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Brian Kim, Kang Wook Chung, Ji Hoon Lee
A cost-effective and simple biosensor was developed for the accurate and rapid monitoring of norovirus GII in a sample. The modified DNA aptamer, 5 guanines linked to conventional DNA aptamer, designed for the research, was able to rapidly capture norovirus GII in tap water as well artificial urine. In addition, the extra guanines of the modified DNA aptamer enhanced the sensitivity of biosensor with guanine chemiluminescence detection based on the principle of intra chemiluminescent resonance transfer (Intra-CRET)...
February 11, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Luca Paoli, Andrea Vannini, Fabrizio Monaci, Stefano Loppi
The competitive behavior of divalent heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Pb, Zn) during cation uptake was investigated in the foliose lichen Xanthoria parietina. Lichen thalli were incubated with solutions containing 10 and 100 μM of CdCl2, CuCl2, and ZnCl2 as well as 5 and 50 μM of Pb(NO3 )2 , tested individually and in combination (Cd2+ +Cu2+ +Pb2+ +Zn2+ ). The analysis of molar concentrations suggests that a competition between cations for binding sites in X. parietina does exist. The decrease in net uptake between single and mixed solutions ranged between 14 and 29% at the lowest concentration and between 38 and 68% at the highest concentration...
February 19, 2018: Chemosphere
Juan C Sanchez-Hernandez
The activation of biochar (carbonaceous material generated by pyrolysis of biomass) with extracellular enzymes generated from soil biological processes was studied via a 2-month microcosm using earthworms. The isolation of biochar particles (post-incubated biochar) from earthworm-treated soils allowed to confirm an enrichment of biochar with extracellular enzymes associated to biogeochemical (alkaline phosphatase, β-glucosidase and arylsulfatase) and bioremediation pathways (carboxylesterase). The hydrolytic activity of this biochar incubated with earthworms was up to 8 times higher compared with that of control biochar (incubated in earthworm-free soils)...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Daphnee Pushparajah, Costas Ioannides
In order to assess the potential of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) to interact with each other, benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P) was incubated either alone or in combination with other isomeric 5-ring PAHs in precision-cut rat liver slices. At the end of the incubation, the slices were removed and the O-deethylation of ethoxyresorufin (EROD) was determined in microsomal preparations. The BP-mediated rise in EROD activity was suppressed in the presence of dibenzo(a,j)anthracene, dibenzo(a,c)anthracene and picene, whereas it was increased in the presence of pentacene...
February 19, 2018: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
Alexandra J Willis, Radek Indra, Laura E Wohak, Osman Sozeri, Kerstin Feser, Iveta Mrizova, David H Phillips, Marie Stiborova, Volker M Arlt
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons such as benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) can induce cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1) via a p53-dependent mechanism. The effect of different p53-activating chemotherapeutic drugs on CYP1A1 expression, and the resultant effect on BaP metabolism, was investigated in a panel of isogenic human colorectal HCT116 cells with differing TP53 status. Cells that were TP53(+/+), TP53(+/-) or TP53(-/-) were treated for up to 48 hr with 60 μM cisplatin, 50 μM etoposide or 5 μM ellipticine, each of which caused high p53 induction at moderate cytotoxicity (60-80% cell viability)...
February 19, 2018: Toxicology
Rose P Webster, Cinder F Cohen, Fatima O Saeed, Hanna N Wetzel, William J Ball, Terence L Kirley, Andrew B Norman
Almost all immunological approaches [immunohistochemistry, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), Western blot], that are used to quantitate specific proteins have had to address high backgrounds due to non-specific reactivity. We report here for the first time a quantitative comparison of methods for reduction of background of commercial biotinylated antibodies using the Python-based ELISA_QC program. This is demonstrated using a recombinant humanized anti-cocaine monoclonal antibody. Several approaches, such as adjustment of the incubation time and the concentration of blocking agent, as also the dilution of secondary antibodies, have been explored to address this issue...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Immunological Methods
Mark Bree, Douglas Borchman
Organ culturing of lenses is useful for testing the direct effect of moieties such as cations, glucose, oxygen, antioxidants or drugs on the lens. Lens opacity changes in organ cultured lenses have never been measured quantitatively. Our aims were twofold: to establish the time course of lens opacity changes in organ cultured rat, porcine and human lenses and to test the utility of our system to measure opacity changes in lenses treated with dexamethasone. Human, porcine and rat lenses were incubated with or without 5 μM dexamethasone in minimum essential medium for 13 days...
