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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343377/protein-kinase-c-mediates-the-corticosterone-induced-sensitization-of-dorsal-root-ganglion-neurons-innervating-the-rat-stomach
#1
Meng Li, Lu Xue, Hong-Yan Zhu, Hongjun Wang, Xue Xu, Geping Wu, Guang-Yin Xu
Background/Aims: Gastric hypersensitivity contributes to abdominal pain in patients with functional dyspepsia (FD). Recent studies showed that hormones induced by stress are correlated with visceral hypersensitivity. However, the precise mechanisms underlying gastric hypersensitivity remain largely unknown. The aim of the present study was designed to investigate the roles of corticosterone (CORT) on excitability of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons innervating the stomach. Methods: DRG neurons innervating the stomach were labeled by DiI injection into the stomach wall...
March 26, 2017: Journal of Neurogastroenterology and Motility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343136/facile-microfluidic-production-of-composite-polymer-core-shell-microcapsules-and-crescent-shaped-microparticles
#2
Ekanem E Ekanem, Zilin Zhang, Goran T Vladisavljević
HYPOTHESIS: Core-shell microcapsules and crescent-shaped microparticles can be used as picolitre bioreactors for cell culture and microwells for cell trapping/immobilisation, respectively. RESULTS: Monodisperse polylactic acid (PLA) core-shell microcapsules with a diameter above 200μm, a shell thickness of 10μm, and 96% water entrapment efficiency were produced by solvent evaporation from microfluidically generated W/O/W emulsion drops with core-shell structure, and used to encapsulate Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast cells in their aqueous cores...
March 18, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343003/essential-design-considerations-for-the-resazurin-reduction-assay-to-noninvasively-quantify-cell-expansion-within-perfused-extracellular-matrix-scaffolds
#3
Joseph S Uzarski, Michael D DiVito, Jason A Wertheim, William M Miller
Precise measurement of cellularity within bioartificial tissues and extracellular matrix (ECM) scaffolds is necessary to augment rigorous characterization of cellular behavior, as accurate benchmarking of tissue function to cell number allows for comparison of data across experiments and between laboratories. Resazurin, a soluble dye that is reduced to highly fluorescent resorufin in proportion to the metabolic activity of a cell population, is a valuable, noninvasive tool to measure cell number. We investigated experimental conditions in which resazurin reduction is a reliable indicator of cellularity within three-dimensional (3D) ECM scaffolds...
February 16, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342759/activation-of-epithelial-stat1-by-interleukin-28-controls-mucosal-healing-in-mice-with-colitis-and-is-increased-in-mucosa-of-patients-with-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#4
Mircea T Chiriac, Barbara Buchen, Alexandra Wandersee, Gheorghe Hundorfean, Claudia Günther, Yvonne Bourjau, Sean E Doyle, Benjamin Frey, Arif B Ekici, Christian Büttner, Benno Weigmann, Raja Atreya, Stefan Wirtz, Christoph Becker, Jürgen Siebler, Markus F Neurath
BACKGROUND & AIMS: We investigated the roles of interleukin 28A (also called IL28A or interferon lambda 2) in intestinal epithelial cell (IEC) activation, studying its effects in mouse models of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) and intestinal mucosal healing. METHODS: Colitis was induced in C57BL/6JCrl mice (controls), mice with intestinal epithelial cell-specific disruption of Stat1 (Stat1IEC-KO), mice with disruption of the interferon lambda receptor 1 gene (Il28ra-/-), and mice with disruption of the interferon regulatory factor 3 gene (Irf3-/-), with or without disruption of Irf7 (Irf7-/-)...
March 22, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342429/non-parasitic-life-cycle-of-the-cattle-tick-rhipicephalus-boophilus-microplus-in-panicum-maximum-pastures-in-northern-argentina
#5
Mariano Mastropaolo, Atilio J Mangold, Alberto A Guglielmone, Santiago Nava
The aim of this work was to study the non-parasitic phase of the Rhipicephalus microplus life cycle in Panicum maximum grasses from northern Argentina, in order to provide ecological information for designing methods of tick control. Four localities were chosen as replicates. The biological parameters measured were proportion of females ovipositing, the pre-oviposition period, the proportion of egg clusters hatching, the incubation period of eggs, larval longevity, and the total non-parasitic period (time from the exposure of the female to the date of death of the last larva) (TNPP))...
