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Cajal body

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859481/coils-spring-into-action-cajal-bodies-and-the-genomic-organization-of-transcription-comment-doi-10-1002-bies-201600144
#1
Danielle Fanslow, Steven T Kosak
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 17, 2016: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858508/activation-of-transcription-enforces-the-formation-of-distinct-nuclear-bodies-in-zebrafish-embryos
#2
Patricia Heyn, Hanna Salmonowicz, Jonathan Rodenfels, Karla M Neugebauer
Nuclear bodies are cellular compartments that lack lipid bilayers and harbor specific RNAs and proteins. Recent proposals that nuclear bodies form through liquid-liquid phase separation leave the question of how different nuclear bodies maintain their distinct identities unanswered. Here we investigate Cajal bodies (CBs), histone locus bodies (HLBs) and nucleoli - involved in assembly of the splicing machinery, histone mRNA 3' end processing, and rRNA processing, respectively - in the embryos of the zebrafish, Danio rerio...
November 18, 2016: RNA Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857188/low-voltage-scanning-electron-microscopy-study-of-lampbrush-chromosomes-and-nuclear-bodies-in-avian-and-amphibian-oocytes
#3
Tatiana Kulikova, Tatiana Khodyuchenko, Yuri Petrov, Alla Krasikova
Nucleus is a highly compartmentalized part of the cell where the key processes of genome functionality are realized through the formation of non-membranous nuclear domains. Physically nuclear domains appear as liquid droplets with different viscosity stably maintained throughout the interphase or during the long diplotene stage of meiosis. Since nuclear body surface represents boundary between two liquid phases, the ultrastructural surface topography of nuclear domains is of an outstanding interest. The aim of this study was to examine ultrathin surface topography of the amphibian and avian oocyte nuclear structures such as lampbrush chromosomes, nucleoli, histone-locus bodies, Cajal body-like bodies, and the interchromatin granule clusters via low-voltage scanning electron microscopy...
November 18, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27819531/toward-an-understanding-of-regulating-cajal-body-activity-by-protein-modification
#4
Michael D Hebert, Aaron R Poole
The biogenesis of small nuclear ribonucleoproteins (snRNPs), small Cajal body-specific RNPs (scaRNPs), small nucleolar RNPs (snoRNPs) and the telomerase RNP involves Cajal bodies (CBs). Although many components enriched in the CB contain post-translational modifications (PTMs), little is known about how these modifications impact individual protein function within the CB and, in concert with other modified factors, collectively regulate CB activity. Since all components of the CB also reside in other cellular locations, it is also important that we understand how PTMs affect the subcellular localization of CB components...
October 7, 2016: RNA Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27804943/-morphological-changes-in-the-colonic-muscular-layer-and-interstitial-cells-of-cajal-in-experimental-acute-ulcerative-colitis
#5
S O Kiryukhin, O V Makarova
AIM: to investigate morphological changes in the muscular layer and an intermuscular population of interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) in acute ulcerative colitis induced by dextran sulfate sodium (DSS). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Acute colitis was induced by 3% DSS (molecular weight 40 kDa) in drinking water for 5 days; a control animal group was given tap water. Longitudinal colonic sections were histologically examined. Immunofluorescence staining of total preparations with antibodies to c-Kit was employed to assess an ICC population...
2016: Arkhiv Patologii
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796890/primary-extragastrointestinal-stromal-tumours-in-the-hepatobiliary-tree-and-telocytes
#6
Somanath Padhi, Hemanta Kumar Nayak
The first decade of the twenty-first century witnessed the presence and light microscopic, immunophenotypic, and ultrastructural characterization of interstitial Cajal-like cells (coined as 'telocytes') in virtually every extragastrointestinal site of the human body by Laurentiu M. Popescu and his co-workers. Not surprisingly, stromal tumours, immunophenotypically similar to that of telocytes [CD117 (c-KIT) +/CD34 +], have also been sporadically reported outside the tubular gut (so-called extragastrointestinal stromal tumours, EGISTs), including the gall bladder, liver, and pancreas...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27785480/when-small-rnas-become-smaller-emerging-functions-of-snornas-and-their-derivatives
#7
Anna M Mleczko, Kamilla Bąkowska-Żywicka
Small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs) are molecules located in the cell nucleolus and in Cajal bodies. Many scientific reports show that snoRNAs are not only responsible for modifications of other RNAs but also fulfill multiple other functions such as metabolic stress regulation or modulation of alternative splicing. Full-length snoRNAs as well as small RNAs derived from snoRNAs have been implied in human diseases such as cancer or Prader-Willi Syndrome. In this review we describe emerging, non-canonical roles of snoRNAs and their derivatives with the emphasis on their role in human diseases...
