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Shuang Liu, Xin Yu Zhang, Yang Yang, Yu Qian Tang, Zhong Qiang Wang
We examined the effects of temperature on SOC mineralization rate (Cmin ) and enzyme kinetic parameters in soils of two different latitudinal forests, i.e., broad-leaved Korean pine forest in Changbai Mountain at higher latitude and evergreen broad-leaved forest in Dinghu Mountain at lower latitude. The results showed that the soil Cmin increased with temperature, and the Cmin and Q10(Cmin ) of the Changbai Mountain forest soil were higher than those of the Dinghu Mountain forest soil. The maximal rates of velocity (Vmax ) and the half-saturation constant (Km ) of the Changbai Mountain forest soil were higher relative to the Dinghu Mountain soil for both soil β-glucosidase (βG) and N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (NAG), but being opposite for catalytic efficiency (Vmax /Km )...
February 2018: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
Alexander M Levy, Massimo A Fazio, Rafael Grytz
PURPOSE: Myopia progression is thought to involve biomechanical weakening of the sclera, which leads to irreversible deformations and axial elongation of the eye. Scleral crosslinking has been proposed as a potential treatment option for myopia control by strengthening the mechanically weakened sclera. The biomechanical mechanism by which the sclera weakens during myopia and strengthens after crosslinking is not fully understood. Here, we assess the effect of lens-induced myopia and exogenous crosslinking using genipin on the inelastic mechanical properties of the tree shrew sclera measured by cyclic tensile tests...
May 2018: Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics: the Journal of the British College of Ophthalmic Opticians (Optometrists)
Xiaohui Wang, Jun Zhang, Hubing Wu, Yumin Li, Peter S Conti, Kai Chen
Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) plays a vital role in the progress of malignant disease and elevated Hsp90 expression has been reported in pancreatic cancer. In this study, we radiolabeled a dimeric Sansalvamide A derivative (Di-San A1) with 64 Cu, and evaluated the feasibility of using 64 Cu-Di-San A1 for PET imaging of Hsp90 expression in a mouse model of pancreatic cancer. A macrocyclic chelator NOTA (1,4,7-triazacyclononane-1,4,7-trisacetic acid) was conjugated to Di-San A1. 64 Cu-Di-San A1 was successfully prepared in a radiochemical yield > 97% with a radiochemical purity > 98%...
April 24, 2018: Amino Acids
Min Wei, Wenyang Zhang
In this work, a novel aptamer-based electrochemical biosensor was developed for the determination of Ochratoxin A (OTA) by using carbon aerogels (CAs) and methylene blue (MB) as signal amplification strategy. CAs was used as carrier to load the abundant of complementary DNA (cDNA), which could enhance the hybridization between CAs-cDNA and aptamer immobilized on the electrode surface, thus provide more double-stranded DNA for MB intercalation. The current of MB on the CAs-cDNA/apt/AuE sensor was twice that on the cDNA/apt/AuE sensor, which indicated that the CAs with high surface area enabled a higher loading of the cDNA and absorbed more MB, thus realized the signal amplification strategy...
April 25, 2018: Chemistry Central Journal
Yoshio Takei, Noriko Nemoto, Toru Kameya, Hideaki Tamaki, Osamu Katsumata, Susumu Hyodo, Makoto Kusakabe
Atrial and B-type natriuretic peptides (ANP and BNP) are cardiac hormones important for cardiovascular and body fluid regulation. In some teleost species, an additional member of the natriuretic peptide family, ventricular NP (VNP), has been identified. In this study, we examine tissue distribution of these three NPs in the eel heart. Quantitative real-time PCR showed that anp is almost exclusively expressed in atria, bnp equally in atria and ventricles and vnp three-fold more in ventricles than in atria. The amount of bnp transcript overall in the heart was 1/10 those of anp and vnp...
April 25, 2018: Cell and Tissue Research
Yu Ning, Ming Zhang, Yun-Hui DU, Hui-Na Zhang, Lin-Yi Li, Yan-Wen Qin, Wan-Wan Wen, Quan-Ming Zhao
It has been recognized that patients with hypothyroidism have higher risks of atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease, however, the mechanisms are largely unknown. Considering that macrophage dysfunction plays an important role in the formation and development of atherosclerosis plaques, this study aimed to investigate the direct effects of thyroid hormone on macrophage functions and to provide new insight for the mechanism of hypothyroid atherosclerosis. RAW264.7 cells (mouse leukaemic monocyte macrophage cell line) were incubated with oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) to establish macrophage foam cells model in vitro, and the protective effects of different concentration of thyroxine (T4) on the macrophage foam cells function were explored...
April 25, 2018: Sheng Li Xue Bao: [Acta Physiologica Sinica]
Chang-Yuan Zhang, Gang Niu, Yi-Yi Jin, Hao Yu, Hui Cheng
PURPOSE: To study the cytotoxicity of 3 resin cements to human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs). METHODS: Three resin cements (Panavia F, RelyXTM Unicem and Multilink Speed) test samples were immersed and incubated in the culture medium for 48 h at 37degrees centigrade. Cultured HGFs were exposed to two concentrations (50% and 100%) of material elutes for 24 h, 72 h and 120 h. The proliferation rate was evaluated using CCK-8 assay. The data were statistically analyzed by one-way analysis of variance using SPSS 20...
