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Kemin Tan, Christine Tesar, Rosemarie Wilton, Robert P Jedrzejczak, Andrzej Joachimiak
Carbohydrate hydrolyzing α-glucosidases are commonly found in microorganisms present in the human intestine microbiome. We have previously reported crystal structures of an α-glucosidase from the human gut bacterium Blaubia (Ruminococcus) obeum (Ro-αG1) and its substrate preference/specificity switch. This novel member of the GH31 family is a structural homolog of human intestinal maltase-glucoamylase (MGAM) and sucrase-isomaltase (SI) with a highly conserved active site that is predicted to be common in Ro-αG1 homologs among other species that colonize the human gut...
May 15, 2018: Protein Science: a Publication of the Protein Society
Xia Ke, Ning-Ning Wang, Pan-Hong Yu, Yang-Hui Lu, Zhong-Ce Hu, Yu-Guo Zheng
Adaptable exploitation of the catalytic potential of membrane-bound d-sorbitol dehydrogenase (mSLDH) from Gluconobacter oxydans is desperately needed in the industrial-scale production of miglitol. In the present study, a carbonyl group-dependent colorimetric quantification method was developed for the assay of miglitol key intermediate 6-( N -hydroxyethyl)-amino-6-deoxy-α-l-sorbofuranose (6NSL), and a high-throughput screening process of positive mutants was processed. Combined with several rounds of ultraviolet irradiation mutagenesis and screening procedure, a positive mutant strain G...
May 2018: 3 Biotech
Takehiro Kato, Katsumi Iizuka, Ken Takao, Yukio Horikawa, Tadahiro Kitamura, Jun Takeda
We have previously reported that 60% sucrose diet-fed ChREBP knockout mice (KO) showed body weight loss resulting in lethality. We aimed to elucidate whether sucrose and fructose metabolism are impaired in KO. Wild-type mice (WT) and KO were fed a diet containing 30% sucrose with/without 0.08% miglitol, an α-glucosidase inhibitor, and these effects on phenotypes were tested. Furthermore, we compared metabolic changes of oral and peritoneal fructose injection. A thirty percent sucrose diet feeding did not affect phenotypes in KO...
March 12, 2018: Nutrients
A Ando, D Gantulga, M Nakata, F Maekawa, K Dezaki, S Ishibashi, T Yada
Hyperphagia triggers and accelerates diabetes, and prevents proper dietary control of glycemia. Inversely, the impact of hyperglycemia on hyperphagia and possible mechanistic cause common for these two metabolic disorders in type 2 diabetes are less defined. The present study examined the precise developmental process of hyperglycemia and hyperphagia and explored the alterations in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC), the primary feeding and metabolic center, in Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats with type 2 diabetes and nearly normal body weight...
April 2018: Neuropeptides
Siva Prasad Kasturi, Sujatha Surarapu, Srinivas Uppalanchi, Shubham Dwivedi, Perumal Yogeeswari, Dilep Kumar Sigalapalli, Nagendra Babu Bathini, Krishna S Ethiraj, Jaya Shree Anireddy
Biological evaluation of 3,4-dihydroxy piperidines as α-glucosidase inhibitors is being reported for the first time. Forty-five derivatives (amides, di-amides and sulfonamides) were made using cis and trans 3,4-dihydroxy piperidines to evaluate their α-glucosidase inhibition activity. Polar groups (-OH, -NH2 ) on phenyl ring having derivatives 5i, 5l, 7g, 7i &12j showed excellent activity compared to standard references. Acarbose, Voglibose and Miglitol were used as standard references. Molecular docking simulations were done for compounds to identify important binding modes responsible for inhibition activity of α-glucosidase...
April 25, 2018: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Xiaodan Liu, Jianan Feng, Yan Li
In this work, magnetic graphene/mesoporous silica composites with carbon-functionalized pore-walls (denoted as MG@mSiO2 -C composites) were synthesized and applied as restricted access matrix solid phase extraction (RAM-SPE) adsorbents for the determination of miglitol and voglibose in rat plasma by LC-MS/MS. The MG@mSiO2 -C composites were synthesized by using the template (Cetyltrimethyl Ammonium Bromide, CTAB) as carbon source with sulfuric acid pretreated. The obtained nano-composites were proven to have many unique properties such as large specific surface area of 277...
May 15, 2018: Talanta
Kotomi Kurihara, Anna Tamai, Yoko Yoshida, Yosuke Yakushiji, Hiroki Ueno, Mariko Fukumoto, Masayuki Hosoi
An 83-year-old man developed hypoglycemia after undergoing total gastrectomy for gastric cancer in 200X-4. The patient was admitted to our hospital in May 200X and placed on continuous glucose monitoring (CGM). Glycemic excursions were examined while on 3-meal/day (1700kcal) and 6-meal/day (1800kcal) diets. Oxyhyperglycemia followed about 2h later by a sudden drop in glucose levels was seen with both regimens. These findings were consistent with late dumping syndrome. CGM was continued, oral miglitol at 150mg/day or sitagliptin at 50mg/day was started, and glycemic excursions were compared...