March 21, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342414/impacts-of-soil-incorporation-of-pre-incubated-silica-rich-rice-residue-on-soil-biogeochemistry-and-greenhouse-gas-fluxes-under-flooding-and-drying
#6
Madison Y Gutekunst, Rodrigo Vargas, Angelia L Seyfferth
Incorporation of silica-rich rice husk residue into flooded paddy soil decreases arsenic uptake by rice. However, the impact of this practice on soil greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and elemental cycling is unresolved particularly as amended soils experience recurrent flooding and drying cycles. We evaluated the impact of pre-incubated silica-rich rice residue incorporation to soils on pore water chemistry and soil GHG fluxes (i.e., CO2, CH4, N2O) over a flooding and drying cycle typical of flooded rice cultivation...
March 22, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340146/effect-of-broiler-breeders-fed-with-corn-or-sorghum-diet-and-canthaxanthin-supplementation-on-production-and-reproductive-performance
#7
C E V Bonilla, A P Rosa, A Londero, C B S Giacomini, C Orso, M O Fernandes, S J Paixão, D V Bonamigo
This study was designed to evaluate the effect of corn or sorghum diet and canthaxanthin (CX) supplementation on performance in broiler breeders. A total of 440 females with similar body weight (BW) (3.71 ± 0.14 kg) and 60 roosters were placed in an open-sided house with 20 pens, randomly distributed in a factorial arrangement (2 × 2). There were 4 diets of 2 ingredients; corn (CO) or sorghum (SO) and 2 levels of CX; 6 mg/kg (CX) and 0 mg/kg (NCX) totaling 5 replicate pens of 22 females and 3 males each, from 42 to 65 wk, divided in 2 periods (from wk 42 to 53 and wk 54 to 65)...
March 4, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339834/effects-of-coccidiosis-vaccination-administered-by-in-ovo-injection-on-ross-708-broiler-performance-through-14-days-of-post-hatch-age
#8
A O Sokale, W Zhai, L M Pote, C J Williams, E D Peebles
Effects of the in ovo injection of a commercial coccidiosis vaccine on various hatching chick quality variables and 14 d post-hatch (dph) oocyst shedding have been previously examined. The current study was designed to examine the performance of Ross 708 broilers during the 14 dph period of oocyst shedding following the application of the coccidiosis vaccine. On each of 7 replicate tray levels of a single-stage incubator, a total of 4 treatment groups was randomly represented, with each treatment group containing 63 eggs...
February 22, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339819/thermal-treatments-prior-to-and-during-the-beginning-of-incubation-affects-development-of-the-broiler-embryo-and-yolk-sac-membranes-and-live-performance-and-carcass-characteristics
#9
Y M Lin, S Druyan, S Yahav, J Brake
This study evaluated temperature during preincubation and embryonic day 0 (E0) E0 to E5 of incubation on broiler embryo development and subsequent live performance. Freshly laid eggs from a single 41-wk-old Ross 708 broiler breeder flock produced on a single day were weighed individually for weight matching purposes, stored overnight, and assigned to 4 treatment combinations of 2 preincubation temperatures (23.9 or 29.4°C) × 2 E0 to E5 temperatures (38.1 or 37.5°C). The 29.4°C preincubation temperature decreased (P ≤ 0...
February 23, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339779/effect-of-the-combination-of-white-and-red-led-lighting-during-incubation-on-layer-broiler-and-pekin-duck-hatchability
#10
G S Archer, D Jeffrey, Z Tucker
Previous research has shown that providing light during incubation can have positive effects on hatchability and chick quality; however, white light alone has been observed to improve these factors only in pigmented broiler eggs and non-pigmented white layer eggs. Monochromatic red light has been shown to improve hatchability in layer eggs. Therefore the objective of this study was to utilize one light fixture that emitted both white and monochromatic red light to determine if this one light source could improve hatchability in both types of chicken eggs and pigmented Pekin duck egg...
