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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045952/-progress-in-diagnosis-and-management-of-syncope-in-children
#1
W R Xu, Y Liao, H F Jin, Q Y Zhang, C S Tang, J B DU
Syncope is a common emergency of children and adolescents, which has serious influence on the quality of life. Neurally-mediated syncope, including postural tachycardia syndrome, vasovagal syncope, orthostatic hypotension and orthostatic hypertension, is the main cause of syncope in children and adolescents. The main manifestations of neurally-mediated syncope are diverse, such as dizziness, headache, chest tightness, chest pain, pale complexion, fatigue, pre-syncope and syncope. Although the clinical manifestations are similar, each subtype of syncope has its hemodynamic feature and optimal treatment option...
October 18, 2017: Beijing da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Peking University. Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042460/storage-compartments-for-capillary-water-rarely-refill-in-an-intact-woody-plant
#2
Thorsten Knipfer, Italo Cuneo, Jeffrey Mason Earles, Clarissa Reyes, Craig Brodersen, Andrew J McElrone
Water storage is thought to play an integral role in the maintenance of whole plant water balance. The contribution of both living and dead cells to water storage can be derived from rehydration and pressure-volume curves on excised plant material, but the underlying tissue-specific emptying/refilling dynamics remain unclear. Here, we used X-ray computed micro-tomography (microCT) to characterize refilling of xylem fibers, pith cells and vessels under both excised and in-vivo conditions in Laurus nobilis. In excised stems supplied with H2O, water uptake exhibited a biphasic response curve, and microCT images showed that high water storage capacitance was associated with fiber and pith refilling as driven by capillary forces; fibers refilled more rapidly than pith cells while vessel refilling was minimal...
October 17, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29041941/disentangling-the-effects-of-a-multiple-behaviour-change-intervention-for-diarrhoea-control-in-zambia-a-theory-based-process-evaluation
#3
Katie Greenland, Jenala Chipungu, Joyce Chilekwa, Roma Chilengi, Val Curtis
BACKGROUND: Diarrhoea is a leading cause of child death in Zambia. As elsewhere, the disease burden could be greatly reduced through caregiver uptake of existing prevention and treatment strategies. We recently reported the results of the Komboni Housewives intervention which tested a novel strategy employing motives including affiliation and disgust to improve caregiver practice of four diarrhoea control behaviours: exclusive breastfeeding; handwashing with soap; and correct preparation and use of oral rehydration salts (ORS) and zinc...
October 17, 2017: Globalization and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038453/cryptogamic-stem-covers-may-contribute-to-nitrous-oxide-consumption-by-mature-beech-trees
#4
Katerina Machacova, Martin Maier, Katerina Svobodova, Friederike Lang, Otmar Urban
Naturally produced by microbial processes in soil, nitrous oxide (N2O) is an important greenhouse gas contributing to climate change. Accordingly, there is a need to accurately quantify the capability of forest ecosystems to exchange N2O with the atmosphere. While N2O emissions from soils have been well studied, trees have so far been overlooked in N2O inventories. Here, we show that stems of mature beech trees (Fagus sylvatica) may act as a substantial sink of N2O from the atmosphere under conditions of soils consuming N2O...
October 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036694/efficient-modulation-of-photosynthetic-apparatus-confers-desiccation-tolerance-in-the-resurrection-plant-boea-hygrometrica
#5
Tinghong Tan, Yanni Sun, Shishuai Luo, Chao Zhang, Huapeng Zhou, Honghui Lin
Boea hygrometrica (B. hygrometrica) can tolerate severe desiccation and resume photosynthetic activity rapidly upon water availability. However, little is known about the mechanisms by which B. hygrometrica adapts to dehydration and resumes competence upon rehydration. Here we determined how B. hygrometrica to deal with oxidative stress, excessive excitation/electron pressures as well as photosynthetic apparatus modulation during dehydration/rehydration. By measuring ROS generation and scavenging efficiency, we found that B...