February 19, 2018: Experimental Eye Research
S V Rama Rao, B Prakash, U Rajkumar, M V L N Raju, T Srilatha, E P K Reddy
An experiment was conducted to study the effects of supplementing sprouts of pulses on performance, carcass variables, immune responses, and anti-oxidant variables in broiler chicken (day 1 to 6 weeks of age) reared during summer season in tropical region. Sprouts of black gram (BG, Vigna mungo), green gram (GG, Vigna radiata), and wild gram (WG, Vigna trilobata) were produced by soaking the pulses in water for 16 h and incubating at 37 °C for 24 h. Total phenolic content in sprouts of WG, BG, and GG was 102, 96...
February 22, 2018: Tropical Animal Health and Production
P L Klerks, A Kascak, A M Cazan, N Deb Adhikary, A Chistoserdov, A Shaik, S Osman, F R Louka
The relationship between organisms and contaminants may be a two-way interaction: contaminants affecting the biota and the biota affecting the environmental fate and distribution of the contaminants. This may be especially so for sediment-dwelling organisms, because their burrowing and feeding can drastically influence sediment characteristics. The present study looked at the influence of the suspension-feeding stout razor clam Tagelus plebeius on the distribution of crude oil and pyrene in greenhouse mesocosm experiments...
February 22, 2018: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Juliano Q D Rodrigues, Henrique Camara, Aron Jurkiewicz, Rosely O Godinho
Hypertension is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, which have been associated with dysfunction of sympathetic and purinergic neurotransmission. Therefore, herein, we evaluated whether modifications of adenosine receptor signaling may contribute to the cardiac dysfunction observed in hypertension. Isolated right atria from spontaneously hypertensive (SHR) or normotensive Wistar rats (NWR) were used to investigate the influence of adenosine receptor signaling cascade in the cardiac chronotropism. Our results showed that adenosine, the endogenous agonist of adenosine receptors, and CPA, a selective agonist of A1 receptor, decreased the atrial chronotropism of NWR and SHR in a concentration- and time-dependent manner, culminating in cardiac arrest (0 bpm)...
February 22, 2018: Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology
Java Walladbegi, Sarah A Smith, Amy Grayson, Craig Murdoch, Mats Jontell, Helen E Colley
BACKGROUND: The cytotoxic effect of chemotherapeutic agents to the oral mucosa, as a side-effect of cancer treatment, is a major problem. Cooling the oral mucosa using ice chips in conjunction with chemotherapy is known to reduce the severity of oral mucositis. However, although the use of ice chips is of clinical value, this method of cooling has inherent problems including discomfort for the patient, non-uniformity and fluctuations in cooling temperature throughout the oral cavity. Furthermore, despite being used clinically, it is not known what reduction in temperature is required to prevent oral mucositis...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Oral Pathology & Medicine
L A Thornton, R K Burchell, S E Burton, N Lopez-Villalobos, D Pereira, I MacEwan, C Fang, A C Hatmodjo, M A Nelson, A Grinberg, N Velathanthiri, A Gal
BACKGROUND: Lower urinary tract infections are common in dogs, and Escherichia coli is the most common bacterial pathogen isolated. The literature has conflicting evidence regarding the inhibitory effects of urine concentration and pH on E. coli growth. HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVES: To determine the effect of different pH and urine concentrations on E. coli growth in vitro. ANIMALS: Voided urine samples from 10 apparently healthy spayed female dogs were used...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
Wen Liang-Jun, Wang You-Bin, Xu Zhao-Gang
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the antibody titer value of indirect haemagglutination test (IHA) in 135 confirmed acute schistosomiasis patients, so as to provide the evidence for improving the diagnosis and treatment of acute schistosomiasis. METHODS: A total of 135 acute schistosomiasis inpatients were selected from 2001 to 2006. They all received the IHA antibody titer detection, and the correlation among the age, incubation period, and hospitalization days was calculated...
March 17, 2017: Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control
Yukio Ochi, Takashi Hachiya, Yukiko Koyama, Nobutoshi Fukuhori, Noriyuki Ashida
The effect of antithyroid drugs(ATDs)[methylmercaptoimidazole (MMI) and propylthiouracil (PTU)] and reducing agents (mercaptoethanol, dithiothreitol and cysteine) on bovine (b) TSH binding to human (h) and porcine (p) TSH receptor (R) was examined. (1) ATDs was pre-incubated with hTSHR coated tube for 1- 4 h, washed free of ATDs, and then 125I-bTSH binding to hTSHR after 1 h incubation was examined. MMI (10-40 mM) decreased 125I-bTSH binding in a dose-dependent manner and binding decreased proportionally as pre-incubation time increased from 1 to 4 h...