February 23, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339762/maternal-and-genetic-effects-on-broiler-bone-properties-during-incubation-period
#11
R Yair, A Cahaner, Z Uni, R Shahar
In order to examine the differences in bone properties between fast-growing and slow-growing broiler embryos and to understand the effects of genotype and egg size on these differences, fast- and slow-growing hens and males were reciprocally crossed to create 4 egg groups: FST (laid by fast-growing hens, inseminated by fast-growing males), H-FST (fast-growing hens and slow-growing males), H-SLW (slow-growing hens and fast-growing males), and SLW (slow-growing hens and slow-growing males). Embryos (n = 8) from these 4 groups were sacrificed and weighed, and both tibiae were harvested on embryonic d (E) 17, 19, and 21...
February 23, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339755/assessing-the-impact-of-egg-sweating-on-salmonella-enteritidis-penetration-into-shell-eggs
#12
Janet A Gradl, Patricia A Curtis, Deana R Jones, Kenneth E Anderson
Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) prevalence in eggs is a major concern to the egg industry. Some research has shown that egg sweating can increase Salmonella penetration into egg contents when refrigerated eggs are moved to a warmer temperature. This occurs when eggs are tempered before wash, to minimize thermal cracks. The effect of egg sweating on SE penetration into shell eggs over a 6 week storage period at 4 C was assessed. A 2 × 2 factorial of SE inoculation and egg sweating was utilized. Treatments included (SES) nalidixic acid (NA)-resistant SE inoculated and sweated, (SENS) NA-resistant SE inoculated and not sweated, (NSES) buffered peptone water (BPW) inoculated and sweated, and (NSENS) BPW inoculated and not sweated...
February 23, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339753/in-ovo-monochromatic-green-light-photostimulation-enhances-embryonic-somatotropic-axis-activity
#13
L Dishon, N Avital-Cohen, D Malamud, R Heiblum, S Druyan, T E Porter, M Gumulka, I Rozenboim
Previous studies demonstrated that in ovo photostimulation with monochromatic green light increases body weight and accelerates muscle development in broilers. The mechanism in which in ovo photostimulation accelerates growth and muscle development is not clearly understood. The objective of the current study was to define development of the somatotropic axis in the broiler embryo associated with in ovo green light photostimulation. Two-hundred-forty fertile broiler eggs were divided into 2 groups. The first group was incubated under intermittent monochromatic green light using light-emitting diode (LED) lamps with an intensity of 0...
February 23, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339602/gonadotropin-releasing-hormone-kisspeptin-and-gonadal-steroids-directly-modulate-nucleobindin-2-nesfatin-1-in-murine-hypothalamic-gonadotropin-releasing-hormone-neurons-and-gonadotropes%C3%A2
#14
A Hatef, S Unniappan
Neuroendocrine regulation of metabolism and reproduction are tightly interlinked. Nesfatin-1 is an 82 amino acid metabolic peptide derived from nucleobindin-2 (NUCB2). NUCB2 mRNA and protein significantly increase in the hypothalamus of rats during puberty-to-adult transition. Administration of nesfatin-1 modulates circulating LH and testosterone in male rats. However, whether nesfatin-1 acts directly on neurons and gonadotropes remain unknown. In addition, whether reproductive hormones of the hypothalamo-pituitary gonadal axis modulate NUCB2/nesfatin-1 is unclear...
January 28, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339283/development-optimization-and-implementation-of-a-centralized-metabolic-soft-spot-assay
#15
Anthony A Paiva, Cheryl Klakouski, Shu Li, Benjamin M Johnson, Yue-Zhong Shu, Jonathan Josephs, Tatyana Zvyaga, Ismael Zamora, Wilson Z Shou
AIM: High clearance is a commonly encountered issue in drug discovery. Here we present a centralized metabolic soft spot identification assay with adequate capacity and turnaround time to support the metabolic optimization needs of an entire discovery organization. METHODOLOGY: An integrated quan/qual approach utilizing both an orthogonal sample-pooling methodology and software-assisted structure elucidation was developed to enable the assay. Major metabolic soft spots in liver microsomes (rodent and human) were generated in a batch mode, along with kinetics of parent disappearance and metabolite formation, typically within 1 week of incubation...
