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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408981/rna-and-proteins-mutual-respect
#1
REVIEW
Kathleen B Hall
Proteins and RNA are often found in ribonucleoprotein particles (RNPs), where they function in cellular processes to synthesize proteins (the ribosome), chemically modify RNAs (small nucleolar RNPs), splice pre-mRNAs (the spliceosome), and, on a larger scale, sequester RNAs, degrade them, or process them (P bodies, Cajal bodies, and nucleoli). Each RNA-protein interaction is a story in itself, as both molecules can change conformation, compete for binding sites, and regulate cellular functions. Recent studies of Xist long non-coding RNP, the U4/5/6 tri-small nuclear RNP complex, and an activated state of a spliceosome reveal new features of RNA interactions with proteins, and, although their stories are incomplete, they are already fascinating...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406480/wdr79-promotes-the-proliferation-of-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-cells-via-usp7-mediated-regulation-of-the-mdm2-p53-pathway
#2
Yang Sun, Lanqin Cao, Xunan Sheng, Jieying Chen, Yu Zhou, Chao Yang, Tanggang Deng, Hongchang Ma, Peifu Feng, Jing Liu, Weihong Tan, Mao Ye
WD repeat protein 79 (WDR79) is a member of the WD-repeat protein family and functions as a scaffold protein during telomerase assembly, Cajal body formation and DNA double strand break repair. We have previously shown that WDR79 is frequently overexpressed in cell lines and tissues derived from non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and it accelerates cell proliferation in NSCLC. However, the detailed mechanism underlying the role of WDR79 in the proliferation of NSCLC cells remains unclear. Here, we report the discovery of a molecular interaction between WDR79 and USP7 and show its functional significance in linking the Mdm2-p53 pathway to the proliferation of NSCLC cells...
April 13, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374487/gastric-neuromuscular-histology-in-patients-with-refractory-gastroparesis-relationships-to-etiology-gastric-emptying-and-response-to-gastric-electric-stimulation
#3
J Heckert, R M Thomas, H P Parkman
BACKGROUND: The aims of this study were to describe the histology in gastroparesis, specifically to relate histopathology to etiology of gastroparesis (idiopathic and diabetic gastroparesis), gastric emptying, and clinical response to gastric electric stimulation. METHODS: Full thickness gastric body sections obtained during insertion of gastric stimulator in gastroparetics were stained with Hematoxylin & Eosin, Masson Trichrome and immunohistochemical stains for Neuron-Specific Enolase and c-Kit...
April 4, 2017: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28347715/preeclampsia-novel-insights-from-global-rna-profiling-of%C3%A2-trophoblast-subpopulations
#4
Matthew Gormley, Katherine Ona, Miko Kapidzic, Tamara Garrido-Gomez, Tamara Zdravkovic, Susan J Fisher
BACKGROUND: The maternal signs of preeclampsia, which include the new onset of high blood pressure, can occur because of faulty placentation. We theorized that transcriptomic analyses of trophoblast subpopulations in situ would lend new insights into the role of these cells in preeclampsia pathogenesis. OBJECTIVE: Our goal was to enrich syncytiotrophoblasts, invasive cytotrophoblasts, or endovascular cytotrophoblasts from the placentas of severe preeclampsia cases...
March 24, 2017: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337219/neural-differentiation-in-hdac1-depleted-cells-is-accompanied-by-coilin-downregulation-and-the-accumulation-of-cajal-bodies-in-nucleoli
#5
Jana Krejčí, Soňa Legartová, Eva Bártová
Cajal bodies (CBs) are important compartments containing accumulated proteins that preferentially regulate RNA-related nuclear events, including splicing. Here, we studied the nuclear distribution pattern of CBs in neurogenesis. In adult brains, coilin was present at a high density, but CB formation was absent in the nuclei of the choroid plexus of the lateral ventricles. Cells of the adult hippocampus were characterized by a crescent-like morphology of coilin protein. We additionally observed a 70 kDa splice variant of coilin in adult mouse brains, which was different to embryonic brains and mouse pluripotent embryonic stem cells (mESCs), characterized by the 80 kDa standard variant of coilin...
2017: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324503/visualization-of-human-telomerase-localization-by-fluorescence-microscopy-techniques
#6
Eladio Abreu, Rebecca M Terns, Michael P Terns
Human telomerase is a ribonucleoprotein (RNP) that synthesizes DNA repeats at the ends of chromosomes and maintains telomere length and genome stability. The enzyme is comprised of telomerase RNA (hTR) (which provides the template for telomere addition) and several protein subunits including telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) (the catalytic component). Intracellular trafficking of the enzyme has emerged as an important factor in the regulation of telomerase activity. Telomerase trafficking between nuclear Cajal bodies (proposed sites of telomerase biogenesis and regulation) and telomeres (sites of action) is regulated by the cell cycle in concordance with telomere synthesis during S phase...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263986/tdrd6-mediates-early-steps-of-spliceosome-maturation-in-primary-spermatocytes
#7
Müge Akpınar, Mathias Lesche, Grigorios Fanourgakis, Jun Fu, Konstantinos Anasstasiadis, Andreas Dahl, Rolf Jessberger
Tudor containing protein 6 (TDRD6) is a male germ line-specific protein essential for chromatoid body (ChB) structure, elongated spermatid development and male fertility. Here we show that in meiotic prophase I spermatocytes TDRD6 interacts with the key protein arginine methyl transferase PRMT5, which supports splicing. TDRD6 also associates with spliceosomal core protein SmB in the absence of RNA and in an arginine methylation dependent manner. In Tdrd6-/- diplotene spermatocytes PRMT5 association with SmB and arginine dimethylation of SmB are much reduced...