December 2017: Shanghai Kou Qiang Yi Xue, Shanghai Journal of Stomatology
Danyi Lu, Dong Dong, Qian Xie, Zhijie Li, Baojian Wu
UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) play an important role in metabolism and detoxification of amine-containing chemicals. However, the disposition mechanisms for amines via UGT metabolism are not fully clear. Here we aim to investigate a potential role of UGT2B10 in N-glucosidation, and to determine the transporters for excretion of N-glucosides. We first established a HEK293 cell line stably overexpressing UGT2B10. Incubation of mianserin or cyclizine with the cells generated one N-glucuronide and one N-glucoside...
April 24, 2018: Drug Metabolism and Disposition: the Biological Fate of Chemicals
Takenori Satomura, Junji Hayashi, Hiroaki Sakamoto, Takuro Nunoura, Yoshihiro Takaki, Ken Takai, Hideto Takami, Toshihisa Ohshima, Haruhiko Sakuraba, Shin-Ichiro Suye
A stable d-lactate electrochemical sensing system was developed using a dye-linked d-lactate dehydrogenase (Dye-DLDH) from an uncultivated thermophilic archaeon, Candidatus Caldiarchaeum subterraneum. To develop the system, the putative gene encoding the Dye-DLDH from Ca. Caldiarchaeum subterraneum was overexpressed in Escherichia coli, and the expressed product was purified. The recombinant enzyme was a highly thermostable Dye-DLDH that retained full activity after incubation for 10 min at 70°C. The electrode for detection of d-lactate was prepared by immobilizing the thermostable Dye-DLDH and multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) within Nafion membrane...
April 21, 2018: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Sushma Chauhan, Taek Jin Kang
Horseradish peroxidase (HRP) is widely used as a marker enzyme in immunoassays and biosensors, and can possibly be used in industries such as waste water treatments or fine chemical synthesis. Cost-effective production of active HRP is thus very important in the related fields. Also, engineering of HRP for its better performance in the designated application is expected to make the enzyme even more important in several areas of research and industry. One of obstacles to this end and to the large scale production of the enzyme has been its facile expression in a bacterial host...
April 21, 2018: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Ke Xing, Yun Xing, Yuanfang Liu, Yu Zhang, Xiaoqiang Shen, Xiaoyan Li, Xiangmin Miao, Zhaozhong Feng, Xue Peng, Sheng Qin
In this study, the fungicidal effects and detailed action of chitosan against Ceratocystis fimbriata were evaluated. The results demonstrated that chitosan exhibited strong antifungal activity that restricted the mycelium extension and changed the hyphal morphology. Fluorescein diacetate (FDA) and propidium iodide (PI) double-staining directly visualized decreased cell viability in response to chitosan treatment. Investigation of the PI influx showed that chitosan induced irreversible cell membrane damage. The efflux of potassium ions from the cytosol into the extracellular matrix demonstrated that chitosan induced the leakage of intracellular components...
July 15, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
Ramoji Kosuru, Yin Cai, Vidya Kandula, Dan Yan, Chunyan Wang, Hong Zheng, Yalan Li, Michael G Irwin, Sanjay Singh, Zhengyuan Xia
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Pterostilbene (PT) exerts antidiabetic effects by decreasing blood glucose and modulating lipid metabolism and has been shown to attenuate myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury in non-diabetic subjects. However, whether PT can protect against myocardial IR injury in diabetes is unknown. AMPK stimulation is indispensable in offering cardioprotection against myocardial IR injury in diabetes by limiting cardiac apoptosis. Thus, we hypothesized that PT may confer protection against myocardial IR injury in diabetes via AMPK activation...
April 18, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Arvind Ponnusamy, Smeeta Sinha, Gareth D Hyde, Samantha J Borland, Rebecca F Taylor, Emma Pond, Heather J Eyre, Colette A Inkson, Andrew Gilmore, Nick Ashton, Philip A Kalra, Ann E Canfield
BACKGROUND: Vascular calcification is associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in patients with atherosclerosis, diabetes and chronic kidney disease. However, no viable treatments for this condition have been identified. This study aimed to determine whether farnesyl transferase inhibitors (FTIs) can reduce vascular calcification and the mechanism by which this reduction occurs. RESULTS: We demonstrate that FTI-277 significantly inhibits phosphate-induced mineral deposition by vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) in vitro, prevents VSMC osteogenic differentiation, and increases mRNA expression of matrix Gla protein (MGP), an inhibitor of mineralization...
