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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917299/a-male-with-extreme-subcutaneous-insulin-resistance-a-case-report
#1
Zuhayer Ahmed, Indrajit Prasad, Hafizur Rahman, Jalil Ansari, Khaled Hassan
INTRODUCTION: Though insulin has no upper limit in dosage, we do not encounter very high dose requirements too often. The reported case is the first in Bangladesh to require more than 1000 international units (IU) of subcutaneous insulin per day. CASE PRESENTATION: A 44-year old male diabetic patient from Bangladesh presented with unusually uncontrolled diabetes mellitus due to extreme insulin resistance. Despite dramatic increase in insulin step by step up to 1110 IU of concomitant short and intermediate acting insulin per day by subcutaneous route, his blood glucose remained over 12 mmol/L persistently, in all the fasting, pre-prandial, postprandial and random samples...
June 2016: Rom J Diabetes Nutr Metab Dis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904400/16s-rrna-in-situ-hybridization-followed-by-flow-cytometry-for-rapid-identification-of-acetic-acid-bacteria-involved-in-submerged-industrial-vinegar-production
#2
Janja Trček, Luka Lipoglavšek, Gorazd Avguštin
Acetic acid bacteria are involved in many biotechnological processes such as vitamin C, gluconic acid, miglitol or acetic acid production, and others. For a technologist trying to control the industrial process, the ability to follow the microbiological development of the process is thus of importance. During the past few years hybridization in a combination with flow cytometry has often been used for this purpose. Since vinegar is a liquid, it is an ideal matrix for flow cytometry analysis. In this work we have constructed a specific probe for highly acetic acid-resistant species of the acetic acid bacteria and a protocol for in situ hybridization, which in combination with flow cytometry enables direct monitoring of bacteria producing vinegar with >10% of acetic acid...
March 2016: Food Technology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27780736/add-on-therapy-with-anagliptin-in-japanese-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-treated-with-metformin-and-miglitol-can-maintain-higher-concentrations-of-biologically-active-glp-1-total-gip-and-a-lower-concentration-of-leptin
#3
Takeshi Osonoi, Miyoko Saito, Natsuyo Hariya, Moritaka Goto, Kazuki Mochizuki
Metformin, α-glucosidase inhibitors (α-GIs), and dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitors (DPP-4Is) reduce hyperglycemia without excessive insulin secretion, and enhance postprandial plasma concentration of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) in type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients. We assessed add-on therapeutic effects of DPP-4I anagliptin in Japanese T2DM patients treated with metformin, an α-GI miglitol, or both drugs on postprandial responses of GLP-1 and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), and on plasma concentration of the appetite-suppressing hormone leptin...
December 2016: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27754407/development-and-validation-of-miglitol-and-its-impurities-by-rp-hplc-and-characterization-using-mass-spectrometry-techniques
#4
Kesavan Balakumaran, Mosesbabu Janagili, Nagaraju Rajana, Sureshbabu Papureddy, Jayashree Anireddy
Alpha glucoside inhibitors used to treat type-2 diabetes mellitus (DM) are likely to be safe and effective. These agents are most effective for postprandial hyperglycemia. Miglitol is a type of drug used to treat type-2 DM. A simple, selective, linear, precise and accurate reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method was developed and validated for a related substance of miglitol and its identification, and characterization was done by different mass spectrometry techniques. The gradient method at a flow rate of 1...
October 14, 2016: Scientia Pharmaceutica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27664368/one-pot-oxidative-dehydration-oxidation-of-polyhydroxyhexanal-oxime-to-polyhydroxy-oxohexanenitrile-a-versatile-methodology-for-the-facile-access-of-azasugar-alkaloids
#5
Sandip R Khobare, Vikas Gajare, E Vishnuvardhan Reddy, Rajender Datrika, Malavika Banda, Vidavalur Siddaiah, Sharad S Pachore, Upadhya Timanna, Vilas H Dahanukar, U K Syam Kumar
A unique oxidative dehydration-oxidation of polyhydroxy-oxime (7) to the corresponding ketonitrile (8) in one pot is reported for the first time in carbohydrate literature. Key ketonitrile intermediate (8) upon palladium hydroxide mediated cascade reaction afforded 1-deoxynojirimycin (DNJ) 1b in moderate diastereoselectivity. The cascade reaction involves the conversion of nitrile to amine, heteroannulation, reduction of the imine and subsequent debenzylation to furnish the azasugars. This oxidative dehydration-oxidation and reductive heteroannulation methodology is successfully utilized for the total synthesis of 1-deoxynojirimycin (1b), miglitol (2) and miglustat (3)...
