB accumulates in the cells. RT-PCR showed that the translation of EspB was not blocked...
June 23, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651183/investigating-the-effect-of-different-transducer-stiffness-values-on-the-contactin-complex-detachment-by-steered-molecular-dynamics
#2
Parnian Kianfar, Nabiollah Abolfathi, Navid Zarif Karimi
This study investigated the adhesion behavior of Contactin4 (CNTN4), a member of Immunoglobulin Super Family (Ig-SF) of cell adhesion molecules. Contactin4 plays a crucial role in the formation, maintenance, and plasticity of neuronal networks. Contactin in its complex configuration with protein tyrosine phosphatase gamma (PTPRG) was selected for simulation. By utilizing Steered Molecular Dynamics (SMD), the uniaxial force was applied to induce unbinding of the complex, and the force-induced detachment of complex components was probed...
June 2, 2017: Journal of Molecular Graphics & Modelling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651181/antifouling-biocides-impairment-of-bivalve-immune-system-by-chlorothalonil
#3
Amanda da Silveira Guerreiro, Regina Coimbra Rola, Monique Tomazele Rovani, Simone Rutz da Costa, Juliana Zomer Sandrini
Marine ecosystems are subjected to a variety of contaminants. Antifouling paints, for example, have been extensively used to protect ship surfaces from marine biofouling, but their toxicity has generated great concern. Thus, we evaluated the effect of the biocide chlorothalonil on the immune system of Perna perna mussels. The mussels were exposed to 0 (control), 0.1μg/L and 10μg/L of chlorothalonil for up to 96h. After 24h and 96h of exposure, the following immune-related parameters were analyzed in the hemolymph of mussels: total hemocyte count, cell adhesion, phagocytic activity, level of reactive oxygen species, cell viability and comet assay...
June 16, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650992/galectin-8-as-an-immunosuppressor-in-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis-and-a-target-of-human-early-prognostic-antibodies-in-multiple-sclerosis
#4
Evelyn Pardo, Claudia Cárcamo, Reinaldo Uribe-San Martín, Ethel Ciampi, Fabián Segovia-Miranda, Cristobal Curkovic-Peña, Fabián Montecino, Christopher Holmes, Juan Enrique Tichauer, Eric Acuña, Francisco Osorio-Barrios, Marjorie Castro, Priscilla Cortes, Claudia Oyanadel, David M Valenzuela, Rodrigo Pacheco, Rodrigo Naves, Andrea Soza, Alfonso González
Galectin-8 (Gal-8) is a member of a glycan-binding protein family that regulates the immune system, among other functions, and is a target of antibodies in autoimmune disorders. However, its role in multiple sclerosis (MS), an autoimmune inflammatory disease of the central nervous system (CNS), remains unknown. We study the consequences of Gal-8 silencing on lymphocyte subpopulations and the development of experimental autoimmune encephalitis (EAE), to then assess the presence and clinical meaning of anti-Gal-8 antibodies in MS patients...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650951/development-and-progression-of-a-lamellar-macular-hole-with-lamellar-hole-associated-epiretinal-proliferation
#5
Denise Compera, Matteo G Cereda, Ricarda G Schumann, Ferdinando Bottoni
PURPOSE: To describe evolution and progression of a lamellar macular hole (LMH) with "lamellar hole-associated epiretinal proliferation (LHEP)" using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography and fundus autofluorescence. METHODS: Observational case report. RESULTS: We report on a 63-year-old male patient demonstrating a complete history of LMH development with LHEP occurring during a follow-up period of 8 years. Presenting with a normal foveal contour and attached posterior vitreous at first visit, an LMH developed shortly after incomplete posterior vitreous detachment with vitreopapillary adhesion...
