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Joy Dierks, Tammy Servies, Tai Do
Introduction: The US Marines operate the Jungle Warfare Training Center (JWTC) in Northern Okinawa, where leptospirosis is endemic. The JWTC endurance course involves prolonged fresh and stagnant water exposures in a simulated jungle warfare environment. Since a leptospirosis outbreak in 1987, JWTC has required prophylactic use of doxycycline at 200 mg weekly during exposure to the endurance course. This policy is based on a 1982 study in a similar environment in Panama. In August and September of 2014, an outbreak of leptospirosis occurred among 81 Marines training at JWTC...
March 1, 2018: Military Medicine
Devika Iddawela, Sanura Malinda Pallegoda Vithana, Dhilma Atapattu, Lanka Wijekoon
BACKGROUND: Leishmaniasis, a vector borne tropical/subtropical disease caused by the protozoan Leishmania is transmitted to humans by sandfly vectors Phlebotomus and Lutzomyia. The principal form found in Sri Lanka is cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) and is caused by Leishmania donovani. A rising trend in disease prevalence has been observed recently in Sri Lanka and the island is in fact the newest endemic focus in South Asia. Determining the prevalence of smear positivity among clinically suspected CL patients, identifying risk factors and specific clinical presentations of CL in order to implement preventive and early treatment strategies were the objectives of this study...
March 6, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
Valentyna Krashevska, Elena Malysheva, Bernhard Klarner, Yuri Mazei, Mark Maraun, Rahayu Widyastuti, Stefan Scheu
We investigated how the land-use change from rainforest into jungle rubber, intensive rubber and oil palm plantations affects decomposers and litter decomposition in Sumatra, Indonesia. Litterbags containing three litter types were placed into four land-use systems and harvested after 6 and 12 months. Litter mass loss and litter element concentrations were measured, and different microbial groups including bacteria, fungi and testate amoebae were studied. After 12 months 81, 65, 63 and 53% of litter exposed in rainforest, jungle rubber in oil palm and rubber plantations was decomposed...
March 1, 2018: Oecologia
Andrés Ernesto Ortiz-Rodriguez, Juan Francisco Ornelas, Eduardo Ruiz-Sanchez
The predominantly Asian tribe Miliuseae (Annonaceae) includes over 37 Neotropical species that are mainly distributed across Mesoamerica, from southern Mexico to northern Colombia. The tremendous ecological and morphological diversity of this clade, including ramiflory, cauliflory, flagelliflory, and clonality, suggests adaptive radiation. Despite the spectacular phenotypic divergence of this clade, little is known about its phylogenetic and evolutionary history. In this study we used a nuclear DNA marker and seven chloroplast markers, and maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference methods to reconstruct a comprehensive time-calibrated phylogeny of tribe Miliuseae, especially focusing on the Desmopsis-Stenanona clade...
January 30, 2018: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
T Gazoni, C F B Haddad, H Narimatsu, D C Cabral-de-Mello, M L Lyra, P P Parise-Maltempi
Heteromorphic sex chromosomes are common in eukaryotes and largely ubiquitous in birds and mammals. The largest number of multiple sex chromosomes in vertebrates known today is found in the monotreme platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus, 2n = 52) which exhibits precisely 10 sex chromosomes. Interestingly, fish, amphibians, and reptiles have sex determination mechanisms that do or do not involve morphologically differentiated sex chromosomes. Relatively few amphibian species carry heteromorphic sex chromosomes, and when present, they are frequently represented by only one pair, either XX:XY or ZZ:ZW types...
January 26, 2018: Chromosoma
Pooja Rai, Usha Rani
BACKGROUND: Newborn hospitalized in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) raises a mother's risk of reduced health-related quality of life (QoL). We explored the contributors inducing stress among mothers related to NICU. METHODOLOGY: One hundred thirty-five mothers, whose newborn has completed 48 hours of NICU stay, were interviewed using parental stress scale: neonatal intensive care unit and SF-36 health survey questionnaire for further assessment. RESULTS: The look and behavior of the baby were predominant contributor to the decreased QoL among mothers (p= <...