November 29, 2017: Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome
Marista Gilang Mauldina, Rani Sauriasari, Berna Elya
Background: Buni ( Antidesma bunius [L.] Spreng) has been used as a traditional antidiabetic agent in Asia. Objective: The mechanism of antidiabetic properties was studied in this study by determine its α-glucosidase inhibitory activity. Method: Inhibition of α-glucosidase was performed in all fraction of Buni stem bark with acarbose and miglitol as standards. The half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50 ) value of acarbose and miglitol was 5...
October 2017: Pharmacognosy Magazine
Tingting Liang, Shun Liu, Fang Wang, Jiamei Gu, Yang Lu, Weike Chen, Cunyu Li, Yunfeng Zheng, Guoping Peng
A specific, sensitive, rapid, precise, and reliable UPLC-MS/MS-based method was designed for the first time for the simultaneous determination of 1-deoxynojirimycin (DNJ) and N-methyl-1-deoxynojirimycin (N-CH3 -DNJ) in rat plasma. Miglitol was served as the internal standard (IS). An MN-NUCLEODUR HILIC column was assessed to separate the two compounds by isocratic elution using acetonitrile: water with 0.05% formic acid and 6.5mM ammonium acetate (72:28, v/v) at a flow rate of 0.4mL/min. A triple quadrupole mass spectrometer was operated in the positive ionization mode using multiple reaction monitoring (MRM), and it was employed to determine transitions of m/z 164...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
Daichi Miyaoka, Akihiro Tsuda, Noriyuki Hayashi, Norikazu Toi, Akiyo Yamasaki, Yuki Nagata, Shinya Nakatani, Masafumi Kurajoh, Shinsuke Yamada, Tomoaki Morioka, Yasuo Imanishi, Masanori Emoto, Masaaki Inaba
Dapagliflozin (DAPA), a sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor, is known to have a beneficial diuretic effect, in addition to a glucose-lowering effect. Although SGLT2 inhibitor has been reported, the increase of hyperkalemia in patients treated with renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) inhibitors, their mechanism of action is unclear. We report the first case of a type 2 diabetes (T2DM) patient with potential mineralocorticoid deficiency who developed hyperkalemia after administration of DAPA...
November 13, 2017: CEN Case Reports
Pravin P Lawande, Vyankat A Sontakke, Navanath M Kumbhar, Tanay R Bhagwat, Sougata Ghosh, Vaishali S Shinde
An efficient and practical strategy for the synthesis of unknown azetidine iminosugars (2S,3R,4S)-2-((R)-1,2-dihydroxyethyl)-3-hydroxy-4-(hydroxymethyl)azetidine 2, (2S,3r,4R)-3-hydroxy-2,4-bis(hydroxymethyl)azetidine 3 and (2S,3R,4S)-3-hydroxy-4-(hydroxymethyl)-N-methylazetidine-2-carboxylic acid 4, starting from the d-glucose has been reported. The methodology involves preparation of the 3-amino-N-benzyloxycarbonyl-3-deoxy-6-O-tert-butyldimethylsillyl-1,2-O-isopropylidene-α-d-glucofuranose 9, which was converted to the C-5-OMs derivative 11...
December 1, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
Kazuo Eguchi, Takahiro Komori, Toshinobu Saito, Satoshi Hoshide, Kazuomi Kario
BACKGROUND: We tested the hypothesis that an alpha-glucosidase inhibitor (α-GI), miglitol, is effective in protecting the cardiovascular system in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). METHODS: We studied 19 hospitalized heart disease patients with T2DM in whom we performed continuous glucose monitoring, Holter electrocardiogram, and ambulatory blood pressure (BP) monitoring simultaneously for 48h. The α-GI miglitol was administered for half of the study period by a cross-over fashion...
January 2018: Journal of Electrocardiology
Mari Amagai, Hirohisa Tsuchiya, Yukari Chiba, Jun Suzuki, Jo Nagakura, Erina Shigematsu, Tadashi Yamakawa, Yasuo Terauchi
BACKGROUND: In patients with late dumping syndrome following gastrectomy, it has been reported that hypoglycemia occurs due to inhibition of glucagon secretion as a result of excessive insulin production facilitated by an increase in glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). METHODS: To determine the kinetics of incretins in Japanese patients with late dumping syndrome, an oral glucose tolerance test was carried out before and after miglitol administration, and the kinetics of insulin and incretins were analyzed...