September 14, 2016: Carbohydrate Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27640062/insulin-monotherapy-compared-with-the-addition-of-oral-glucose-lowering-agents-to-insulin-for-people-with-type-2-diabetes-already-on-insulin-therapy-and-inadequate-glycaemic-control
#6
REVIEW
Rimke C Vos, Mariëlle Jp van Avendonk, Hanneke Jansen, Alexander N Goudswaard, Maureen van den Donk, Kees Gorter, Anneloes Kerssen, Guy Ehm Rutten
BACKGROUND: It is unclear whether people with type 2 diabetes mellitus on insulin monotherapy who do not achieve adequate glycaemic control should continue insulin as monotherapy or can benefit from adding oral glucose-lowering agents to the insulin therapy. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of insulin monotherapy compared with the addition of oral glucose-lowering agents to insulin monotherapy for people with type 2 diabetes already on insulin therapy and inadequate glycaemic control...
September 18, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27539431/rapid-identification-of-miglitol-and-its-isomers-by-electrospray-ionization-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#7
Qiuhong Yin, Lin Wang, Cuirong Sun
RATIONALE: Miglitol (1) derived from 1-deoxynojirimycin is an iminosugar that is useful in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Isomers (2, 3, 4) that differ at the C2 and C3 positions of hydroxyl groups from miglitol are impurities resulting from the synthesis of miglitol. The impurity profile of a drug substance is critical to its safety assessment and is important for monitoring the manufacturing process. Therefore, developing a fast and simple method that can rapidly identify the configuration of miglitol and its isomers (2, 3, 4) is necessary...
August 2016: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry: RCM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27440852/liraglutide-improved-glycaemic-instability-in-a-patient-with-diabetes-with-insulin-antibodies
#8
Takehiro Kato, Katsumi Iizuka, Hiroyuki Niwa, Jun Takeda
Insulin antibodies sometimes cause glucose instability. A 52-year-old male patient was admitted to our department for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. From October 2003, he received insulin treatment for autoimmune pancreatitis and diabetes mellitus, but his hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels gradually reached 8.0% (64 mmol/mol IFCC). In January 2010, insulin glargine and insulin aspart were introduced. In April 2010, the insulin antibody titre rose to >13.6 U/mL. In July 2010, treatment was changed to insulin glargine, metformin and miglitol...
2016: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27325449/hydrophobic-substituents-increase-the-potency-of-salacinol-a-potent-%C3%AE-glucosidase-inhibitor-from-ayurvedic-traditional-medicine-salacia
#9
Genzoh Tanabe, Weijia Xie, Gorre Balakishan, Mumen F A Amer, Nozomi Tsutsui, Haruka Takemura, Shinya Nakamura, Junji Akaki, Kiyofumi Ninomiya, Toshio Morikawa, Isao Nakanishi, Osamu Muraoka
Using an in silico method, seven analogs bearing hydrophobic substituents (8a: Me, 8b: Et, 8c: n-Pent, 8d: n-Hept, 8e: n-Tridec, 8f: isoBu and 8g: neoPent) at the 3'-O-position in salacinol (1), a highly potent natural α-glucosidase inhibitor from Ayurvedic traditional medicine 'Salacia', were designed and synthesized. In order to verify the computational SAR assessments, their α-glucosidase inhibitory activities were evaluated in vitro. All analogs (8a-8g) exhibited an equal or considerably higher level of inhibitory activity against rat small intestinal α-glucosidases compared with the original sulfonate (1), and were as potent as or higher in potency than the clinically used anti-diabetics, voglibose, acarbose or miglitol...
