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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444008/from-guidelines-to-local-realities-evaluation-of-oral-rehydration-therapy-and-zinc-supplementation-in-guatemala
#1
Rachel Hall-Clifford, Roxanne Amerson
Objective: Diarrhea remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality for children in low- and middle-income countries throughout the Americas. The World Health Organization (WHO) has developed guidelines on incorporating zinc supplementation (ZS) with traditional oral rehydration therapy (ORT) in order to shorten the duration of diarrheal episodes and to reduce poor health outcomes. Guatemala adopted these guidelines in 2011, but they have not yet been fully implemented at the community level...
April 20, 2017: Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública, Pan American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439845/a-systematic-review-of-the-clinical-presentation-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-small-bowel-obstruction
#2
REVIEW
Srinivas R Rami Reddy, Mitchell S Cappell
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This study aimed to systematically review small bowel obstruction (SBO), focusing on recent changes in diagnosis/therapy. RECENT FINDINGS: SBO incidence is about 350,000/annum in the USA. Etiologies include adhesions (65%), hernias (10%), neoplasms (5%), Crohn's disease (5%), and other (15%). Bowel dilatation occurs proximal to obstruction primarily from swallowed air and secondarily from intraluminal fluid accumulation. Dilatation increases mural tension, decreases mucosal perfusion, causes bacterial proliferation, and decreases mural tensile strength that increases bowel perforation risks...
June 2017: Current Gastroenterology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439073/in-vitro-developmental-ability-of-ovine-oocytes-following-intracytoplasmic-injection-with-freeze-dried-spermatozoa
#3
Maite Olaciregui, Victoria Luño, Paula Domingo, Noelia González, Lydia Gil
Freeze-drying (FD) is a new and alternative method to preserve spermatozoa in refrigeration or at room temperature. Suitable protection is required to maintain the sperm DNA integrity during the whole process and storage. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of rosmarinic acid and storage temperature on the DNA integrity of freeze-dried ram sperm. In addition, we evaluated the in vitro developmental ability to the blastocyst stage of oocytes injected with freeze-dried sperm. Ram sperm was freeze-dried in basic medium and in this medium supplemented with 105 µM rosmarinic acid...
April 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434789/conversion-of-biomass-to-hydroxymethylfurfural-a-review-of-catalytic-systems-and-underlying-mechanisms
#4
REVIEW
Iris K M Yu, Daniel C W Tsang
Conversion of biomass waste to hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), a value-added platform chemical, has captured great research interests driven by the economic and environmental incentives. This review evaluates the recent development of biomass conversion systems for high HMF yield and selectivity, with a focus on the performance of emerging catalysts and solvents from a mechanistic view. We highlight that the ratio and strength of Brønsted and Lewis acid in bifunctional catalyst are critical for maximizing HMF production by selective improvement in the kinetics of desirable reactions (hydrolysis, isomerization, and dehydration) over undesirable reactions (rehydration, polymerization)...
April 9, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419716/effect-of-dehydration-and-rehydration-intervals-on-fracture-resistance-of-reattached-tooth-fragments-using-a-multimode-adhesive
#5
Déborah Lousan do Nascimento Poubel, Júlio César Franco Almeida, Ana Paula Dias Ribeiro, Guilherme Brasil Maia, Jesús Maurício Gonzalez Martinez, Fernanda Cristina Pimentel Garcia
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The tooth fragment bonding technique, frequently used to restore traumatized teeth, may be affected by dehydration/rehydration periods. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of different dry and wet storage intervals on multimode adhesive bonding between reattached fragments and teeth. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eighty-four bovine incisors were fractured and randomized into groups (n=12). After teeth fracturing, each specimen was assigned to one of the following groups: G0: control group (sound tooth); GA1 and GA2: 1-h dehydration and a 15-min or 24-h rewetting period, respectively; GB1 and GB2: 24-h dehydration and a 15-min or 24-h rewetting period, respectively; and GC: 1-h (GC1) or 24-h (GC2) dehydration period only...
April 17, 2017: Dental Traumatology: Official Publication of International Association for Dental Traumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416869/effects-of-ethyl-oleate-and-microwave-blanching-on-drying-kinetics-of-bitter-gourd
#6
A Srimagal, S Mishra, R C Pradhan
In the present study effects of pre-treatments such as blanching with hot water and microwave, ethyl oleate dipping, and combinations of these treatments on drying characteristics of the bitter gourd (Momordica charantia L.) at various temperature were studied. The overall drying time was reduced significantly in the ethyl oleate treated and microwave blanched samples. The minimum diffusivity (2.65 × 10(-8) m(2)/s) was observed in control samples whereas the maximum diffusivity (3.86 × 10(-8) m(2)/s) was observed in ethyl oleate treated and microwave blanched samples at 50 °C...