September 19, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033540/assay-development-and-high-throughput-screening-for-small-molecule-inhibitors-of-a-vibrio-cholerae-stress-response-pathway
#6
Laura Stanbery, Jyl S Matson
Antibiotics are important adjuncts to oral rehydration therapy in cholera disease management. However, due to the rapid emergence of resistance to the antibiotics used to treat cholera, therapeutic options are becoming limited. Therefore, there is a critical need to develop additional therapeutics to aid in the treatment of cholera. Previous studies showed that the extracytoplasmic stress response (σ(E)) pathway of Vibrio cholerae is required for full virulence of the organism. The pathway is also required for bacterial growth in the presence of ethanol...
2017: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026779/oral-rehydration-solution-in-infantile-diarrhea-make-sure-it-is-given-properly
#7
Rohit Anand, Anirban Mandal, Amitabh Singh
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026398/where-there-is-no-doctor-can-volunteer-community-health-workers-in-rural-uganda-provide-integrated-community-case-management
#8
Jennifer L Brenner, Celestine Barigye, Samuel Maling, Jerome Kabakyenga, Alberto Nettel-Aguirre, Denise Buchner, Teddy Kyomuhangi, Carolyn Pim, Kathryn Wotton, Natukwatsa Amon, Nalini Singhal
INTRODUCTION: Integrated community case management (iCCM) involves assessment and treatment of common childhood illnesses by community health workers (CHWs). Evaluation of a new Ugandan iCCM program is needed. OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to assess if iCCM by lay volunteer CHWs is feasible and if iCCM would increase proportions of children treated for fever, pneumonia, and diarrhoea in rural Uganda. METHODS: This pre/post study used a quasi-experimental design and non-intervention comparison community...
March 2017: African Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021493/lyoprotective-effect-of-alkyl-sulfobetaines-for-freeze-drying-1-2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine-liposomes
#9
Tatsuo Aikawa, Kanta Sato, Hiroki Okado, Yukako Takahashi, Takeshi Kondo, Makoto Yuasa
A liposome is a molecular assembly in the form of a vesicle comprised of a phospholipid bilayer. Liposomes can be used as molecular containers in various fields such as pharmaceutical, cosmetic, and food industries. It is difficult to maintain the original structure of liposomes in an aqueous medium. Phospholipids, which are components of liposomes, are susceptible to hydrolysis, which causes disruption of the liposomal structure and dysfunction of the molecular container. In this context, freeze-drying liposomes is a preferable method to improve the shelf life of liposomes...
October 11, 2017: Journal of Oleo Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018599/qualitative-study-of-healthcare-providers-current-practice-patterns-and-barriers-to-successful-rehydration-for-pediatric-diarrheal-illnesses-in-kenya
#10
Darlene R House, Philip Cheptinga, Daniel E Rusyniak, Rachel C Vreeman
BACKGROUND: For children worldwide, diarrhea is the second leading cause of death. These deaths are preventable by fluid resuscitation. Nasogastric tubes (NGs) have been shown to be equivalent to intravenous fluids for rehydration and recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) for use in severe dehydration. Despite this, NGs are rarely used for rehydration in Kenya. Our objective was to evaluate clinicians' adherence to rehydration guidelines and to identify barriers to the use of NGs for resuscitating dehydrated children...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991918/rapid-enteric-testing-to-permit-targeted-antimicrobial-therapy-with-and-without-lactobacillus-reuteri-probiotics-for-paediatric-acute-diarrhoeal-disease-in-botswana-a-pilot-randomized-factorial-controlled-trial
#11
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Jeffrey M Pernica, Andrew P Steenhoff, Margaret Mokomane, Banno Moorad, Kwana Lechiile, Marek Smieja, Loeto Mazhani, Ji Cheng, Matthew S Kelly, Mark Loeb, Ketil Stordal, David M Goldfarb
