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Cajal body

Jieying Chen, Xunan Sheng, Hongchang Ma, Zhengshan Tang, Chao Yang, Lanqin Cao, Yang Sun, Tanggang Deng, Peifu Feng, Bin Hu, Dong Wei, Jing Liu, Wei Xiong, Mao Ye
WD repeat protein 79 (WDR79) is a member of the WD-repeat protein family characterized by the presence of a series of WD-repeat domains and is a scaffold protein that participates in telomerase assembly, Cajal body formation and DNA double strand break repair. Although previous studies have revealed that WDR79 is frequently overexpressed in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and promotes the proliferation of NSCLC cells, the underlying mechanism responsible for WDR79-mediated NSCLC proliferation is not fully understood...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
Natalia O Kalinina, Svetlana Makarova, Antonida Makhotenko, Andrew J Love, Michael Taliansky
The nucleolus is the most conspicuous domain in the eukaryotic cell nucleus, whose main function is ribosomal RNA (rRNA) synthesis and ribosome biogenesis. However, there is growing evidence that the nucleolus is also implicated in many other aspects of cell biology, such as regulation of cell cycle, growth and development, senescence, telomerase activity, gene silencing, responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. In the first part of the review, we briefly assess the traditional roles of the plant nucleolus in rRNA synthesis and ribosome biogenesis as well as possible functions in other RNA regulatory pathways such as splicing, nonsense-mediated mRNA decay and RNA silencing...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Dahyana Arias Escayola, Karla Neugebauer
Nuclear bodies are RNA-rich membraneless organelles in the cell nucleus that concentrate specific sets of nuclear proteins and RNA-protein complexes. Nuclear bodies such as the nucleolus, Cajal body (CB), and the histone locus body (HLB) concentrate factors required for nuclear steps of RNA processing. Formation of these nuclear bodies occurs on genomic loci and is frequently associat-ed with active sites of transcription. Whether nuclear body formation is dependent on a particular gene element, an active process such as transcription, or the nascent RNA present at gene loci is a topic of debate...
February 23, 2018: Biochemistry
Todd R Albrecht, Sergey P Shevtsov, Yixuan Wu, Lauren G Mascibroda, Natoya J Peart, Kai-Lieh Huang, Iain A Sawyer, Liang Tong, Miroslav Dundr, Eric J Wagner
Integrator (INT) is a transcriptional regulatory complex associated with RNA polymerase II that is required for the 3'-end processing of both UsnRNAs and enhancer RNAs. Integrator subunits 9 (INTS9) and INTS11 constitute the catalytic core of INT and are paralogues of the cleavage and polyadenylation specificity factors CPSF100 and CPSF73. While CPSF73/100 are known to associate with a third protein called Symplekin, there is no paralog of Symplekin within INT raising the question of how INTS9/11 associate with the other INT subunits...
February 20, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
Adriana Roithová, Klára Klimešová, Josef Pánek, Cindy L Will, Reinhard Lührmann, David Stanek, Cyrille Girard
Cajal bodies (CBs) are nuclear non-membrane bound organelles where small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particles (snRNPs) undergo their final maturation and quality control before they are released to the nucleoplasm. However, the molecular mechanism how immature snRNPs are targeted and retained in CBs has yet to be described. Here, we microinjected and expressed various snRNA deletion mutants as well as chimeric 7SK, Alu or bacterial SRP non-coding RNAs and provide evidence that Sm and SMN binding sites are necessary and sufficient for CB localization of snRNAs...
February 5, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
Delphine Sapaly, Matthieu Dos Santos, Perrine Delers, Olivier Biondi, Gwendoline Quérol, Léo Houdebine, Kevinee Khoobarry, François Girardet, Philippe Burlet, Anne-Sophie Armand, Christophe Chanoine, Jean-François Bureau, Frédéric Charbonnier, Suzie Lefebvre
The hereditary neurodegenerative disorder spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is characterized by the loss of spinal cord motor neurons and skeletal muscle atrophy. SMA is caused by mutations of the survival motor neuron (SMN) gene leading to a decrease in SMN protein levels. The SMN deficiency alters nuclear body formation and whether it can contribute to the disease remains unclear. Here we screen a series of small-molecules on SMA patient fibroblasts and identify flunarizine that accumulates SMN into Cajal bodies, the nuclear bodies important for the spliceosomal small nuclear RNA (snRNA)-ribonucleoprotein biogenesis...
February 1, 2018: Scientific Reports
Ingo D Meier, Michael P Walker, A Gregory Matera
Gemin4 is a member of the Survival Motor Neuron (SMN) protein complex, which is responsible for the assembly and maturation of Sm-class small nuclear ribonucleoproteins (snRNPs). In metazoa, Sm snRNPs are assembled in the cytoplasm and subsequently imported into the nucleus. We previously showed that the SMN complex is required for snRNP import in vitro, although it remains unclear which specific components direct this process. Here, we report that Gemin4 overexpression drives SMN and the other Gemin proteins from the cytoplasm into the nucleus...