June 23, 2017: Retinal Cases & Brief Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650690/coordinated-expression-of-acrab-tolc-and-eight-other-functional-efflux-pumps-through-activating-rama-and-mara-in-salmonella-enterica-serovar-typhimurium
#6
Chuan-Zhen Zhang, Pin-Xian Chen, Lei Yang, Wan Li, Man-Xia Chang, Hong-Xia Jiang
The aim of this study was to determine the expression of eight other functional transporter genes upon acrAB inactivation and also the expression of acrAB when the function of eight other transporters are impaired in Salmonella enterica. We used single- or multigene deletion mutants (i.e., ΔacrA, ΔacrB, ΔtolC, ΔacrAB, ΔacrEF, ΔacrD, ΔmdsABC, ΔmdtABC, ΔemrAB, ΔmacAB, ΔmdfA, ΔmdtK, ΔacrABramA, ΔacrABmarA, and ΔacrABsoxS) and real time (RT)-PCR to quantify the expression of different pump and regulator genes; infection ability was characterized by adhesion and invasion assays...
June 26, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650523/characterization-of-the-phosphate-specific-transport-system-in-cronobacter-sakazakii-baa-894
#7
Xiujun Liang, Xiaoqing Hu, Xiaoyuan Wang, Jianli Wang, Yu Fang, Yanyan Li
AIMS: Characterize the phosphate-specific transport system in Cronobacter sakazakii BAA-894. METHODS AND RESULTS: The genes relevant to phosphate transfer in C. sakazakii BAA-894 were determined by using sequence alignment to the corresponding genes in Escherichia coli. Then, the determined pst operon in C. sakazakii BAA-894 was deleted using the lambda Red recombination system. Using the wild type C. sakazakii BAA-894 as a control, the membrane permeability, auto-aggregation, exopolysaccharide biosynthesis, biofilm formation, and adhesion ability of the mutant △pst grown in media containing high or low concentrations of phosphate were investigated; stronger auto-aggregation, less biofilm formation and higher adhesion ability were observed in △pst cells grown in low phosphate media...
June 26, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650466/ror2-mediated-alternative-wnt-signaling-regulates-cell-fate-and-adhesion-during-mammary-tumor-progression
#8
K Roarty, A D Pfefferle, C J Creighton, C M Perou, J M Rosen
Cellular heterogeneity is a common feature in breast cancer, yet an understanding of the coexistence and regulation of various tumor cell subpopulations remains a significant challenge in cancer biology. In the current study, we approached tumor cell heterogeneity from the perspective of Wnt pathway biology to address how different modes of Wnt signaling shape the behaviors of diverse cell populations within a heterogeneous tumor landscape. Using a syngeneic TP53-null mouse model of breast cancer, we identified distinctions in the topology of canonical Wnt β-catenin-dependent signaling activity and non-canonical β-catenin-independent Ror2-mediated Wnt signaling across subtypes and within tumor cell subpopulations in vivo...
June 26, 2017: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650450/endothelial-damage-is-aggravated-in-acute-gvhd-and-could-predict-its-development
#9
E Mir, M Palomo, M Rovira, A Pereira, G Escolar, O Penack, E Holler, E Carreras, M Diaz-Ricart
The aim of the present study was to explore whether there is enhanced endothelial dysfunction in patients developing acute GvHD (aGvHD) after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) and to identify biomarkers with predictive and/or diagnostic value. In in vitro experiments, endothelial cells (ECs) were exposed to serum from patients with (aGvHD, n=31) and without (NoGvHD, n=13) aGvHD, to evaluate changes in surface adhesion receptors, the reactivity of the extracellular matrix by measuring the presence of Von Willebrand factor (VWF) and platelet adhesion, and the activation of intracellular signaling proteins...
June 26, 2017: Bone Marrow Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649731/protein-glycan-quinary-interactions-in-crowding-environment-unveiled-by-nmr-spectroscopy
#10
Ana Diniz, Jorge S Dias, Jesús Jiménez-Barbero, Filipa Marcelo, Eurico J Cabrita
Protein-glycan interactions as modulators for quinary structure in crowding environments were explored. The interaction between human galectin 3 (Gal-3) and distinct macromolecular crowders, such as bovine and human serum albumin (BSA and HSA), Ficoll 70 and PEG3350, was scrutinized. The molecular recognition event of the specific ligand, lactose, by Gal-3 in crowding conditions was evaluated. Gal-3 interactions were monitored by NMR analysing chemical shift perturbation (CSP) and line broadening of 1H15N-HSQC signals...