April 2017: Journal of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416861/application-of-genetic-algorithm-to-optimize-extrusion-condition-for-soy-based-meat-analogue-texturization
#7
Mostafa Mazaheri Tehrani, Ahmad Ehtiati, Shadi Sharifi Azghandi
The aim of this study was to find the optimum extrusion process conditions for texturized soybean meal as a meat analogue for food formulations using genetic algorithm. The defatted soybean meal was replaced with whole soybean meal at 10% and extruded in the temperature range of 150-200 °C, screw speed of 270-300 rpm and 20-25% feed moisture content based on the Box-Behnken design. The barrel temperature effect was markedly greater than those of the feed moisture content and screw speed on the product functional properties and appearance...
April 2017: Journal of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416428/-nasogastric-rehydration-for-treating-children-with-gastroenteritis
#8
B Rébeillé-Borgella, C Barbier, R Moussaoui, A Faisant, A-P Michard-Lenoir, A Rubio
INTRODUCTION: When oral rehydration is not feasible, enteral rehydration via the nasogastric route has been the ESPGHAN recommended method of rehydration since 2008, rather than intravenous rehydration (IVR), for children with acute gastroenteritis. However, these recommendations are rarely followed in France. Since 2011, in case of failure of oral rehydration, enteral rehydration has been used as a first-line therapy in the Children's Emergency Department at the Grenoble-Alpes University Hospital...
April 14, 2017: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409456/cryo-immuno-electron-microscopy-of-peroxisomal-marker-proteins
#9
Karina Mildner, Dagmar Zeuschner
Electron microscopy samples processed for cryo-immunogold-labeling need to be gently fixed to keep their antigenicity. Biological material like cultured cells or tissue can be prepared according to the standard Tokuyasu fixation or in a further developed rehydration method based on high-pressure freezing. We will describe here the variant and common steps of both methods in detail and illustrate their potency in the ultrastructural imaging of peroxisomes.
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407914/effects-of-hybrid-microwave-convectional-and-convectional-drying-on-drying-kinetics-total-phenolics-antioxidant-capacity-vitamin-c-color-and-rehydration-capacity-of-sour-cherries
#10
Erhan Horuz, Hüseyin Bozkurt, Haluk Karataş, Medeni Maskan
Sour cherries were dried by convectional (CD) at 50, 60, and 70°C and by hybrid (HD; microwave-convectional) drying at 120, 150, and 180W coupled with hot air at 50, 60, and 70°C. In HD, microwave power and hot air were performed simultaneously during drying process. Total phenolic content (TPC), antioxidant capacity (AOC), vitamin C content, color and rehydration capacity were followed. The HD technique reduced drying time and increased drying rate compared to CD. Drying data were well correlated with Verma and modified Logistic models which gave the best fitting for CD and HD, respectively...
September 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407133/con-mesoamerican-nephropathy-is-the-problem-dehydration-or-rehydration
#11
Vito M Campese
In recent years, an increasing number of inhabitants of Central America have developed a form of chronic kidney disease, now named Mesoamerican nephropathy. This disease is characterized by minimal proteinuria, hyperuricemia, hypokalemia and reduced glomerular filtration rate. Histologically the kidneys manifest tubulointerstitial nephritis. The cause(s) of this disease remain unknown. Some have proposed that dehydration, in combination with hyperuricemia, may be primarily responsible for Mesoamerican nephropathy...
April 1, 2017: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407132/causal-mechanism-and-component-causes-in-mesoamerican-sri-lankan-nephropathy-the-moderator-s-view
#12
Carmine Zoccali
Inspired by Conan Doyle's novels, the pro contender of this Polar View undertakes an elegant exercise in territory common to epidemiology and police investigation and concludes that cyclic episodes of dehydration in individuals exposed to heavy work in very hot climates is the cause of Mesoamerican and Sri Lankan nephropathy. The contender in the opposite camp accepts the idea that dehydration may play a key role in this condition but highlights a different explanation, that it is contaminated water used for rehydration that is the eventual cause of the disease...
April 1, 2017: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406295/synthon-approach-to-structure-models-for-the-bayerite-derived-layered-double-hydroxides-of-li-and-al
#13
Supreeth Nagendran, P Vishnu Kamath
The Br(-) ion intercalated layered double hydroxide (LDH) of Li and Al obtained from the bayerite-Al(OH)3 precursor crystallizes in a structure different from that of the gibbsite-Al(OH)3 derived counterpart. Additionally, it undergoes temperature- and humidity-induced reversible interpolytype transformations. The dehydrated LDH (T ≈ 120 °C) adopts a structure of hexagonal symmetry (space group P3̅1m) and comprises a stacking of the metal hydroxide layers arranged one above another. On cooling and rehydration, the LDH adopts a structure of monoclinic symmetry with a stepwise increase in the stacking angle, β...