January 25, 2018: Biology Open
Goran Radenkovic, Dina Radenkovic, Aleksandra Velickov
Neural crest cells (NCC) can migrate into different parts of the body and express their strong inductive potential. In addition, they are multipotent and are able to differentiate into various cell types with diverse functions. In the primitive gut, NCC induce differentiation of muscular structures and interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC), and they themselves differentiate into the elements of the enteric nervous system (ENS), neurons and glial cells. ICC develop by way of mesenchymal cell differentiation in the outer parts of the primitive gut wall around the myenteric plexus (MP) ganglia, with the exception of colon, where they appear simultaneously also at the submucosal border of the circular muscular layer around the submucosal plexus (SMP) ganglia...
February 2018: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
Ulises Rodriguez-Corona, Alejandro Pereira-Santana, Margarita Sobol, Luis C Rodriguez-Zapata, Pavel Hozak, Enrique Castano
Fibrillarin is one of the most important nucleolar proteins that have been shown as essential for life. Fibrillarin localizes primarily at the periphery between fibrillar center and dense fibrillar component as well as in Cajal bodies. In most plants there are at least two different genes for fibrillarin. In Arabidopsis thaliana both genes show high level of expression in transcriptionally active cells. Here, we focus on two important differences between A. thaliana fibrillarins. First and most relevant is the enzymatic activity by AtFib2...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
Vanesa Lafarga, Olga Tapia, Sahil Sharma, Rocio Bengoechea, Georg Stoecklin, Miguel Lafarga, Maria T Berciano
The survival of motor neuron (SMN) protein plays an essential role in the biogenesis of spliceosomal snRNPs and the molecular assembly of Cajal bodies (CBs). Deletion of or mutations in the SMN1 gene cause spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) with degeneration and loss of motor neurons. Reduced SMN levels in SMA lead to deficient snRNP biogenesis with consequent splicing pathology. Here, we demonstrate that SMN is a novel and specific target of the acetyltransferase CBP (CREB-binding protein). Furthermore, we identify lysine (K) 119 as the main acetylation site in SMN...
September 6, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
Zhe Chen, Bin Gui, Yu Zhang, Guojia Xie, Wanjin Li, Shumeng Liu, Bosen Xu, Chongyang Wu, Lin He, Jianguo Yang, Xia Yi, Xiaohan Yang, Luyang Sun, Jing Liang, Yongfeng Shang
The de novo assembly and post-splicing reassembly of the U4/U6.U5 tri-snRNP remain to be investigated. We report here that ZIP, a protein containing a CCCH-type zinc finger and a G-patch domain, as characterized by us previously, regulates pre-mRNA splicing independent of RNA binding. We found that ZIP physically associates with the U4/U6.U5 tri-small nuclear ribonucleoprotein (tri-snRNP). Remarkably, the ZIP-containing tri-snRNP, which has a sedimentation coefficient of ∼35S, is a tri-snRNP that has not been described previously...
November 3, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Thuy Cao, Sheeja Rajasingh, Saheli Samanta, Buddhadeb Dawn, Douglas C Bittel, Johnson Rajasingh
Small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs) are a group of noncoding RNAs that perform various biological functions, including biochemical modifications of other RNAs, precursors of miRNA, splicing, and telomerase activity. The small Cajal body-associated RNAs (scaRNAs) are a subset of the snoRNA family and collect in the Cajal body where they perform their canonical function to biochemically modify spliceosomal RNAs prior to maturation. Failure of sno/scaRNAs have been implicated in pathology such as congenital heart anomalies, neuromuscular disorders, and various malignancies...
February 2018: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine
Maria Sancho, Eamonn Bradley, Angeles Garcia-Pascual, Domingo Triguero, Keith D Thornbury, Mark A Hollywood, Gerard P Sergeant
Cyclic nucleotide-gated (CNG) channels are non-selective cation channels that mediate influx of extracellular Na(+) and Ca(2+) in various cell types. L-cis-Diltiazem, a CNG channel blocker, inhibits contraction of urethral smooth muscle (USM), however the mechanisms underlying this effect are still unclear. We investigated the possibility that CNG channels contribute to spontaneous pacemaker activity in freshly isolated interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) isolated from the rabbit urethra (RUICC). Using immunocytochemistry, we found intense CNG1-immunoreactivity in vimentin-immunoreactive RUICC, mainly within patches of the cellular body and processes...