June 25, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649694/immunohistochemical-expression-profiles-of-mucin-antigens-in-salivary-gland-mucoepidermoid-carcinoma-muc4-and-muc6-negative-expression-predicts-a-shortened-survival-in-the-early-postoperative-phase
#11
Kie Honjo, Tsubasa Hiraki, Michiyo Higashi, Hirotsugu Noguchi, Mitsuharu Nomoto, Takuya Yoshimura, Surinder K Batra, Suguru Yonezawa, Ichiro Semba, Norifumi Nakamura, Akihide Tanimoto, Sohsuke Yamada
In mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC), the most common salivary gland carcinoma, there is a lack of novel prognostic markers, but post-operative early recurrence strongly affects the clinical course and a poor outcome. It is critical to predict which MEC patients are prone to develop recurrence/metastases. Mucins play pivotal roles in influencing cancer biology, thus affecting cell differentiation, adhesion, carcinoma invasion, aggressiveness and/or metastatic potential. Our aim is to elucidate the significance of expression profiles for mucins, particularly MUC4 and MUC6, and their correlations with various clinicopathological features and recurrence in salivary gland MECs...
June 26, 2017: Histology and Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649561/psd1-effects-on-candida-albicans-planktonic-cells-and-biofilms
#12
Sónia Gonçalves, Patrícia M Silva, Mário R Felício, Luciano N de Medeiros, Eleonora Kurtenbach, Nuno C Santos
Candida albicans is an important human pathogen, causing opportunistic infections. The adhesion of planktonic cells to a substrate is the first step for biofilm development. The antimicrobial peptide (AMP) Psd1 is a defensin isolated from Pisum sativum seeds. We tested the effects of this AMP on C. albicans biofilms and planktonic cells, comparing its activity with amphotericin B and fluconazole. Three C. albicans variants were studied, one of them a mutant deficient in glucosylceramide synthase, conferring resistance to Psd1 antifungal action...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649436/using-approximate-bayesian-computation-to-quantify-cell-cell-adhesion-parameters-in-a-cell-migratory-process
#13
Robert J H Ross, R E Baker, Andrew Parker, M J Ford, R L Mort, C A Yates
In this work, we implement approximate Bayesian computational methods to improve the design of a wound-healing assay used to quantify cell-cell interactions. This is important as cell-cell interactions, such as adhesion and repulsion, have been shown to play a role in cell migration. Initially, we demonstrate with a model of an unrealistic experiment that we are able to identify model parameters that describe agent motility and adhesion, given we choose appropriate summary statistics for our model data. Following this, we replace our model of an unrealistic experiment with a model representative of a practically realisable experiment...
2017: NPJ Systems Biology and Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649249/dscam1-in-pancrustacean-immunity-current-status-and-a-look-to-the-future
#14
Sophie A O Armitage, Joachim Kurtz, Daniela Brites, Yuemei Dong, Louis Du Pasquier, Han-Ching Wang
The Down syndrome cell adhesion molecule 1 (Dscam1) gene is an extraordinary example of diversity: by combining alternatively spliced exons, thousands of isoforms can be produced from just one gene. So far, such diversity in this gene has only been found in insects and crustaceans, and its essential part in neural wiring has been well-characterized for Drosophila melanogaster. Ten years ago evidence from D. melanogaster showed that the Dscam1 gene is involved in insect immune defense and work on Anopheles gambiae indicated that it is a hypervariable immune receptor...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649149/quantitative-imaging-of-cell-membrane-associated-effective-mass-density-using-photonic-crystal-enhanced-microscopy-pcem
#15
Yue Zhuo, Ji Sun Choi, Thibault Marin, Hojeong Yu, Brendan A Harley, Brian T Cunningham
Adhesion is a critical cellular process that contributes to migration, apoptosis, differentiation, and division. It is followed by the redistribution of cellular materials at the cell membrane or at the cell-surface interface for cells interacting with surfaces, such as basement membranes. Dynamic and quantitative tracking of changes in cell adhesion mass redistribution is challenging because cells are rapidly moving, inhomogeneous, and nonequilibrium objects, whose physical and mechanical properties are difficult to measure or predict...