January 25, 2018: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Judith Kalser, J Helen Cross
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We aim to further disentangle the jungle of terminology of epileptic encephalopathy and provide some insights into the current understanding about the aetiology and pathophysiology of this process. We cover also the key features of epilepsy syndromes of infancy and childhood which are considered at high risk of developing an epileptic encephalopathy. RECENT FINDINGS: The concept of 'epileptic encephalopathy' has progressively been elaborated by the International League Against Epilepsy according to growing clinical and laboratory evidence...
April 2018: Current Opinion in Neurology
Zsolt Sarszegi, Dora Szabo, Balazs Gaszner, Attila Konyi, Dora Reglodi, Jozsef Nemeth, Beata Lelesz, Beata Polgar, Adel Jungling, Andrea Tamas
Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a pleiotropic and multifunctional neuropeptide having neurotrophic, neuroprotective, and general cytoprotective actions in a variety of tissues based on its anti-apoptotic, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant effects. Several studies have demonstrated its cardioprotective effects in vitro and in various animal models. However, few data are available on the presence of PACAP in human cardiac tissues and its role in the pathomechanism and progression of different cardiac disorders, particularly heart failure...
January 20, 2018: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
Thaisa Moro Cantu-Jungles, Andrea Caroline Ruthes, Marwa El-Hindawy, Roberta Barbara Moreno, Xiaowei Zhang, Lucimara M C Cordeiro, Bruce R Hamaker, Marcello Iacomini
Dietary fiber chemical and physical structures may be critical to the comprehension of how they may modulate gut bacterial composition. We purified insoluble polymers from Cookeina speciosa, and investigated its fermentation profile in an in vitro human fecal fermentation model. Two glucans, characterized as a (1 → 3),(1 → 6)-linked and a (1→3)-linked β-D-glucans were obtained. Both glucans were highly butyrogenic and propiogenic, with low gas production, during in vitro fecal fermentation and led to distinct bacterial shifts if compared to fructooligosaccharides...
March 1, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
François R Jornayvaz
The field of diabetes is constantly evolving, with numerous new molecules reaching the market for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Paradoxically, this drug jungle is difficult for the primary care physician and can lead to therapeutic inertia. The aim of this article is to discuss new molecules and new cardiovascular outcome studies that lead to changes in guidelines pertinent to the pharmacological treatment of type 2 diabetes.
January 10, 2018: Revue Médicale Suisse
Malika Bouhenia, Jihane Ben Farhat, Matthew E Coldiron, Saif Abdallah, Delphine Visentin, Michaël Neuman, Mathilde Berthelot, Klaudia Porten, Sandra Cohuet
Background: In 2015, more than 1 million refugees arrived in Europe. During their travels, refugees often face harsh conditions, violence and torture in transit countries, but there is a lack of quantitative evidence on their experiences. We present the results of a retrospective survey among refugees in the 'Jungle' of Calais, France, to document their health problems and the violence they endured during their journeys. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional population-based survey in November and December 2015...
November 1, 2017: International Health
Hermina Nedelescu, Mohamed Abdelhack, Arwel T Pritchard
Regional differences in dendritic architecture can influence connectivity and dendritic signal integration, with possible consequences for neuronal computation. In the cerebellum, analyses of Purkinje cells (PCs), which are functionally critical as they provide the sole output of the cerebellar cortex, have suggested that the cerebellar cortex is not uniform in structure as traditionally assumed. However, the limitations of traditional staining methods and microscopy capabilities have presented difficulties in investigating possible local variations in PC morphology...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Research
Kiven Kumar, Siti Suri Arshad, Gayathri Thevi Selvarajah, Jalila Abu, Ooi Peck Toung, Yusuf Abba, Faruku Bande, A R Yasmin, Reuben Sharma, Bee Lee Ong, Anisah Abdul Rasid, Norsuzana Hashim, Amira Peli, E P Heshini, Ahmad Khusaini Mohd Kharip Shah
Japanese encephalitis (JE) is vector-borne zoonotic disease which causes encephalitis in humans and horses. Clinical signs for Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) infection are not clearly evident in the majority of affected animals. In Malaysia, information on the prevalence of JEV infection has not been established. Thus, a cross-sectional study was conducted during two periods, December 2015 to January 2016 and March to August in 2016, to determine the prevalence and risk factors in JEV infections among animals and birds in Peninsular Malaysia...