October 26, 2016: Acta Biochimica Polonica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27775477/rna-modification-in-cajal-bodies
#8
U Thomas Meier
Aside from nucleoli, Cajal bodies (CBs) are the best-characterized organelles of mammalian cell nuclei. Like nucleoli, CBs concentrate ribonucleoproteins (RNPs), in particular, spliceosomal small nuclear RNPs (snRNPs) and small nucleolar RNPs (snoRNPs). In one of the best-defined functions of CBs, most of the snoRNPs are involved in site-specific modification of snRNAs. The two major modifications are pseudouridylation and 2'-O-methylation that are guided by the box H/ACA and C/D snoRNPs, respectively. This review details the modifications, their function, the mechanism of modification, and the machineries involved...
October 24, 2016: RNA Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27767214/cajal-body-function-in-genome-organization-and-transcriptome-diversity
#9
Iain A Sawyer, David Sturgill, Myong-Hee Sung, Gordon L Hager, Miroslav Dundr
Nuclear bodies contribute to non-random organization of the human genome and nuclear function. Using a major prototypical nuclear body, the Cajal body, as an example, we suggest that these structures assemble at specific gene loci located across the genome as a result of high transcriptional activity. Subsequently, target genes are physically clustered in close proximity in Cajal body-containing cells. However, Cajal bodies are observed in only a limited number of human cell types, including neuronal and cancer cells...
October 21, 2016: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27726481/cajal-bodies-and-their-role-in-plant-stress-and-disease-responses
#10
Andrew J Love, Chulang Yu, Natalia V Petukhova, Natalia O Kalinina, Jianping Chen, Michael E Taliansky
Cajal bodies (CBs) are distinct sub-nuclear structures that are present in eukaryotic living cells and are often associated with the nucleolus. CBs play important roles in RNA metabolism and formation of RNPs involved in transcription, splicing, ribosome biogenesis, and telomere maintenance. Besides these primary roles, CBs appear to be involved in additional functions that may not be directly related to RNA metabolism and RNP biogenesis. In this review, we assess possible roles of plant CBs in RNA regulatory pathways such as nonsense-mediated mRNA decay and RNA silencing...
October 11, 2016: RNA Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27715493/phosphorylation-of-the-cajal-body-protein-wrap53%C3%AE-by-atm-promotes-its-involvement-in-the-dna-damage-response
#11
Christos Coucoravas, Soniya Dhanjal, Sofia Henriksson, Stefanie Böhm, Marianne Farnebo
The cellular response to DNA double-strand breaks is orchestrated by the protein kinase ATM, which phosphorylates key actors in the DNA repair network. WRAP53β is a multifunctional protein that controls trafficking of factors to Cajal bodies, telomeres and DNA double-strand breaks but what regulates the involvement of WRAP53β in these separate processes remains unclear. Here, we show that in response to various types of DNA damage, including IR and UV, WRAP53β is phosphorylated on serine residue 64 by ATM with a time-course that parallels its accumulation at DNA lesions...
October 7, 2016: RNA Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27715468/towards-an-understanding-of-regulating-cajal-body-activity-by-protein-modification
#12
Michael D Hebert, Aaron R Poole
The biogenesis of small nuclear ribonucleoproteins (snRNPs), small Cajal body-specific RNPs (scaRNPs), small nucleolar RNPs (snoRNPs) and the telomerase RNP involves Cajal bodies (CBs). Although many components enriched in the CB contain post-translational modifications (PTMs), little is known about how these modifications impact individual protein function within the CB and, in concert with other modified factors, collectively regulate CB activity. Since all components of the CB also reside in other cellular locations, it is also important that we understand how PTMs affect the subcellular localization of CB components...
October 7, 2016: RNA Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27715451/assembly-and-trafficking-of-box-c-d-and-h-aca-snornps
#13
Séverine Massenet, Edouard Bertrand, Céline Verheggen
Box C/D and box H/ACA snoRNAs are abundant non-coding RNAs that localize in the nucleolus and mostly function as guides for nucleotide modifications. While a large pool of snoRNAs modifies rRNAs, an increasing number of snoRNAs could also potentially target mRNAs. ScaRNAs belong to a family of specific RNAs that localize in Cajal bodies and that are structurally similar to snoRNAs. Most scaRNAs are involved in snRNA modification, while telomerase RNA, which contains H/ACA motifs, functions in telomeric DNA synthesis...
