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Mai Tanabe-Ikegawa, Toshiyuki Takahashi, Hiroshi Churei, Akihiro Mitsuyama, Toshiaki Ueno
The present study was conducted to investigate the influence of rehydration with diluted sports drink and water gargling on salivary flow, pH and buffering capacity during exercise. Nineteen participants performed a 30-min bicycle ergometer exercise at 80% of maximal heart rate while consuming a sports drink, followed by gargling with water, or no gargling, immediately after the exercise (Exp. 1). The same experiment was then conducted on 9 participants who drank 1.5-fold diluted sports drink (Exp. 2-A) and 10 who drank 2-fold diluted sports drink (Exp...
2018: Journal of Oral Science
Yu-Mou Chou, Chen-June Seak, Zhong Ning Leonard Goh, Joanna Chen-Yeen Seak, Chen-Ken Seak, Chih-Chuan Lin
RATIONALE: Diabetic ketoacidosis is a serious and potentially life-threatening acute complication of diabetes mellitus (DM). Euglycemic diabetic ketoacidosis (eDKA) is however challenging to identify in the emergency department (ED) due to absence of marked hyperglycemia, often leading to delayed diagnosis and treatment. eDKA has been recently found to be associated with sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors, one of the newest classes of antidiabetics, though there are very limited reports implicating dapagliflozin as the offending agent in ED patients...
June 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Noor Shafina Mohd Nor, Choong Yi Fong, Kartini Rahmat, Wan Mun Vanessa Lee, Azriyanti Anuar Zaini, Muhammad Yazid Jalaludin
Cerebral oedema is the most common neurological complication of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). However, ischaemic and haemorrhagic brain injury has been reported infrequently. A 10-year old girl who was previously well presented with severe DKA. She was tachycardic with poor peripheral perfusion but normotensive. However, two fast boluses totalling 40 ml/kg normal saline were given. She was transferred to another hospital where she was intubated due to drowsiness. Rehydration fluid (maintenance and 48-hour correction for 7...
April 2018: European Endocrinology
Royd Vinya, Yadvinder Malhi, Nick D Brown, Joshua B Fisher, Timothy Brodribb, Luiz E O C Aragão
Water availability has frequently been linked to seasonal leaf display in seasonally dry ecosystems, but there have been few ecohydrological investigations of this link. Miombo woodland is a dominant seasonally dry tropical forest ecosystem type in southern Africa; however, there are few data on the relationship between seasonal dynamics in plant-water relations and patterns of leaf display for Miombo woodland. Here we investigate this relationship among nine key Miombo woodland tree species differing in drought tolerance ability and leaf phenology...
June 15, 2018: Tree Physiology
Tomoka Fushimi, Tomonobu Uchino, Yasunori Miyazaki, Ichiro Hatta, Miyuki Asano, Hiyori Fujino, Rie Suzuki, Shun Fujimori, Daichi Kamiya, Yoshiyuki Kagawa
Phospholipid nanoparticles (PNs) encapsulating vitamin C and E derivatives, 3-O-cetyl ascorbic acid (CA) and tocopherol acetate (TA), respectively, were examined using the film rehydration and extrusion method. PN formulations (TA-Cassome) were prepared by mixing CA, soya phosphatidylcholine (Soya PC), sodium cholate, and TA at a molar ratio of 20/80/5/6. Glycerol (GL) or diglycerol (DG) were also added to improve the skin accumulation of CA and TA. Three TA-Cassome formulations were evaluated using a dynamic light scattering (DLS), NMR, TEM, skin accumulation test for CA and TA, and small-angle X-ray diffraction (SAXD) analysis...
June 12, 2018: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
Claudia Barreda-Velit, Rodrigo Salcedo-Pereda, Jesús Ticona
Background: Schmidt’s syndrome, also known as poliglandular autoimmune syndrome type 2, is a rare disease that has a prevalence between 1.5-4.5 cases per 100 000 inhabitants. The diagnosis consists in the concomitant presentation of Addison disease, autoimmune thyroid disease and other autoimmune endocrinological conditions. The aim of this paper is to describe a case of Schmidt’s syndrome in the peruvian context and to analyze the difficulties in the diagnosis. Clinical case: We present the case of a 43-year-old woman that presents to the emergency room with headache, nausea, vomits and a “syncope episode”...
March 2018: Revista Médica del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social
Gethin H Evans, Lewis Mattin, Isabelle Ireland, William Harrison, Adora M W Yau, Victoria McIver, Tristan Pocock, Elizabeth Sheader, Lewis J James
Whey protein is a commonly ingested nutritional supplement amongst athletes and regular exercisers; however, its role in post-exercise rehydration remains unclear. Eight healthy male and female participants completed two experimental trials involving the ingestion of 35 g of whey protein (WP) or maltodextrin (MD) at the onset of a rehydration period, followed by ingestion of water to a volume equivalent to 150% of the amount of body mass lost during exercise in the heat. The gastric emptying rates of the solutions were measured using 13 C breath tests...