March 24, 2017: Bioanalysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339192/a-novel-exposure-system-termed-navetta-for-in-vitro-laminar-flow-electrodeposition-of-nanoaerosol-and-evaluation-of-immune-effects-in-human-lung-reporter-cells
#16
Evelien Frijns, Sandra Verstraelen, Linda Corinna Stoehr, Jo van Laer, An Jacobs, Jan Peters, Kristof Tirez, Matthew Boyles, Mark Geppert, Pierre Madl, Inge Nelissen, Albert Duschl, Martin Himly
A new prototype air-liquid interface (ALI) exposure system, a flatbed aerosol exposure chamber termed NAVETTA, was developed to investigate deposition of engineered nanoparticles (NPs) on cultured human lung A549 cells directly from the gas phase. This device mimics human lung cell exposure to NPs due to a low horizontal gas flow combined with cells exposed at the ALI. Electrostatic field assistance is applied to improve NP deposition efficiency. As proof-of-principle, cell viability and immune responses after short-term exposure to nano-copper oxide (CuO)-aerosol were determined...
March 24, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338964/relationship-between-fine-root-exudation-and-respiration-of-two-quercus-species-in-a-japanese-temperate-forest
#17
Lijuan Sun, Mioko Ataka, Yuji Kominami, Kenichi Yoshimura
Plants allocate a considerable amount of carbon (C) to fine roots as respiration and exudation. Fine-root exudation could stimulate microbial activity, which further contributes to soil heterotrophic respiration. Although both root respiration and exudation are important components of belowground C cycling, how they relate to each other is less well known. In this study, we aimed to explore this relationship on mature trees growing in the field. The measurements were performed on two canopy species, Quercus serrata Thunb...
March 17, 2017: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338903/disulfide-bridges-as-essential-elements-for-the-thermostability-of-lytic-polysaccharide-monooxygenase-lpmo10c-from-streptomyces-coelicolor
#18
Magali Tanghe, Barbara Danneels, Matthias Last, Koen Beerens, Ingeborg Stals, Tom Desmet
Lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMOs) are crucial components of cellulase mixtures but their stability has not yet been studied in detail, let alone been engineered for industrial applications. In this work, we have evaluated the importance of disulfide bridges for the thermodynamic stability of Streptomyces coelicolor LPMO10C. Interestingly, this enzyme was found to retain 34% of its activity after 2-h incubation at 80°C while its apparent melting temperature (Tm) is only 51°C. When its three disulfide bridges were broken, however, irreversible unfolding occurred and no residual activity could be detected after a similar heat treatment...
March 9, 2017: Protein Engineering, Design & Selection: PEDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338861/assessment-of-direct-interaction-between-cd36-and-an-oxidized-glycerophospholipid-species
#19
Satoshi Tsuzuki, Masayuki Yamasaki, Yuki Kozai, Tatsuya Sugawara, Yuki Manabe, Kazuo Inoue, Tohru Fushiki
SUMMARYCluster of differentiation 36 (CD36) is a transmembrane protein that recognizes multiple diverse ligands. It is believed that (i) oxidized glycerophosphocholine species having a terminal γ-hydroxyl(or oxo)-α,β-unsaturated carbonyl on the sn-2 acyl group (oxGPCCD36), which can occur on the surface of lipoprotein particles, serve as high-affinity ligands for CD36, and (ii) the amino acid 150-168 of CD36 (CD36150-168) is responsible for recognizing oxGPCCD36. However, it remains uncertain whether CD36150-168 directly interacts with oxGPCCD36 alone...
March 14, 2017: Journal of Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338770/response-of-human-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-cells-to-the-influence-of-wogonin-with-sgk1-dynamics
#20
Guanglin Shi, Qian Wang, Xiaoyu Zhou, Jun Li, Hua Liu, Jun Gu, Haiying Wang, Yi Wu, Liang Ding, Songshi Ni, Zhiyuan Tang
A number of significant studies in the field of cell biology have revealed another pattern of intracellular signal transduction in which cells transmit information through the dynamics of key signaling molecules. Dynamical properties of p53 have been demonstrated to be the key factor in dictating cell fate, including cell cycle arrest, permanent cell cycle arrest, and cell death. Previous studies showed a negative feedback regulation pathway between SGK1 and p53, but the dynamics of SGK1 have never been reported before...
February 18, 2017: Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica
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