INTRODUCTION: Diarrhoeal disease is the second-leading cause of death in young children. Current guidelines recommend treating children with acute non-bloody diarrhea with oral rehydration solutions and zinc, but not antimicrobials. However, in many resource-limited settings, infections with treatable enteric bacterial and protozoan pathogens are common. Probiotics have shown promise as an adjunct treatment for diarrhoea but have not been studied in sub-Saharan Africa. METHODS: We conducted a pilot, factorial, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of children aged 2-60 months hospitalized in Botswana for acute non-bloody diarrhoea...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986573/activin-in-acute-pancreatitis-potential-risk-stratifying-marker-and-novel-therapeutic-target
#12
Jonas J Staudacher, Cemal Yazici, Timothy Carroll, Jessica Bauer, Jingbo Pang, Nancy Krett, Yinglin Xia, Annette Wilson, Georgios Papachristou, Andrea Dirmeier, Claudia Kunst, David C Whitcomb, Giamila Fantuzzi, Barbara Jung
Acute Pancreatitis is a substantial health care challenge with increasing incidence. Patients who develop severe disease have considerable mortality. Currently, no reliable predictive marker to identify patients at risk for severe disease exists. Treatment is limited to rehydration and supporting care suggesting an urgent need to develop novel approaches to improve standard care. Activin is a critical modulator of inflammatory responses, but has not been assessed in pancreatitis. Here, we demonstrate that serum activin is elevated and strongly correlates with disease severity in two established murine models of acute pancreatitis induced by either cerulein or IL-12 + IL-18...
October 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986064/liposomes-entrapping-%C3%AE-cyclodextrin-ibuprofen-inclusion-complex-role-of-the-host-and-the-guest-on-the-bilayer-integrity-and-microviscosity
#13
Guido Angelini, Cristina Campestre, Simona Boncompagni, Carla Gasbarri
Multilamellar vesicles (MLVs) from 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC) were prepared by using the dehydration-rehydration method. The β-cyclodextrin/Ibuprofen inclusion complex (β-CD/Ibu) was formed and solubilised into the aqueous compartments of the investigated vesicles. The resulting POPC MLVs entrapping β-CD/Ibu complex were essentially homogeneous in shape as demonstrated by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). The liposomal stability was determined at 37.0±0.1°C by following the outflux rate of 5(6)-carboxyfluorescein (CF) at pH 7...
October 3, 2017: Chemistry and Physics of Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985471/reproducible-preparation-of-proteopolymersomes-via-sequential-polymer-film-hydration-and-membrane-protein-reconstitution
#14
Siew-Leng Loo, Winna Siti, Monisha Thiyagarajan, Jaume Torres, Rong Wang, Xiao Matthew Hu
Film rehydration method is commonly used for membrane protein (MP) reconstitution into block copolymer (BCP), but the lack of control in the rehydration step formed a heterogeneous population of proteopolymersomes that interferes with the characterization and performance of devices incorporating them. To improve the self-assembly of polymersomes with simultaneous MP reconstitution, the study reported herein aimed to understand the effects of different variants of the rehydration procedure on the MP reconstitution into BCP membranes...
October 6, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28963679/clinical-practice-nausea-and-vomiting-in-acute-gastroenteritis-physiopathology-and-management
#15
REVIEW
Beatrice C Canziani, Peter Uestuener, Emilio F Fossali, Sebastiano A G Lava, Mario G Bianchetti, Carlo Agostoni, Gregorio P Milani
Currently recommended management of acute gastroenteritis is supportive. Although the affected children habitually have vomiting, recommendations do not focus on the correction of this symptom. In this condition, elevated ketone bodies and stimuli initiated by gut mucosa damage produced by the enteral pathogen likely underlay nausea and vomiting. As compared to 0.9% saline, intravenous administration of a dextrose-containing bolus of 0.9% saline is associated with a greater reduction of circulating ketones and a shorter duration of nausea and vomiting...