October 7, 2016: RNA Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27715441/specific-genomic-cues-regulate-cajal-body-assembly
#14
Iain A Sawyer, Gordon L Hager, Miroslav Dundr
The assembly of specialized sub-nuclear microenvironments known as nuclear bodies (NBs) is important for promoting efficient nuclear function. In particular, the Cajal body (CB), a prominent NB that facilitates spliceosomal snRNP biogenesis, assembles in response to genomic cues. Here, we detail the factors that regulate CB assembly and structural maintenance. These include the importance of transcription at nucleating gene loci, the grouping of these genes on human chromosomes 1, 6 and 17, as well as cell cycle and biochemical regulation of CB protein function...
October 7, 2016: RNA Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27696627/influenza-a-nucleoprotein-targets-subnuclear-structures
#15
Chris T Höfer, Fabian Jolmes, Ivan Haralampiev, Michael Veit, Andreas Herrmann
The Influenza A virus nucleoprotein (NP) is the major protein component of the genomic viral ribonucleoprotein (vRNP) complexes, which are the replication- and transcription-competent units of Influenza viruses. Early during infection, NP mediates import of vRNPs into the host cell nucleus where viral replication and transcription take place; also newly synthesized NP molecules are targeted into the nucleus, enabling coreplicational assembly of progeny vRNPs. NP reportedly acts as regulatory factor during infection, and it is known to be involved in numerous interactions with host cell proteins...
October 3, 2016: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27661468/the-cajal-body-and-the-nucleolus-in-a-relationship-or-it-s-complicated
#16
Laura Trinkle-Mulcahy, Judith E Sleeman
From their initial identification as 'nucleolar accessory bodies' more than a century ago, the relationship between Cajal bodies and nucleoli has been a subject of interest and controversy. In this review, we seek to place recent developments in the understanding of the physical and functional relationships between the two structures in the context of historical observations. Biophysical models of nuclear body formation, the molecular nature of CB/nucleolus interactions and the increasing list of joint roles for CBs and nucleoli, predominantly in assembling ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complexes, are discussed...
September 23, 2016: RNA Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27648855/smn-a-chaperone-for-nuclear-rnp-social-occasions
#17
Amanda C Raimer, Kelsey M Gray, A Gregory Matera
Survival Motor Neuron (SMN) protein localizes to both the nucleus and the cytoplasm. Cytoplasmic SMN is diffusely localized in large oligomeric complexes with core member proteins, called Gemins. Biochemical and cell biological studies have demonstrated that the SMN complex is required for the cytoplasmic assembly and nuclear transport of Sm-class ribonucleoproteins (RNPs). Nuclear SMN accumulates with spliceosomal small nuclear (sn)RNPs in Cajal bodies, sub-domains involved in multiple facets of snRNP maturation...
September 20, 2016: RNA Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27632380/the-ultrastructural-signature-of-human-embryonic-stem-cells
#18
Jean M Underwood, Klaus Becker, Gary S Stein, Jeffrey A Nickerson
The epigenetics and molecular biology of human embryonic stem cells (hES cells) have received much more attention than their architecture. We present a more complete look at hES cells by electron microscopy, with a special emphasis on the architecture of the nucleus. We propose that there is an ultrastructural signature of pluripotent human cells. hES cell nuclei lack heterochromatin, including the peripheral heterochromatin, that is common in most somatic cell types. The absence of peripheral heterochromatin may be related to the absence of lamins A and C, proteins important for linking chromatin to the nuclear lamina and envelope...
September 15, 2016: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27627892/cajal-bodies-in-neurons
#19
Miguel Lafarga, Olga Tapia, Ana M Romero, Maria T Berciano
Cajal is commonly regarded as the father of modern neuroscience in recognition of his fundamental work on the structure of the nervous system. But Cajal also made seminal contributions to the knowledge of nuclear structure in the early 1900s, including the discovery of the "accessory body" later renamed "Cajal body" (CB). This important nuclear structure has emerged as a center for the assembly of ribonucleoproteins (RNPs) required for splicing, ribosome biogenesis and telomere maintenance. The modern era of CB research started in the 1990s with the discovery of coilin, now known as a scaffold protein of CBs, and specific probes for small nuclear RNAs (snRNAs)...
September 14, 2016: RNA Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27627834/cajal-bodies-and-snrnps-friends-with-benefits
#20
David Staněk
Spliceosomal snRNPs are complex particles that proceed through a fascinating maturation pathway. Several steps of this pathway are closely linked to nuclear non-membrane structures called Cajal bodies. In this review, I summarize the last 20 y of research in this field. I primarily focus on snRNP biogenesis, specifically on the steps that involve Cajal bodies. I also evaluate the contribution of the Cajal body in snRNP quality control and discuss the role of snRNPs in Cajal body formation.
September 14, 2016: RNA Biology
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