March 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250049/diabetic-polyneuropathy-sensory-neurons-nuclear-structure-and-spliceosome-alterations-a-role-for-cwc22
#8
Masaki Kobayashi, Ambika Chandrasekhar, Chu Cheng, Jose A Martinez, Hilarie Ng, Cristiane de la Hoz, Douglas W Zochodne
Unique deficits in the function of adult sensory neurons as part of their early neurodegeneration might account for progressive polyneuropathy during chronic diabetes mellitus. Here, we provide structural and functional evidence for aberrant pre-mRNA splicing in a chronic type 1 model of experimental diabetic polyneuropathy (DPN). Cajal bodies (CBs), unique nuclear substructures involved in RNA splicing, increased in number in diabetic sensory neurons, but their expected colocalization with survival motor neuron (SMN) proteins was reduced - a mislocalization described in motor neurons of spinal muscular atrophy...
March 1, 2017: Disease Models & Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095296/diverse-role-of-survival-motor-neuron-protein
#9
REVIEW
Ravindra N Singh, Matthew D Howell, Eric W Ottesen, Natalia N Singh
The multifunctional Survival Motor Neuron (SMN) protein is required for the survival of all organisms of the animal kingdom. SMN impacts various aspects of RNA metabolism through the formation and/or interaction with ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complexes. SMN regulates biogenesis of small nuclear RNPs, small nucleolar RNPs, small Cajal body-associated RNPs, signal recognition particles and telomerase. SMN also plays an important role in DNA repair, transcription, pre-mRNA splicing, histone mRNA processing, translation, selenoprotein synthesis, macromolecular trafficking, stress granule formation, cell signaling and cytoskeleton maintenance...
March 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028361/characterization-of-smooth-muscle-enteric-nerve-interstitial-cells-of-cajal-and-fibroblast-like-cells-in-the-gastric-musculature-of-patients-with-diabetes-mellitus
#10
Kyung Sik Park, Kwang Bum Cho, Il Seon Hwang, Jae Hyung Park, Byung Ik Jang, Kyeong Ok Kim, Sung Woo Jeon, Eun Soo Kim, Chang Sik Park, Joong Goo Kwon
AIM: To investigate histologic abnormalities in the gastric smooth muscle of patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). METHODS: Full-thickness gastric specimens were obtained from patients undergoing surgery for gastric cancer. H&E stain and Masson's Trichrome stain were performed to assess the degree of fibrosis. Immunohistochemical staining using various antibodies was also performed [antibodies against protein gene product 9.5 (PGP9.5), neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), neurokinin-1 (NK1) receptor, c-Kit, and platelet-derived growth factor receptor-alpha, (PDGFRα)]...
December 14, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000192/-experimental-study-of-bisacodyl-in-the-treatment-of-slow-transit-constipation-model-rats
#11
Jie Ling, Wenzhong Zhang, Bin Xu, Wei Qiu, Yongbing Wang
OBJECTIVE: To explore the efficacy and the mechanism of Bisacodyl in treating slow transit constipation model rats. METHODS: A total of 30 healthy rats were enrolled. Twenty rats received intragastric diphenoxylate to develop slow transit constipation (STC) model, and 10 untreated rats were set as blank control. STC rats were subdivided into two groups: STC Bisacodyl group (fed with Bisacodyl) and STC control group (common feed). Body weight, number and dry weight of faeces, and intestinal transit time were compared among 3 groups...
December 25, 2016: Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859481/coils-spring-into-action-cajal-bodies-and-the-genomic-organization-of-transcription-comment-doi-10-1002-bies-201600144
#12
Danielle Fanslow, Steven T Kosak
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 17, 2016: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858508/activation-of-transcription-enforces-the-formation-of-distinct-nuclear-bodies-in-zebrafish-embryos
#13
Patricia Heyn, Hanna Salmonowicz, Jonathan Rodenfels, Karla M Neugebauer
Nuclear bodies are cellular compartments that lack lipid bilayers and harbor specific RNAs and proteins. Recent proposals that nuclear bodies form through liquid-liquid phase separation leave the question of how different nuclear bodies maintain their distinct identities unanswered. Here we investigate Cajal bodies (CBs), histone locus bodies (HLBs) and nucleoli - involved in assembly of the splicing machinery, histone mRNA 3' end processing, and rRNA processing, respectively - in the embryos of the zebrafish, Danio rerio...
