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Sebastian T Soukup, Beate N Kohn, Erika Pfeiffer, Rolf Geisen, Manfred Metzler, Mirko Bunzel, Sabine E Kulling
The mycotoxins alternariol and alternariol-9-O-methyl ether have recently been reported to be extensively conjugated with glucose and malonyl glucose in tobacco suspension cells. However, only trace amounts of glucosylated conjugates were detected in tomatoes inoculated with Alternaria alternata in the present study. Instead, mostly sulfate conjugates were observed. In studies using cultures of A. alternata and incubations of alternariol and alternariol-9-O-methyl ether with tomato tissue in the absence of the fungus, it was clarified that sulfate conjugates were produced by the fungus, whereas tomato tissues converted alternariol and alternariol-9-O-methyl ether to glucosylated metabolites...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Steven A Kahn, Ashkan Afshari, Lyly Nguyen, Takashi Shinha, Teri Huff, Amelia C Montgomery, Charles Stratton, Blair Summitt
Mafenide acetate is used in some burn wounds for its ability to penetrate eschar but requires frequent uncomfortable dressing changes for its application. The authors hypothesize that hydrofiber dressings will hold mafenide acetate solution for an extended period of time and maintain antimicrobial activity longer than traditional gauze, thus possibly obviating the need for frequent dressing changes. Four experimental arms included: 1) hydrofiber, stored on a dry well plate as control, 2) gauze saturated with 2...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Burn Care & Research: Official Publication of the American Burn Association
Kaixuan Ren, Haitao Cui, Qinghua Xu, Chaoliang He, Gao Li, Xuesi Chen
Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) possess vast potential for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. In this study, an injectable hydrogel comprising poly(L-glutamic acid)-graft-tyramine (PLG-g-TA) with tunable microenvironment was developed via enzyme-catalyzed crosslinking, and used as artificial extracellular matrix (ECM) to explore the behaviors of BMSCs during three dimensional (3D) culture. It was found that the mechanical property, porous structure as well as degradation process of the hydrogels could be tuned by changing the copolymer concentration...
October 24, 2016: Biomacromolecules
José Alcaraz-Quiles, Esther Titos, Mireia Casulleras, Marco Pavesi, Cristina López-Vicario, Bibiana Rius, Aritz Lopategi, Andrea de Gottardi, Ivo Graziadei, Henning Gronbaek, Pere Ginès, Mauro Bernardi, Vicente Arroyo, Joan Clària
: Acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) in cirrhosis is an increasingly recognized syndrome characterized by acute decompensation, organ failure(s) and high short-term mortality. Recent findings suggest that an over-exuberant systemic inflammation plays a primary role in ACLF progression. In this study, we examined whether genetic factors shape systemic immune responses in patients with decompensated cirrhosis. Six single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in inflammation-related genes (IL-1β: rs1143623, IL-1ra: rs4251961, IL-10: rs1800871, SOCS3: rs4969170, NOD2: rs3135500 and CMKLR1: rs1878022) were genotyped in 279 cirrhotic patients with (n=178) and without (n=101) ACLF from the CANONIC study of the CLIF consortium...
October 24, 2016: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
Johan U Lind, Travis A Busbee, Alexander D Valentine, Francesco S Pasqualini, Hongyan Yuan, Moran Yadid, Sung-Jin Park, Arda Kotikian, Alexander P Nesmith, Patrick H Campbell, Joost J Vlassak, Jennifer A Lewis, Kevin K Parker
Biomedical research has relied on animal studies and conventional cell cultures for decades. Recently, microphysiological systems (MPS), also known as organs-on-chips, that recapitulate the structure and function of native tissues in vitro, have emerged as a promising alternative. However, current MPS typically lack integrated sensors and their fabrication requires multi-step lithographic processes. Here, we introduce a facile route for fabricating a new class of instrumented cardiac microphysiological devices via multimaterial three-dimensional (3D) printing...
October 24, 2016: Nature Materials
Xiaoting Jin, Xiangyang Yu, Guangyan Zhu, Zuntao Zheng, Fayun Feng, Zhiyong Zhang
A high capacity of laccase from Trametes versicolor capable of degrading pesticides has been revealed. The conditions for degrading of five selected pesticides including chlorpyrifos, chlorothalonil, pyrimethanil, atrazine and isoproturon with the purified laccases from Trametes versicolor were optimized. The results showed that the optimum conditions for the highest activity were pH at 5.0 and temperature at 25 °C. The best mediators were violuric acid for pyrimethanil and isoproturon, vanillin for chlorpyrifos, and acetosyringone and HBT for chlorothalonil and atrazine, respectively...