October 2017: Journal of Clinical Medicine Research
Yaling Zhang, Hongliang Gao, Renjie Liu, Juan Liu, Li Chen, Xiabing Li, Lijun Zhao, Wei Wang, Baolin Li
A series of novel quinazoline-1-deoxynojirimycin hybrids were designed, synthesized and evaluated for their inhibitory activities against two drug target enzymes, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase and α-glucosidase. Some synthesized compounds exhibited significantly inhibitory activities against the tested enzymes. Comparing with reference compounds gefitinib and lapatinib, compounds 7d, 8d, 9b and 9d showed higher inhibitory activities against EGFR (IC50 : 1.79-10.71nM). Meanwhile the inhibitory activities of 7d, 8d and 9c against α-glucosidase (IC50 =0...
September 15, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
Michio Shimabukuro, Atsushi Tanaka, Masataka Sata, Kazuoki Dai, Yoshisato Shibata, Yohei Inoue, Hiroki Ikenaga, Shinji Kishimoto, Kozue Ogasawara, Akira Takashima, Toshiyuki Niki, Osamu Arasaki, Koichi Oshiro, Yutaka Mori, Masaharu Ishihara, Koichi Node
BACKGROUND: Little is known about clinical associations between glucose fluctuations including hypoglycemia, heart rate variability (HRV), and the activity of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) in patients with acute phase of acute coronary syndrome (ACS). This pilot study aimed to evaluate the short-term effects of glucose fluctuations on HRV and SNS activity in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients with recent ACS. We also examined the effect of suppressing glucose fluctuations with miglitol on these variables...
July 6, 2017: Cardiovascular Diabetology
Farman Ali, Khalid Mohammed Khan, Uzma Salar, Muhammad Taha, Nor Hadiani Ismail, Abdul Wadood, Muhammad Riaz, Shahnaz Perveen
Acarbose, miglitol, and voglibose are the inhibitors of α-glucosidase enzyme and being clinically used for the management of type-II diabetes mellitus. However, many adverse effects are also associated with them. So, the development of new therapeutic agents is an utmost interest in medicinal chemistry research. Current study is based on the identification of new α-glucosidase inhibitors. For that purpose, hydrazinyl arylthiazole based pyridine derivatives 1-39 were synthesized via two step reaction and fully characterized by spectroscopic techniques EI-MS, HREI-MS, (1)H-, and (13)C NMR...
September 29, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Sivaprasad Kasturi, Sujatha Surarapu, Srinivas Uppalanchi, Jaya Shree Anireddy, Shubham Dwivedi, Hasitha Shilpa Anantaraju, Yogeeswari Perumal, Dilep Kumar Sigalapalli, Bathini Nagendra Babu, Krishna S Ethiraj
A new series of Deacetylsarmentamide A and B derivatives, amides and sulfonamides of 3,4-dihydroxypyrrolidines as α-glucosidase inhibitors were designed and synthesized. The biological screening test against α-glucosidase showed that some of these compounds have the positive inhibitory activity against α-glucosidase. Saturated aliphatic amides were more potent than the olefinic amides. Among all the compounds, 5o/6o having polar -NH2 group, 10f/11f having polar -OH group on phenyl ring displayed 3-4-fold more potent than the standard drugs...
June 15, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
Yumi Kishida, Hirofumi Okubo, Haruya Ohno, Kenji Oki, Masayasu Yoneda
BACKGROUND: The gut environment has been considered to play a role in the development of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). α-glucosidase inhibitors (α-GIs) delay carbohydrate absorption and may change the gut environment. We considered that the protective effect of α-GIs against NASH development is related to changes in the gut environment and thus investigated the effects of miglitol, an α-GI, on NASH development and the gut environment. METHODS: Mice were divided into three groups and fed a normal chow diet (NCD), a high-fat high-sucrose diet (HFHSD), or HFHSD plus 0...
November 2017: Journal of Gastroenterology
Masaaki Adachi, Kimiyoshi Mitsuhashi, Hiroyuki Matsuda, Junko Watanabe, Katsuya Nakanishi
Fournier's gangrene (FG) is a fulminant infective necrotizing fasciitis, which includes the genital, perineal, and perianal regions. A 77-year-old man had previously been diagnosed as having diabetes mellitus (DM) and was treated with pioglitazone (15 mg) and miglitol (150 mg). He developed sudden perineal discomfort, fever with painful penile, and scrotal edema, subsequently leading to urinary retention. According to physical examination and CT scan results for the swollen penis and scrotum, he was diagnosed with FG...
2017: [Rinshō Ketsueki] the Japanese Journal of Clinical Hematology
Sowmya Shree Gopal, Magisetty Jhansi Lakshmi, Gurunathan Sharavana, Gunaseelan Sathaiah, Yadahally N Sreerama, Vallikannan Baskaran
Intestinal and pancreatic α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitors offer an approach to lower the levels of post-prandial hyperglycemia through the control of dietary starch breakdown in digestion. This study hypothesized that lactucaxanthin (Lxn) in lettuce (Lactuca sativa) inhibits the activity of α-amylase and α-glucosidase. In this study, the interaction of Lxn with α-amylase and α-glucosidase in silico and its inhibitory effect on these enzymes were studied using in vitro and STZ-induced diabetic rat models...
March 22, 2017: Food & Function
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