November 18, 2016: RNA Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857188/low-voltage-scanning-electron-microscopy-study-of-lampbrush-chromosomes-and-nuclear-bodies-in-avian-and-amphibian-oocytes
#14
Tatiana Kulikova, Tatiana Khodyuchenko, Yuri Petrov, Alla Krasikova
Nucleus is a highly compartmentalized part of the cell where the key processes of genome functionality are realized through the formation of non-membranous nuclear domains. Physically nuclear domains appear as liquid droplets with different viscosity stably maintained throughout the interphase or during the long diplotene stage of meiosis. Since nuclear body surface represents boundary between two liquid phases, the ultrastructural surface topography of nuclear domains is of an outstanding interest. The aim of this study was to examine ultrathin surface topography of the amphibian and avian oocyte nuclear structures such as lampbrush chromosomes, nucleoli, histone-locus bodies, Cajal body-like bodies, and the interchromatin granule clusters via low-voltage scanning electron microscopy...
November 18, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27819531/toward-an-understanding-of-regulating-cajal-body-activity-by-protein-modification
#15
Michael D Hebert, Aaron R Poole
The biogenesis of small nuclear ribonucleoproteins (snRNPs), small Cajal body-specific RNPs (scaRNPs), small nucleolar RNPs (snoRNPs) and the telomerase RNP involves Cajal bodies (CBs). Although many components enriched in the CB contain post-translational modifications (PTMs), little is known about how these modifications impact individual protein function within the CB and, in concert with other modified factors, collectively regulate CB activity. Since all components of the CB also reside in other cellular locations, it is also important that we understand how PTMs affect the subcellular localization of CB components...
October 7, 2016: RNA Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27804943/-morphological-changes-in-the-colonic-muscular-layer-and-interstitial-cells-of-cajal-in-experimental-acute-ulcerative-colitis
#16
S O Kiryukhin, O V Makarova
AIM: to investigate morphological changes in the muscular layer and an intermuscular population of interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) in acute ulcerative colitis induced by dextran sulfate sodium (DSS). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Acute colitis was induced by 3% DSS (molecular weight 40 kDa) in drinking water for 5 days; a control animal group was given tap water. Longitudinal colonic sections were histologically examined. Immunofluorescence staining of total preparations with antibodies to c-Kit was employed to assess an ICC population...
2016: Arkhiv Patologii
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796890/primary-extragastrointestinal-stromal-tumours-in-the-hepatobiliary-tree-and-telocytes
#17
Somanath Padhi, Hemanta Kumar Nayak
The first decade of the twenty-first century witnessed the presence and light microscopic, immunophenotypic, and ultrastructural characterization of interstitial Cajal-like cells (coined as 'telocytes') in virtually every extragastrointestinal site of the human body by Laurentiu M. Popescu and his co-workers. Not surprisingly, stromal tumours, immunophenotypically similar to that of telocytes [CD117 (c-KIT) +/CD34 +], have also been sporadically reported outside the tubular gut (so-called extragastrointestinal stromal tumours, EGISTs), including the gall bladder, liver, and pancreas...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27785480/when-small-rnas-become-smaller-emerging-functions-of-snornas-and-their-derivatives
#18
REVIEW
Anna M Mleczko, Kamilla Bąkowska-Żywicka
Small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs) are molecules located in the cell nucleolus and in Cajal bodies. Many scientific reports show that snoRNAs are not only responsible for modifications of other RNAs but also fulfill multiple other functions such as metabolic stress regulation or modulation of alternative splicing. Full-length snoRNAs as well as small RNAs derived from snoRNAs have been implied in human diseases such as cancer or Prader-Willi Syndrome. In this review we describe emerging, non-canonical roles of snoRNAs and their derivatives with the emphasis on their role in human diseases...
2016: Acta Biochimica Polonica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27775477/rna-modification-in-cajal-bodies
#19
U Thomas Meier
Aside from nucleoli, Cajal bodies (CBs) are the best-characterized organelles of mammalian cell nuclei. Like nucleoli, CBs concentrate ribonucleoproteins (RNPs), in particular, spliceosomal small nuclear RNPs (snRNPs) and small nucleolar RNPs (snoRNPs). In one of the best-defined functions of CBs, most of the snoRNPs are involved in site-specific modification of snRNAs. The two major modifications are pseudouridylation and 2'-O-methylation that are guided by the box H/ACA and C/D snoRNPs, respectively. This review details the modifications, their function, the mechanism of modification, and the machineries involved...
October 24, 2016: RNA Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27767214/cajal-body-function-in-genome-organization-and-transcriptome-diversity
#20
Iain A Sawyer, David Sturgill, Myong-Hee Sung, Gordon L Hager, Miroslav Dundr
Nuclear bodies contribute to non-random organization of the human genome and nuclear function. Using a major prototypical nuclear body, the Cajal body, as an example, we suggest that these structures assemble at specific gene loci located across the genome as a result of high transcriptional activity. Subsequently, target genes are physically clustered in close proximity in Cajal body-containing cells. However, Cajal bodies are observed in only a limited number of human cell types, including neuronal and cancer cells...
December 2016: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
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