October 24, 2016: Scientific Reports
Victor Virlogeux, Vicky J Fang, Minah Park, Joseph T Wu, Benjamin J Cowling
The incubation period is an important epidemiologic distribution, it is often incorporated in case definitions, used to determine appropriate quarantine periods, and is an input to mathematical modeling studies. Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (MERS) is an emerging infectious disease in the Arabian Peninsula. There was a large outbreak of MERS in South Korea in 2015. We examined the incubation period distribution of MERS coronavirus infection for cases in South Korea and in Saudi Arabia. Using parametric and nonparametric methods, we estimated a mean incubation period of 6...
October 24, 2016: Scientific Reports
Huiling Guo, Yanping Wang, Xiaona Zhao, Panmei Liu, Yiwen Lian, Xinxin Li, Mingming Li, Minyu Ma
Objective To investigate the effect of resolvin D1 (RvD1) on the injury of PC12 cells induced by activated BV-2 microglia and the related mechanisms. Methods BV-2 cells were divided into control group, lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated group, RvD1-treated group and RvD1 combined with LPS (RvD1-LPS)-treated group. After BV-2 cells were incubated with the corresponding substances for 12 and 24 hours, the levels of interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in the supernatants were determined by ELISA...
November 2016: Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Cellular and Molecular Immunology
Zhi Li, Mengying Zhang, Xueqin Li, Jinming Lu, Liang Xu
Objective To investigate the effect of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADSCs) on glomerular mesangial cell proliferation via Wnt/β-catenin pathway. Methods The rat glomerular mesangial cells (HBZY-1) were incubated in conditioned ADSC medium. Cell cycle was analyzed with flow cytometry; the proliferation rate of HBZY-1 and the expression levels of relative genes and proteins of Wnt signaling pathway were measured using RNA interference, quantitative real-time PCR and Western blotting, respectively...
November 2016: Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Cellular and Molecular Immunology
Lili Duan, Zidong Liu, Lin Wang, Binfang Ma, Yibing Fan, Ying Xu, Fenfen Guo
Objective To explore the effect of C1q/tumor necrosis factor related protein 4 (CTRP4) on the placental trophoblasts of preeclampsia model rats. Methods Placental trophoblastic tissues were respectively collected from normal pregnant rats and model rats with preeclampsia, and then mRNA and protein expression levels of CTRP4, interleukin 1β (IL-1β), and caspase-1 were detected with quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) and Western blotting. Primary placental trophoblasts were isolated from normal pregnant rats and model rats; at different time points, flow cytometry was used to detect the number of PI(+)caspase-1(+) pyroptotic cells; and qRT-PCR and Western blotting were used to detect expression levels of IL-1β and caspase-1...
November 2016: Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Cellular and Molecular Immunology
Shengnan Yin, Yiran Xia, Qi Jia, Zhao-Sheng Hou, Na Zhang
This study describes the preparation and properties of a novel aliphatic cost-effective segmented polyurethanes (SPUs) based on poly(ether ester) (poly-(ε-caprolactone-co-L-lactide)-poly(ethylene glycol)-poly-(ε-caprolactone-co-L- lactide), PECLA) and uniform-size diurethane diisocyanates (HDI-BDO-HDI). PECLA was synthesized via bulk ring-opening polymerization with poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) as an initiator and ε-caprolactone, L-lactide as monomers. By chain extension of PECLA diol with HDI-BDO-HDI, three SPUs with different hydrophilic segments content and hard segments content were obtained...
October 23, 2016: Journal of Biomaterials Science. Polymer Edition
Alex Y C Tai, Marion Easton, Jess Encena, Jessica Rotty, Mary Valcanis, Benjamin P Howden, Simon Slota-Kan, Joy Gregory
OBJECTIVE: To review the national case definition for shigellosis following the introduction of culture independent diagnostic testing by clinical laboratories and provide evidence to reform jurisdictional public health practices for the management shigellosis., . METHODS: A review of all Australian jurisdictional public health guidelines for shigellosis was conducted. Victorian 2014 shigellosis data were analysed: demographics and risk factors for cases identified by conventional culture or culture-independent diagnostic methods were described...