August 15, 2016: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27150868/concurrent-therapy-with-a-low-carbohydrate-diet-and-miglitol-remarkably-improved-the-postprandial-blood-glucose-and-insulin-levels-in-a-patient-with-reactive-hypoglycemia-due-to-late-dumping-syndrome
#10
Sachie Hirose, Yasuyuki Iwahashi, Akane Seo, Michitaka Sumiyoshi, Tetsuya Takahashi, Yoshikazu Tamori
Reactive hypoglycemia induced by late dumping syndrome is often observed after gastrectomy. However, no effective therapy has yet been fully established. We herein describe a case in which concurrent therapy with a low-carbohydrate diet using low-glycemic-index food and an alpha-glucosidase inhibitor, miglitol, very effectively ameliorated the postprandial fluctuations in the blood glucose and plasma insulin levels in a patient with reactive hypoglycemia due to late dumping syndrome following total gastrectomy...
2016: Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26918556/comparison-of-efficacy-and-safety-of-taking-miglitol-dissolved-in-water-during-a-meal-and-taking-a-miglitol-tablet-just-before-a-meal-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes
#11
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Eriko Shibata, Kazutaka Aoki, Kazuki Tajima, Masataka Taguri, Yasuo Terauchi
OBJECTIVE: We compared the efficacy and safety of taking miglitol dissolved in water during a meal and taking a miglitol tablet just before a meal. Primary efficacy parameter is the area under the curve (AUC) for postprandial plasma glucose. METHODS: Miglitol was administered according to three different intake schedules in each subject: intake schedule A, no miglitol; intake schedule B, administration of miglitol (50 mg) just before breakfast; intake schedule C, dissolving miglitol (50 mg) in water and taking it just before (1/3), during (1/3), and just after breakfast (1/3)...
2016: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26650760/uncovering-the-molecular-mechanism-of-actions-between-pharmaceuticals-and-proteins-on-the-ad-network
#12
Shujuan Cao, Liang Yu, Jingyuan Mao, Quan Wang, Jishou Ruan
This study begins with constructing the mini metabolic networks (MMNs) of beta amyloid (Aβ) and acetylcholine (ACh) which stimulate the Alzheimer's Disease (AD). Then we generate the AD network by incorporating MMNs of Aβ and ACh, and other MMNs of stimuli of AD. The panel of proteins contains 49 enzymes/receptors on the AD network which have the 3D-structure in PDB. The panel of drugs is formed by 5 AD drugs and 5 AD nutraceutical drugs, and 20 non-AD drugs. All of these complexes formed by these 30 drugs and 49 proteins are transformed into dyadic arrays...
2015: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26628904/review-miglitol-has-potential-as-a-therapeutic-drug-against-obesity
#13
REVIEW
Satoru Sugimoto, Hisakazu Nakajima, Kitaro Kosaka, Hajime Hosoi
The number of obese patients has increased annually worldwide. Therefore, there is a strong need to develop a new effective and safe anti-obesity drug. Miglitol is an alpha-glucosidase inhibitor (αGI) that is commonly used as an anti-diabetic drug, and there is growing evidence that it also has anti-obesity effects. Miglitol has been shown to reduce body weight and ameliorate insulin resistance in both clinical trials with adult patients and in rodent models of obesity. Although the specific mechanism of action of this effect remains unclear, some mechanisms have been suggested through experimental results...
2015: Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26512331/acarbose-safe-and-effective-for-lowering-postprandial-hyperglycaemia-and-improving-cardiovascular-outcomes
#14
REVIEW
James J DiNicolantonio, Jaikrit Bhutani, James H O'Keefe
α-Glucosidase inhibitors (AGIs) are a class of oral glucose-lowering drugs used exclusively for treatment or prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus. AGIs act by altering the intestinal absorption of carbohydrates through inhibition of their conversion into simple sugars (monosaccharides) and thus decrease the bioavailability of carbohydrates in the body, significantly lowering blood glucose levels. The three AGIs used in clinical practice are acarbose, voglibose and miglitol. This review will focus on the cardiovascular properties of acarbose...
2015: Open Heart
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26440638/treatment-with-dpp-4i-anagliptin-or-%C3%AE-gi-miglitol-reduces-igt-development-and-the-expression-of-cvd-risk-factors-in-oletf-rats
#15
Chihiro Imai, Tomomi Harazaki, Seiya Inoue, Kazuki Mochizuki, Toshinao Goda
It has been reported that postprandial hyperglycemia from the pre-diabetic stage, especially from the impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) stage, is positively associated with subsequent incidences of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and type 2 diabetes. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether treatment with a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor (DPP-4I) or an α-glucosidase inhibitor (α-GI), either of which suppresses postprandial hyperglycemia, reduces the expression of CVD risk factors in an IGT animal model...