June 14, 2018: Nutrients
Alfredo Guarino, Andrea Lo Vecchio, Jorge Amil Dias, James A Berkley, Chris Boey, Dario Bruzzese, Mitchell B Cohen, Sylvia Cruchet, Ilaria Liguoro, Eduardo Salazar-Lindo, Bhupinder Sandhu, Philip M Sherman, Toshiaki Shimizu
OBJECTIVES: Despite a substantial consistency in recommendations for the management of children with acute gastroenteritis (AGE), a high variability in clinical practice and a high rate of inappropriate medical interventions persist in both developing and developed countries.Aim of this study was to develop a set of clinical recommendations for the management of non-severely malnourished children with AGE to be applied worldwide. METHODS: The Federation of International Societies of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition (FISPGHAN) Working Group (WG) selected care protocols on the management of acute diarrhea in infants and children aged between 1 month and 18 years...
June 12, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
Joseph I Wolfsdorf, Nicole Glaser, Michael Agus, Maria Fritsch, Ragnar Hanas, Arleta Rewers, Mark A Sperling, Ethel Codner
Recommendations concerning fluid management have been modified to reflect recent findings from a randomized controlled clinical trial showing no difference in cerebral injury in patients rehydrated at different rates with either 0.45% or 0.9% saline. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
June 13, 2018: Pediatric Diabetes
Yadav Chakravarthy, Sonu Clarence
Aim and Objective: To evaluate the in vitro effect of red wine on color stability of three different esthetic restorative materials such as nanohybrid composites, conventional restorative glass ionomer cement (GIC), and feldspathic porcelain. Materials and Methods: The color stability of test materials was determined using a spectrophotometer. A total of 30 specimens were prepared (10 from each) from each material on a round metal mold (11 mm diameter and 2 mm deep)...
May 2018: Journal of Conservative Dentistry: JCD
Satinder Kour, Vikramjit K Zhawar
Post-germination desiccation tolerance (DT) was studied in two wheat cultivars. Effect of pretreatment of abscisic acid (ABA)/ osmotic/ salt/ heat stress was also studied. One day (d)-old seedlings of wheat cultivars PBW 644 (drought tolerant) and PBW 343 (drought susceptible) were exposed to ABA/stress treatment for next 1 d, desiccated for 4 d and subsequently rehydrated for 4 d. Biomass, protein, water, protein carbonyls (oxidative toxicity) and nitric oxide (NO) levels were measured in 2 d (treated), 6 d (desiccated), 10 d (rehydrated) seedlings...
April 2018: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
Yifan Zan, Yuanyuan Sun, Lingzhao Kong, Gai Miao, Liwei Bao, Hao Wang, Shenggang Li, Yuhan Sun
Formic acid induced controlled-release hydrolysis of sugar-rich microalgae (Scenedesmus) over the Sn-Beta catalyst was found to be a highly efficient process for producing lactic acid as a platform chemical. One-pot reaction with a very high lactic acid yield of 83.0% was realized in a batch reactor using water as the solvent. Under the attack of formic acid, the cell wall of Scenedesmus was disintegrated, and hydrolysis of the starch inside the cell was strengthened in a controlled-release mode, resulting in a stable and relatively low glucose concentration...
June 12, 2018: ChemSusChem
Naveed Ahmad, Salim Ur-Rehman, Muhammad Asim Shabbir, Abdullah, Muhammad Asif Shehzad, Zia Ud-Din, Thomas H Roberts
Durum wheat semolina (DWS) can be enriched with legume flours to produce more nutritious but high-quality pasta. DWS was substituted with detoxified matri ( Lathyrus sativus ) flour (DMF) at 5-25%, which in spaghetti increased the levels of protein, lipid, fibre and ash but decreased nitrogen-free extract. Water absorption, arrival time and dough development time increased from 63.1 to 69.2%, 1.7 to 2.4 and 2.3 to 3.3 min, respectively, while dough stability, consistency and tolerance index decreased. DMF addition increased cooking loss (4...