October 23, 2016: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health
Toru Otori, Sumio Matzno, Atushi Kawase, Masahiro Iwaki, Tetsutaro Kimachi, Keiji Nishiwaki, William C Figoni, Ryuta Tominaga, Mai Asahide, Mayumi Nishikata, Yoshikazu Ishii, Kenji Matsuyama
OBJECTIVES: To avoid the chelate formation between levofloxacin (LVFX) and aluminium hydroxide in gastrointestinal tract, an ethoxycarbonyl 1-ethyl hemiacetal ester of levofloxacin (LVFX-EHE) was synthesised as a prodrug. METHODS: The effects of aluminium hydroxide on the bioavailability of LVFX following oral administration of LVFX-EHE were investigated in rats. Furthermore, the effects of aluminium hydroxide on small intestinal absorption of LVFX and LVFX-EHE when subjected to a hydrolysis experiment using in situ everted gut sac were investigated, and the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of LVFX and LVFX-EHE for various intestinal bacteria were measured...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
Eun-Ah Kim, Ha Kyung Lee, Jung Hyun Choi
This study investigated the effects of the freezing and thawing that accompany the warming process on the composition of the soil organic matter in the dissolved and colloidal fractions. Temperate soil samples were incubated in a refrigerator at 2 °C for 4 weeks and compared with those frozen at -20 °C in the second week followed by thawing at 2 °C to study a freeze-thaw effect with minimal effect from the thawing temperature. The freeze-thaw group was compared with those incubated at 25 °C in the last week to investigate a warming effect after thawing...
October 24, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Ismail Ocsoy, Nuran Isiklan, Sena Cansiz, Nalan Özdemir, Weihong Tan
Aptamer-functionalized magnetic graphene oxide conjugates loaded with indocyanine green (ICG) dye, or Apt@ICG@mGO, have been successfully developed for dual-targeted photothermal and photodynamic therapy. In general, a drug or its carrier or their dosage can be imprtant important issues in terms of toxicity. However, in this system, each component used is quite safe, biocompatibe and clean. For instance, ICG, a Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved near-infrared (NIR) dye, serves as both a photothermal and photodynamic agent...
2016: RSC Advances
Sawinee Aupanun, Patchara Phuektes, Saranya Poapolathep, Samak Sutjarit, Mario Giorgi, Amnart Poapolathep
Fusarenon X, a member of the type B trichothecene mycotoxin group, has been frequently observed, along with deoxynivalenol (DON) and nivalenol (NIV) as a contaminant in cereals. Our previous study demonstrated that a 14-day FX exposure caused apoptosis in the lymphoid tissues of mice, especially at 0.5 mg/kg bodyweight. However, the relationship between low concentrations of FX and apoptotic molecular machinery remains unclear. In the present study, we investigated the genetic regulatory mechanisms in the thymus and Peyer's patches of mice after 14 days oral administration of FX at 0...
October 20, 2016: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
Jessica Zuck, Chad R Borges, Eldon J Braun, Karen L Sweazea
Glycation of proteins and subsequent production of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) is a major contributor to the pathophysiology of diabetes. The objective of the present study was to compare the glycation of avian and human serum albumin to elucidate the mechanisms by which protein glycation in birds is prevented in the presence of naturally high plasma glucose concentrations. Solutions of purified chicken and human serum albumin (CSA and HSA) were prepared with four different glucose concentrations (0, 5...
October 20, 2016: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
Zhiying Dong, Kai Wang, Xinxin Chen, Jianlin Zhu, Changju Hu, Demin Zhang
Coastal ecosystems are receiving elevated loads of nitrogen (N) from anthropogenic sources. Understanding how excessive N loading affects bacterioplankton communities is critical to predict the biodiversity of marine ecosystems under conditions of eutrophic disturbance. In this study, oligotrophic coastal water microcosms were perturbed with nitrate in two loading modes: 1) one-off loading at the beginning of the incubation period; and 2) periodic loading every two days for 16days. Turnover in the bacterioplankton community was investigated by 16S rDNA gene amplicon sequencing...
October 20, 2016: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Zhongping Xu, Monal Sharma, Andrew Gelman, Ramsey Hachem, Thalachallour Mohanakumar
BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) were recently identified as modulators of immune responses after human lung transplantation (LTx). This study was undertaken to assess the contribution of miRNAs to the pathogenesis of primary graft dysfunction (PGD) after LTx. METHODS: Of the 39 recipients, 14 (35.9%) developed Grade 3 PGD (i.e., severe PGD) within the first 72 hours of LTx. The remaining 25 recipients (64.1%) had Grade 2 or less PGD, and served as the control group...
September 12, 2016: Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation
Qing Tian, Qi Wang, Yanbing Zhu, Fang Li, Lin Zhuang, Bo Yang
Ultrasound pretreatment is a potent step to disintegrate primary sludge (PS). The supernatant of sonicated PS is recycled as an alternative carbon source for biological phosphorus removal. In this study, we investigated the role of temperature on PS disintegration during sonication. We found that a temperature of 60°C yielded a dissolution rate of about 2% soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD) as compared to 7% SCOD using sonication at the specific energy (SE) of 7359kJ/kg TS. Using the SE of 6000kJ/kg TS with heat insulation during sonication, the SCOD dissolution rate of PS was similar to the result at the SE of 7051kJ/kg TS without heat insulation...
January 2017: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
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