December 14, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
C J McIntosh, A I W James
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: This article considers the complexities of neuropsychological assessment and rehabilitation in brain injury when the client is illiterate, is from a foreign culture with English as a second language, and reports highly atypical childhood feral experiences prior to injury. METHOD: MC was a 63-year-old woman referred for neuropsychological rehabilitation with a diagnosis of suspected St Louis encephalitis and global cognitive impairment. In formulating her clinical presentation, consideration was given to a reported history of feral childhood living with monkeys in the Colombian jungle and subsequent physical and emotional abuse...
March 2018: Neuropsychological Rehabilitation
Mohammad Adawi, Nicola Luigi Bragazzi, Abdulla Watad, Kassem Sharif, Howard Amital, Naim Mahroum
BACKGROUND: Mayaro virus (MAYV), first discovered in Trinidad in 1954, is spread by the Haemagogus mosquito. Small outbreaks have been described in the past in the Amazon jungles of Brazil and other parts of South America. Recently, a case was reported in rural Haiti. OBJECTIVE: Given the emerging importance of MAYV, we aimed to explore the feasibility of exploiting a Web-based tool for monitoring and tracking MAYV cases. METHODS: Google Trends is an online tracking system...
December 1, 2017: JMIR Public Health and Surveillance
Caleb D Johnson, Andrew J Simonson, Matthew E Darnell, James P DeLany, Meleesa F Wohleber, Christopher Connaboy
The purpose of this study was to identify and compare energy requirements specific to Special Operations Forces in field training, in both cool and hot environments. Three separate training sessions were evaluated, two in a hot environment (n=21) and one in a cool environment (n=8). Total energy expenditure was calculated using doubly-labeled water. Dietary intake was assessed via self-report at the end of each training mission day, and macronutrient intakes were calculated. Across the three missions, mean energy expenditure (4,618 ± 1,350 kcal/day) exceeded mean energy intake (2,429 ± 838 kcal/day) by an average of 2,200 kcal/day...
November 16, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
Maarten H D Larmuseau, Gilles P P L Otten, Ronny Decorte, Philip Van Damme, Matthieu Moisse
Y-chromosomal single nucleotide polymorphisms (Y-SNPs) represent a powerful tool in forensic research and casework, especially for inferring paternal ancestry of unknown perpetrators and unidentified bodies. However, the wealth of recently discovered Y-SNPs, the 'jungle' of different evolutionary lineage trees and nomenclatures, and the lack of population-wide data of many phylogenetically mapped Y-SNPs, limits the use of Y-SNPs in routine forensic approaches. Recently, a concise reference phylogeny of the human Y chromosome, the 'Minimal Reference Y-tree', was introduced aiming to provide a stable phylogeny with optimal global discrimination capacity by including the most resolving Y-SNPs...
November 2017: Forensic Science International. Genetics
S Orlowski, J Flees, N Anthony, S Dridi
Genetic selection for high growth rate has resulted in tremendous changes not only in feed efficiency, but also in water consumption between modern broilers and their ancestor jungle fowl (JF). However molecular mechanisms involved in water homeostasis are still not well defined. This study aimed, therefore, to determine the effect of short-term water restriction on the expression of water channel- and noncoding RNA biogenesis-related genes in the kidney and whole blood of JF, broiler population from the 1990s (RB1995), and modern broiler population developed in 2015 (ARB2015)...
October 5, 2017: Poultry Science
R C Betz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2017: British Journal of Dermatology
Reneé Montesinos-Segura, Diego Urrunaga-Pastor, Giuston Mendoza-Chuctaya, Alvaro Taype-Rondan, Luis M Helguero-Santin, Franklin W Martinez-Ninanqui, Dercy L Centeno, Yanina Jiménez-Meza, Ruth C Taminche-Canayo, Liz Paucar-Tito, Wilfredo Villamonte-Calanche
OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence of disrespect and abuse during childbirth and its associated factors in Peru. METHODS: In an observational cross-sectional study, women were surveyed within 48 hours of live delivery at 14 hospitals located in nine Peruvian cities between April and July 2016. The survey was based on seven categories of disrespect and abuse proposed by Bowser and Hill. To evaluate factors associated with each category, prevalence ratios (PRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using adjusted Poisson models with robust variances...
October 17, 2017: International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics
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