November 2016: Prog Quantum Electron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648867/an-initial-investigation-into-endothelial-cc-chemokine-expression-in-the-human-rheumatoid-synovium
#16
Lisa Rump, Derek L Mattey, Oksana Kehoe, Jim Middleton
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a destructive and chronic autoimmune inflammatory disease. Synovial inflammation is a major feature of RA and is associated with leukocyte recruitment. Leukocytes cross the endothelial cells (ECs) into the synovial tissue and fluid and this migration is mediated via a range of chemokines and adhesion molecules on the ECs. As important mediators of leukocyte extravasation, a number of chemokines from each of the chemokine families have been established as expressed in the RA joint...
June 22, 2017: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648822/novel-predators-reshape-holozoan-phylogeny-and-reveal-the-presence-of-a-two-component-signaling-system-in-the-ancestor-of-animals
#17
Elisabeth Hehenberger, Denis V Tikhonenkov, Martin Kolisko, Javier Del Campo, Anton S Esaulov, Alexander P Mylnikov, Patrick J Keeling
Our understanding of the origin of animals has been transformed by characterizing their most closely related, unicellular sisters: the choanoflagellates, filastereans, and ichthyosporeans. Together with animals, these lineages make up the Holozoa [1, 2]. Many traits previously considered "animal specific" were subsequently found in other holozoans [3, 4], showing that they evolved before animals, although exactly when is currently uncertain because several key relationships remain unresolved [2, 5]. Here we report the morphology and transcriptome sequencing from three novel unicellular holozoans: Pigoraptor vietnamica and Pigoraptor chileana, which are related to filastereans, and Syssomonas multiformis, which forms a new lineage with Corallochytrium in phylogenomic analyses...
June 15, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648794/in-vitro-and-in-vivo-evaluation-of-a-coaxial-electrospun-small-caliber-vascular-graft-loaded-with-heparin-and-vegf
#18
Yuntao Hu, Xudong Pan, Jun Zheng, Weiguo Ma, Lizhong Sun
INTRODUCTION: To date, clinically available expanded polytetrafluoro- Ethylene (ePTFE) vascular grafts are suboptimal for reconstructing small Caliber (D<;6mm)arteries, owing to thrombosis in early and restenosis in; late stage. Our aim in this preliminary study was to fabricate a nano-fibrous vascular graft which was biofunctionalized with VEGF and hepa-rin. The short term performance was evaluated both in vitro and in vivo. METHOD: 4 mm caliber grafts were prepared by the coaxial-elctrospun technique, which consisted of poly (l-lactide-co-caprolactone) [P (LLA-CL)] collagen and elastin...
June 22, 2017: International Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648562/a-cellular-automaton-based-on-plasma-membrane-turnover-accurately-recapitulates-cell-mechanics-during-epithelial-scattering
#19
Christian F Schmutz, Trey D Hatton, Michael P Blomfield, Benjamin D Chandler, Trent C Benedick, Marc D H Hansen
Epithelial cells can be triggered to actively detach from epithelial tissues and become solitary, migratory and invasive. This process occurs repeatedly in development, where it is termed epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), and can be recapitulated as epithelial scattering in cell culture models. Detachment of cell-cell junctions involves changes in contractile forces, actin cytoskeletal organization, changes in cell-substrate adhesion properties, surface presentation of cell-cell adhesion molecules, and gene expression...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648478/imaging-vulnerable-plaques-by-targeting-inflammation-in-atherosclerosis-using-fluorescent-labeled-dual-ligand-microparticles-of-iron-oxide-and-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#20
Joyce M S Chan, Claudia Monaco, Marzena Wylezinska-Arridge, Jordi L Tremoleda, Jennifer E Cole, Michael Goddard, Maggie S H Cheung, Kishore K Bhakoo, Richard G J Gibbs
OBJECTIVE: Identification of patients with high-risk asymptomatic carotid plaques remains an elusive but essential step in stroke prevention. Inflammation is a key process in plaque destabilization and a prelude to clinical sequelae. There are currently no clinical imaging tools to assess the inflammatory activity within plaques. This study characterized inflammation in atherosclerosis using dual-targeted microparticles of iron oxide (DT-MPIO) as a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) probe...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Vascular Surgery
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