2015: Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26344912/re-exploring-promising-%C3%AE-glucosidase-inhibitors-for-potential-development-into-oral-anti-diabetic-drugs-finding-needle-in-the-haystack
#16
REVIEW
Usman Ghani
Treatment of diabetes mellitus by oral α-glucosidase inhibitors is currently confined to acarbose, miglitol and voglibose marred by efficacy problems and unwanted side effects. Since the discovery of the drugs more than three decades ago, no significant progress has been made in the drug development area of anti-diabetic α-glucosidase inhibitors. Despite existence of a wide chemical diversity of α-glucosidase inhibitors identified to date, majority of them are simply piled up in publications and reports thus creating a haystack destined to be forgotten in the scientific literature without given consideration for further development into drugs...
October 20, 2015: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26158794/a-pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic-drug-drug-interaction-study-of-tofogliflozin-a-new-sglt2-inhibitor-and-selected-anti-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-drugs
#17
N Kasahara, H Fukase, Y Ohba, T Saito, K Miyata, S Iida, Y Takano, S Ikeda, M Harigai, K Terao
OBJECTIVE: Tofogliflozin is an oral hypoglycemic agent with a novel mechanism of action that reduces blood glucose levels by promoting glucose excretion in urine, achieved by selectively inhibiting sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2). We evaluated the effects of several selected anti-type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) drugs-glimepiride, metformin, sitagliptin, pioglitazone, miglitol, nateglinide, and voglibose-on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of tofogliflozin, and the effects of tofogliflozin on the pharmacokinetics of these anti-T2DM drugs in healthy male volunteers...
February 2016: Drug Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26132858/natural-products-for-the-treatment-of-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#18
REVIEW
José Luis Ríos, Flavio Francini, Guillermo R Schinella
Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disease characterized by persistent hyperglycemia. High blood sugar can produce long-term complications such as cardiovascular and renal disorders, retinopathy, and poor blood flow. Its development can be prevented or delayed in people with impaired glucose tolerance by implementing lifestyle changes or the use of therapeutic agents. Some of these drugs have been obtained from plants or have a microbial origin, such as galegine isolated from Galega officinalis, which has a great similarity to the antidiabetic drug metformin...
August 2015: Planta Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26055217/effects-of-miglitol-acarbose-and-sitagliptin-on-plasma-insulin-and-gut-peptides-in-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-a-crossover-study
#19
Hiroaki Ueno, Wakaba Tsuchimochi, Hong-Wei Wang, Eiichiro Yamashita, Chikako Tsubouchi, Kazuhiro Nagamine, Hideyuki Sakoda, Masamitsu Nakazato
INTRODUCTION: Both dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors and α-glucosidase inhibitors (α-GI) have been reported to change the incretin and insulin secretion. To examine the effects of acarbose, miglitol, and sitagliptin on glucose metabolism and secretion of gut peptides, we conducted a crossover study in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). METHODS: Eleven Japanese patients with T2DM underwent four meal tolerance tests with single administration of acarbose, miglitol, sitagliptin, or nothing...
June 2015: Diabetes Therapy: Research, Treatment and Education of Diabetes and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26027473/determination-of-miglitol-by-column-switching-ion-pair-hplc-with-tris-2-2-bipyridine-ruthenium-ii-electrogenerated-chemiluminescence-detection
#20
Hiromichi Asamoto, Yasuhito Nobushi, Takahiko Oi, Kazuo Uchikura
We have developed a highly sensitive, simple method for the quantitative determination of miglitol in standard serum samples using column-switching ion-pair HPLC with tris(2,2'-bipyridine)ruthenium(II)-electrogenerated chemiluminescence detection. The serum samples were directly injected into a column-switching HPLC system with a Shim-pack MAYI-SCX precolumn to remove the serum matrix. Chromatographic separation of miglitol was achieved on a TSKgel ODS 100-V column using a mobile phase containing sodium 1-octanesulfonate as an ion-pair reagent...
2015: Chemical & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
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