November 5, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
Aaron R Poole, Ian Vicino, Hironori Adachi, Yi-Tao Yu, Michael D Hebert
Many ribonucleoproteins (RNPs), which are comprised of noncoding RNA and associated proteins, are involved in essential cellular processes such as translation and pre-mRNA splicing. One class of RNP is the small Cajal body-specific RNP (scaRNP), which contributes to the biogenesis of small nuclear RNPs (snRNPs) that are central components of the spliceosome. Three scaRNAs are internally processed, generating stable nucleolus-enriched RNAs of unknown function. Here, we provide data that show that these RNAs become part of RNPs we term regulatory RNPs (regRNPs)...
September 15, 2017: Biology Open
Caroline Vindry, Aline Marnef, Helen Broomhead, Laure Twyffels, Sevim Ozgur, Georg Stoecklin, Miriam Llorian, Christopher W Smith, Juan Mata, Dominique Weil, Nancy Standart
Pat1 RNA-binding proteins, enriched in processing bodies (P bodies), are key players in cytoplasmic 5' to 3' mRNA decay, activating decapping of mRNA in complex with the Lsm1-7 heptamer. Using co-immunoprecipitation and immunofluorescence approaches coupled with RNAi, we provide evidence for a nuclear complex of Pat1b with the Lsm2-8 heptamer, which binds to the spliceosomal U6 small nuclear RNA (snRNA). Furthermore, we establish the set of interactions connecting Pat1b/Lsm2-8/U6 snRNA/SART3 and additional U4/U6...
August 1, 2017: Cell Reports
Kun Wang, Yichen Ge, Chao Ni, Bomiao Cui, Jintao Du, Bo Zhang, Xiaoyu Hu, Jiao Chen, Liying Xiao, Chongkui Sun, Yan Li
Telomerase Cajal body protein 1 (TCAB1), which is involved in Cajal body maintenance, telomere elongation and ribonucleoprotein biogenesis, has been linked to cancer predisposition, including nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), due to its oncogenic properties. However, there are no specific reports to date on the functional relevance of TCAB1 and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), which is considered to be a risk factor for NPC. In this study, we first examined NPC clinical tissues and found a notable overexpression of TCAB1 in EBV-positive specimens...
June 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
Arman Kunwar Hansda, Ankit Tiwari, Manjusha Dixit
FSHD region gene 1 (FRG1), as the name suggests, is the primary candidate gene for fascioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy disease. It seemingly affects muscle physiology in normal individuals but in FSHD, where it is found to be highly upregulated, might be involved in disruption of face, scapula and humeral skeletal muscle. Literature on FRG1, reviewed from 1996 to 2016, reveals that it is primarily associated with muscle development and maintenance. Approximately 75% of FSHD patients also show vascular abnormalities indicating that FRG1 might have some part to play in these abnormalities...
June 2017: Journal of Biosciences
Yaoyao Song, Jing Niu, Zhixia Yue, Ruiqi Gao, Chenguang Zhang, Wei Ding
Coilin is a marker protein of the Cajal body (CB). Cajal bodies, functional nuclear structure, play important roles for the maturation of telomerase mRNAs. However, whether CB participates in the process of cell senescence is unknown. Cisplatin is a frequently used drug for the chemotherapy for various cancers, which was recently reported to be able to induce premature senescence of tumor cells. In this study, we found that when HeLa cells were treated with 2 μg/ml cisplatin for 4 days, stagnant cell growth, especially in cells stained positive of SA-β-gal, was accompanied with significant changes in CB morphologies...
July 22, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Qian He, Yan-Lan Yu, Gong-Hui Li, Sheng Chen
BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to confirm that the interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs) in the dome wall of the bladder are pacemaker cells, and that the dome wall of the bladder acts as a pacemaker site in the detrusor instability (DI) rat model. MATERIAL AND METHODS The model of DI in Wistar rats was established and urodynamic studies measuring the bladder volume and pressure were performed. The detrusor excitability was investigated using the amplitude and frequency of phasic contraction of strips. The localization and quantity of ICCs was identified by immunohistochemistry and c-KIT protein expression in the rat bladder...
May 21, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
Agata Zauszkiewicz-Pawlak, Janusz Godlewski, Przemyslaw Kwiatkowski, Zbigniew Kmiec
INTRODUCTION: It have been found previously that colorectal cancer (CRC) is accompanied by atrophy of myenteric plexuses (MPs) localized close to the tumor. The aim of the study was to compare ultrastructure of MPs localized in the unchanged part of the colon wall distant to CRC tumor with the ultrastructure of MPs in the vicinity of CRC tumor. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The present study was conducted using post-operative material derived from 11 patients with CRC. Samples of colon wall were taken from the margin of cancer invasion and from a macroscopically unchanged segment of the large intestine, immediately fixed and processed according to the standard protocol for transmission electron microscopy studies...
2017: Folia Histochemica et Cytobiologica
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