April 13, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397130/antidiarrheal-drug-therapy
#14
REVIEW
Lawrence R Schiller
INTRODUCTION: Acute diarrhea often runs a self-limited course and little by way of treatment is needed except for oral rehydration therapy. Chronic diarrhea poses a longer-term problem. If not treatable with specific therapy aimed at the underlying pathophysiology, chronic diarrhea often needs long-term symptomatic therapy. PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This paper aims to examine the options for symptomatic, nonspecific treatment of diarrhea. RECENT FINDINGS: The most frequently used therapies are opiate antidiarrheal drugs...
May 2017: Current Gastroenterology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395437/-the-preparation-and-evaluation-of-the-quality-control-materials-for-detection-of-platelet-membrane-glycoproteins-by-flow-cytometry
#15
Y Q Liu, Y Gong, C X Qu, R You, L P Li, L S Xing, J Z Wang
Objective: To prepare the quality control material for detection of platelet membrane glycoproteins by flowcytometry and evaluate the appearance traits, homogeneity and stability of it. Methods: Fresh platelets from the blood group O donors were fixed by the certain concentration of aldehyde solution and then washed by the imidazole buffer. After that, adding certain concentration of lyophilized protection solution into the preparations. The preparations were dispensed to be lyophilized and then were kept refrigerated in 2-8 ℃...
April 11, 2017: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390725/comparison-of-a-commercially-available-oral-nutritional-supplement-and-intravenous-fluid-therapy-for-dehydration-in-dairy-calves
#16
Jared D Taylor, Merel Rodenburg, Timothy A Snider
Calf scours is a primary cause of morbidity and mortality in the dairy industry. Effective treatments are needed to minimize death, maximize welfare, and maintain growth and productivity. The objective of this trial was to compare the efficacy of a commercially available nutritional supplement (Diaque, Boehringer-Ingelheim Vetmedica Inc., St. Joseph, MO) and i.v. lactated Ringer's solution (LRS) in rehydrating, preventing acidemia, and correcting electrolyte imbalances in an experimental model for calf scours...
April 5, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389541/thermal-resistance-and-gene-expression-of-both-desiccation-adapted-and-rehydrated-salmonella-enterica-typhimurium-in-aged-broiler-litter
#17
Zhao Chen, Xiuping Jiang
The objective of this study was to investigate the thermal resistance and gene expression of both desiccation-adapted and rehydrated Salmonellaenterica Typhimurium in aged broiler litter. S. Typhimurium was desiccation-adapted in aged broiler litter with 20% moisture content (aw: 0.81) for 1, 2, 3, 12, or 24 h at room temperature and then rehydrated for 3 h. As analyzed by qRT-PCR, rpoS, proV, dnaK, and grpE genes were up-regulated (P<0.05) under desiccation stress and could be induced after 1 h but less than 2 h...
April 7, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387536/case-study-hydration-intervention-improves-pre-game-hydration-status-in-female-collegiate-soccer-players
#18
Neele R Hoerner, Kirsten Domnik, Karsten Koehler, Wilhelm Schaenzer, Hans Braun
Little is known about whether athletes follow hydration guidelines. The objective of the present study was to assess fluid status in female soccer players in a hot and humid environment, and to assess the effect of an intervention aimed at preventing players from exercising in a dehydrated state. We hypothesized that following the intervention, players would exhibit improved hydration status, as indicated by greater voluntary fluid intake and improved hydration markers. Ten female collegiate soccer players (20±1yrs...
April 7, 2017: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379982/measuring-the-mass-volume-and-density-of-microgram-sized-objects-in-fluid
#19
Shirin Mesbah Oskui, Heran C Bhakta, Graciel Diamante, Huinan Liu, Daniel Schlenk, William H Grover
Measurements of an object's fundamental physical properties like mass, volume, and density can offer valuable insights into the composition and state of the object. However, many important biological samples reside in a liquid environment where it is difficult to accurately measure their physical properties. We show that by using a simple piece of glass tubing and some inexpensive off-the-shelf electronics, we can create a sensor that can measure the mass, volume, and density of microgram-sized biological samples in their native liquid environment...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376916/utilization-of-health-facilities-and-predictors-of-health-seeking-behavior-for-under-five-children-with-acute-diarrhea-in-slums-of-addis-ababa-ethiopia-a-community-based-cross-sectional-study
#20
Metadel Adane, Bezatu Mengistie, Worku Mulat, Helmut Kloos, Girmay Medhin
BACKGROUND: Information on health-seeking behavior and utilization of health facilities in slums of Addis Ababa is scarce, impeding the implementation of effective interventions. The purpose of this study is to assess the status of health facilities utilization and predictors for health-seeking behavior of mothers/caregivers of under-five children with acute diarrhea in slums of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. METHODS: A community-based cross-sectional study design was employed in five rounds of surveys in seven kebeles in slums of Addis Ababa among 472 mothers/caregivers of 472 under-five children with acute diarrhea in reference to Andersen's behavioral model...
April 4, 2017: Journal of Health, Population, and Nutrition
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