September 30, 2017: European Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28959436/expanding-the-population-coverage-of-evidence-based-interventions-with-community-health-workers-to-save-the-lives-of-mothers-and-children-an-analysis-of-potential-global-impact-using-the-lives-saved-tool-list
#16
Victoria B Chou, Ingrid K Friberg, Mervyn Christian, Neff Walker, Henry B Perry
BACKGROUND: Evidence has been accumulating that community health workers (CHWs) providing evidence-based interventions as part of community-based primary health care (CBPHC) can lead to reductions in maternal, neonatal and child mortality. However, investments to strengthen and scale-up CHW programs still remain modest. METHODS: We used the Lives Saved Tool (LiST) to estimate the number of maternal, neonatal and child deaths and stillbirths that could be prevented if 73 countries effectively scaled up the population coverage of 30 evidence-based interventions that CHWs can deliver in these high-burden countries...
December 2017: Journal of Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28958435/increased-spinal-height-using-propped-slouched-sitting-postures-innovative-ways-to-rehydrate-intervertebral-discs
#17
John L Pape, Jean-Michel Brismée, Phillip S Sizer, Omer C Matthijs, Kevin L Browne, Birendra M Dewan, Stéphane Sobczak
BACKGROUND: Upright and slouched sitting are frequently adopted postures associated with increased intradiscal pressure, spinal height loss and intervertebral disc pathology. OBJECTIVES: To examine the effects of two sustained propped slouched sitting (PSS) postures on spinal height after a period of trunk loading. METHODS: Thirty-four participants without a history of low back pain (LBP) were recruited (age 24.4 ± 1.6 years). Subjects sat in (1) PSS without lumbar support and (2) PSS with lumbar support for 10 min, after a period of trunk loading...
January 2018: Applied Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28957470/treatment-of-severe-cholera-a-review-of-strategies-to-reduce-stool-output-and-volumes-of-rehydration-fluid
#18
Thomas Butler
Background: Severe cholera is a life-threatening illness of hypovolemic shock and metabolic acidosis due to rapid and profuse diarrheal fluid loss. Emergency life-saving therapy is i.v. saline, optionally supplemented with potassium and alkali to correct the fluid deficit, potassium losses and acidosis. After this initial rehydration, for the next 2 days ongoing stool losses are replaced with oral rehydration solution (ORS), which contains sodium chloride, potassium and alkali together with glucose or rice powder as a source of glucose to serve as a carrier for sodium...
May 1, 2017: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28953928/age-specific-fast-breathing-in-under-five-diarrheal-children-in-an-urban-hospital-acidosis-or-pneumonia
#19
Sharika Nuzhat, Tahmeed Ahmed, Chowdhury Ali Kawser, Azharul Islam Khan, S M Rafiqul Islam, Lubaba Shahrin, K M Shahunja, Abu S M S B Shahid, Abdullah Al Imran, Mohammod Jobayer Chisti
BACKGROUND: Children with diarrhea often present with fast breathing due to metabolic acidosis from dehydration. On the other hand, age specific fast breathing is the cornerstone for the diagnosis of pneumonia following classification of pneumonia recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO). Correction of metabolic acidosis by rehydrating the diarrheal children requires time, which delays early initiation of appropriate antimicrobials for pneumonia and thereby increases the risk of deaths...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28952662/cholera-the-new-strike-of-an-old-foe
#20
Anna Kuna, Michał Gajewski
Cholera is an acute bacterial gastrointestinal infection caused by ingestion of water or food containing the pathogen Vibrio cholerae. The incubation period can be very short and it takes between several hours and 5 days. During the 19th century, cholera was spreading from India across the world. Its original reservoir was located in the Ganges delta. So far, there have been six epidemics of cholera; the current outbreak is the seventh. It started in Asia, attacked Africa and then the Americas. Cholera causes thousands of illnesses and deaths annually, mostly in South Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa...
2017: International Maritime Health
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