February 19, 2018: Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Disorders Drug Targets
Saba Ghasemi, Zohreh Habibi, Maryam Mohajeri, Maryam Yousefi
The microbial transformations of peucedanin and oreoselon by the fungi Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus sp. were investigated for the first time. Incubation of peucedanin with A. niger yielded a new hydroxylated metabolite with high yield (56%), which was characterized as 2-(1-hydroxypropan-2-yl)-3-methoxy-7H-furo[3,2-g]chromen-7-one. Oreoselon was converted to a new reduced metabolite methyl 3-(2,3-dihydro-6-hydroxy-2-isopropyl-3-oxobenzofuran-5-yl)propanoate in biotransformation by Aspergillus sp. The structures of the metabolites were determined by spectroscopic methods including IR, EI-MS,1 H NMR,13 C NMR, and elemental analysis...
February 22, 2018: Natural Product Research
Jianyong Wu, Jill R Stewart, Mark D Sobsey, Chris Cormency, Michael B Fisher, Jamie K Bartram
Methods for rapid detection of fecal indicator bacteria in water are important to ensure that water is safe for drinking, bathing, recreation, fishing and shellfish harvesting. In this study, we tested experimental conditions for bacterial hydrolysis of two promising enzymatic substrates, 5-Bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl β-D-glucuronide (X-Gluc) and Resorufin β-D-glucuronide (REG), and optimized parameters such as temperature and pH to determine conditions for rapid reactions. We then innovated a membrane filter-based approach to facilitate more rapid enzyme-based detection of Escherichia coli in water based on the combination of an initial concentration step and optimized test conditions...
February 21, 2018: Current Microbiology
Roman C Brands, Mario J J Scheurer, Stefan Hartmann, Axel Seher, Alexander C Kübler, Urs D A Müller-Richter
Inhibitor of apoptosis proteins, which are overexpressed in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), may cause therapeutic resistance. Using SMAC mimetic compounds, including birinapant, to degrade and/or inhibit these proteins and sensitize apoptosis may enhance therapies in HNSCC. Fas expression was analyzed in nine HNSCC cell lines and one keratinocyte cell line via flow cytometry. These cell lines were treated with Fas ligand-Fc (FasL) and birinapant, a bivalent SMAC mimetic, in mono and combination therapies...
March 2018: Oncology Letters
Valter R M Lombardi, Iván Carrera, Ramón Cacabelos
Novel effective chemopreventive agents against cancer are required to improve current therapeutic rates. The aim of the present study was to investigate the anti-carcinogenesis effect of AntiGan, an extract obtained from the European conger eel, Conger conger , in vitro (human tumor cell lines) and in vivo (murine model of colitis) models. The potential apoptogenic activity after 24 h of incubation with 10, 25 and 50 µl/ml AntiGan was reported using growth inhibition and apoptosis activity assays. In vivo studies were performed in mice by inducing colitis with oral administration of 2% dextran sulphate sodium (DSS) for 5 weeks...
March 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Yi-Jiong Li, Guo-Ping Zhang, Feng Zhao, Rui-Qi Li, Shao-Jun Liu, Zeng-Ren Zhao, Xin Wang
Osteosarcoma is the most common cause of cancer-associated mortality and the prognosis is yet to be fully elucidated due to the paucity of effective therapeutic targets that significantly influence the quality of life and mean survival rates of patients with osteosarcoma. Studies have showed that tripartite motif-containing (TRIM)-14 is a member of the TRIM protein family that has a vital role in tumor progression and metastasis and promotes angiogenesis, invasion and apoptotic resistance of bone cancer. In this study, a chimeric antibody targeting TRIM-14 (Chanti-TRIM) was constructed and the molecular mechanism of target therapy for TRIM-14 was investigated in osteosarcoma cells and xenograft mice...
March 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Stephanie R Harrison, Thomas Scambler, Lylia Oubussad, Chi Wong, Miriam Wittmann, Michael F McDermott, Sinisa Savic
Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-receptor-associated periodic fever syndrome (TRAPS) is a rare monogenic autoinflammatory disorder characterized by mutations in the TNFRSF1A gene, causing TNF-receptor 1 (TNFR1) misfolding, increased cellular stress, activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR), and hyperresponsiveness to lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Both microRNA (miR)-146a and miR-155 provide negative feedback for LPS-toll-like receptor 2/4 signaling and cytokine production, through regulation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB)...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
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