2018: PloS One
Beth A Kimmitt, George E Moore, Jean Stiles
OBJECTIVE To compare the efficacy of various concentrations and combinations of serum, EDTA, 3 tetracyclines, and N-acetylcysteine (NAC) for collagenase inhibition in an in vitro corneal degradation model. SAMPLE Grossly normal corneas from recently euthanized dogs and horses and fresh serum from healthy dogs and horses. PROCEDURES Serum was pooled by species for in vitro use. For each species, sections of cornea were dried, weighed, and incubated with clostridial collagenase (800 U/mL) in 5 mL of a 5mM calcium chloride-saline (0...
May 2018: American Journal of Veterinary Research
Carolina Nylén, Wataru Aoi, Ahmed M Abdelmoez, David G Lassiter, Leonidas S Lundell, Harriet Wallberg-Henriksson, Erik Näslund, Nicolas J Pillon, Anna Krook
AMPK controls glucose- and lipid- metabolism and modulates inflammatory responses to maintain metabolic and inflammatory homeostasis during low cellular energy levels. The AMPK activator 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-β-4-ribofuranoside (AICAR) interferes with inflammatory pathways in skeletal muscle, but the mechanisms are undefined. We hypothesized that AMPK activation reduces cytokine mRNA levels by blocking transcription through one or several transcription factors. Three skeletal muscle models were used to study AMPK effects on cytokine mRNA: human skeletal muscle strips obtained from healthy men incubated in vitro, primary human muscle cells and rat L6 cells...
April 24, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
Robin Rajan, Yu Suzuki, Kazuaki Matsumura
The synthesis of a zwitterionic polymer, poly-sulfobetaine (poly-SPB), which shows remarkable efficiency in the suppression of insulin aggregation is described. Hydrophobic modification of the polymer results in almost complete inhibition at very low polymer concentrations. Further studies reveal that these polymers facilitate the complete retention of insulin's secondary structure, which is otherwise lost after incubation. Refolding studies show that addition of polymers to preaggregated insulin sample leads to the refolding of denatured insulin, indicating their potential to facilitate the refolding of the denatured proteins...
April 24, 2018: Macromolecular Bioscience
Jongkyoo Kim, Kimberly B Wellmann, Zachary K Smith, Bradley J Johnson
All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) has been associated with various physiological phenomenon in mammalian adipose tissue and skeletal muscle. We hypothesized that ATRA may affect skeletal muscle fiber type in bovine satellite cell culture through various transcriptional processes. Bovine primary satellite cell (BSC) culture experiments were conducted to determine dose effects of ATRA on expression of genes and protein levels related to skeletal muscle fiber type and metabolism. The semimembranosus from crossbred steers (n = 2 steers), aged approximately 24 months, were used to isolate BSC for 3 separate assays...
April 24, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
Hadas Sherman Horev, Keren M Rabinowitz, Hofit Elad, Revital Barkan, Shay Ben-Shachar, Metsada Pasmanik Chor, Iris Dotan
Background: A large-scale increase in microRNA (miRNA) expression was observed in patients with ulcerative colitis who underwent pouch surgery and developed inflammation of the pouch (pouchitis). In this study, we assessed miRNA expression in these patients and investigated how regulation of its expression changes in the setting of pouchitis. Methods: Autologous samples that included mucosal biopsies, peripheral blood cells, and plasma were collected from the patients...
April 23, 2018: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
Xianzhe Gong, Emilio Garcia-Robledo, Marie Braad Lund, Philipp Lehner, Sergey M Borisov, Ingo Klimant, Niels Peter Revsbech, Andreas Schramm
The final step of aerobic respiration is carried out by a terminal oxidase transporting electrons to oxygen (O2). Prokaryotes harbor diverse terminal oxidases that differ in phylogenetic origin, structure, biochemical function, and affinity for O2. Here we report on the expression of high- (cytochrome cbb3 oxidase), low-affinity (cytochrome aa3 oxidase), and putative low-affinity (cyanide-insensitive oxidase (CIO)) terminal oxidases in the marine bacteria Idiomarina loihiensis L2-TR and Marinobacter daepoensis SW-156 upon transition to very low O2 concentrations (< 200 nM), measured by RT-qPCR...
April 24, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
Anna Maroń, Katarzyna Czerwińska, Barbara Machura, Luis Raposo, Catarina Roma-Rodrigues, Alexandra R Fernandes, Jan G Małecki, Agata Szlapa-Kula, Slawomir Kula, Stanisław Krompiec
Structural, spectroscopic and electrochemical properties of six complexes [AuCl(L1)](PF6)2·CH3CN (1), [AuCl(L2)](PF6)2 (2), [PtCl(L1)](BPh4)·CH3CN (3), [PtCl(L2)](SO3CF3) (4), [CuCl2(L1)] (5) and [CuCl2(L2)]·CH3CN (6) with modified 2,2':6',2''-terpyridine ligands, 4'-(4-methoxyphenyl)-2,2':6',2''-terpyridine (L1) and 4'-(4-methoxynaphthalen-1-yl)-2,2':6',2''-terpyridine (L2) were thoroughly investigated and a significant role of the substituent (4-methoxyphenyl or 4-methoxynaphthalen-1-yl) and the metal center was demonstrated...
April 24, 2018: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
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