June 2018: Journal of Food Science and Technology
Kathryn G Curran, Emma Wells, Samuel J Crowe, Rupa Narra, Jared Oremo, Waqo Boru, Jane Githuku, Mark Obonyo, Kevin M De Cock, Joel M Montgomery, Lyndah Makayotto, Daniel Langat, Sara A Lowther, Ciara O'Reilly, Zeinab Gura, Jackson Kioko
BACKGROUND: From December 2014 to September 2016, a cholera outbreak in Kenya, the largest since 2010, caused 16,840 reported cases and 256 deaths. The outbreak affected 30 of Kenya's 47 counties and occurred shortly after the decentralization of many healthcare services to the county level. This mixed-methods study, conducted June-July 2015, assessed cholera preparedness in Homa Bay, Nairobi, and Mombasa counties and explored clinic- and community-based health care workers' (HCW) experiences during outbreak response...
June 11, 2018: BMC Public Health
Joshua Krieger, Donald Sims, Cameron Wolterstorff
Blood flow-restricted resistance (BFRR) training is effective as a means to improve muscle strength and size while enduring less mechanical stress. It is generally safe but can have adverse effects. We present a case of an active duty Soldier who developed rhabdomyolysis as a result of a single course of BFRR training. He was presented to the emergency department with bilateral lower extremity pain, was admitted for electrolyte monitoring and rehydration, and had an uncomplicated hospital course and full recovery...
2018: Journal of Special Operations Medicine: a Peer Reviewed Journal for SOF Medical Professionals
Wenhua Zhang, Runmei Zou, Yi Xu, Cheng Wang
To compare the curative effect and the changes of serum electrolytes between oral rehydration salts (ORS) I and ORS III treatment in neurally mediated syncope children.
 Methods: The children with the symptom of unexplained syncope and pre-syncope were collected in Second Xiangya Hospital from May 2014 to May 2017. After head-up tilt test (HUTT), their serum electrolytes levels were examined. Children who were positive in the HUTT received ORS (ORS I or ORS III) and health education. Subjects were randomly divided into an ORS I group (n=27) and an ORS III group (n=49)...
May 28, 2018: Zhong Nan da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Central South University. Medical Sciences
Oleg Kikhtyanin, Libor Čapek, Zdeněk Tišler, Romana Velvarská, Adriana Panasewicz, Petra Diblíková, David Kubička
MgGa layered double hydroxides (Mg/Ga = 2-4) were synthesized and used for the preparation of MgGa mixed oxides and reconstructed hydrotalcites. The properties of the prepared materials were examined by physico-chemical methods (XRD, TGA, NH3 -TPD, CO2 -TPD, SEM, and DRIFT) and tested in aldol condensation of furfural and acetone. The as-prepared phase-pure MgGa samples possessed hydrotalcite structure, and their calcination resulted in mixed oxides with MgO structure with a small admixture phase characterized by a reflection at 2θ ≈ 36...
2018: Frontiers in Chemistry
Ezzat Khodashenas, Anoush Azarfar, Elham Bakhtiari, Amir Reza Daneshmand Eslami, Masoud Shaghasi Roodi, Yalda Ravanshad
Objective: The aim of the present study was to determine the accuracy of pediatric residents in diagnosis of dehydration in children with gastroenteritis. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study in Dr. Sheikh Hospital, affiliated with Mashhad University of Medical Sciences (Mashhad, Iran), in 2016. One hundred fifteen children aged 1 month to 14 years with gastroenteritis were included according to easy sampling. All patients were weighed. Dehydration was scored as mild, moderate and severe by pediatric residents according to Nelson standard table including pulse rate, blood pressure, blood skin supplement, skin turgor, fontanel, mucus membrane, tear respiration and urine output criteria...
April 2018: Electronic Physician
Amel Benatallah, Faissal Ghozlane, Michel Marie
Objective: This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of water restriction (WR) on physiological and blood parameters on lactating dairy cows reared under Mediterranean climate. Methods: The trial lasted 16 days preceded by two weeks of adaptation to the experimental condition in spring 2014 on 6 dairy cows in mid-lactation. These cows were watered at will for 4 days (W100) (hydration period), then split into 2 groups, one group has received 25% and the other 50% of water compared to their mean water consumption during the hydration period; then rehydrated for 4 days...
May 31, 2018: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
Mattia Storti, Alex Costa, Serena Golin, Michela Zottini, Tomas Morosinotto, Alessandro Alboresi
The adaptation to dehydration and rehydration cycles represents a key step in the evolution of photosynthetic organisms and require the development of mechanisms by which to sense external stimuli and translate them into signaling components. In this study, we used genetically encoded fluorescent sensors to detect specific transient increases in the Ca2+ concentration in the moss Physcomitrella patens upon dehydration and rehydration treatment. Observation of the entire plant in a single time-series acquisition revealed that various cell types exhibited different sensitivities to osmotic stress and that Ca2+ waves originated from the basal part of the gametophore and were directionally propagated towards the top of the plant...
June 6, 2018: Plant & Cell Physiology
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