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Bhavin Jani, Adolfine Hokororo, Jackson Mchomvu, Margaret M Cortese, Christopher Kamugisha, Delphinius Mujuni, Dotto Kallovya, Umesh D Parashar, Jason M Mwenda, DaFrossa Lyimo, Antonia Materu, Kakuri Frank Omari, Mark Waziri, Theresia Laswai, Hamisi Juma, Josephine Mlay, Juliana Dogani, Eugenia Stephen, Mwanisha Seugendo, Uyanjo Nkumbi, Anna Lyakurwa, Anivera Matojo, Elice Bendera, Jonathan Senyota, Veronica Msingwa, Yohana Fungo, Fausta Michael, Amina Mpamba, Alfred Chambo, Happy Cholobi, Faraja Lyamuya, Inviollatha Chami, Esther Mchome, Amina Mohamed Mshana, Edward Mushi, Uforo Mariki, Ronica Chard, Deborah Tuju, Nuswe Ambokile, Fatuma Lukwale, Furaha Kyessi, Asha Khamis, Innocent Michael, Doreen Macha, Angelina Saguti
BACKGROUND: Monovalent rotavirus vaccine (RV1) was introduced in Tanzania in January 2013 under the Reach Every Child initiative, to be given at ages 6 and 10 weeks. We used the sentinel hospital rotavirus surveillance system to examine the rotavirus detection rate before and after vaccine introduction and estimate vaccine effectiveness. METHODS: Before vaccine introduction, rotavirus surveillance was established at two mainland hospitals; children admitted for acute diarrhea were eligible for enrollment and stools were tested for rotavirus antigen...
April 11, 2018: Vaccine
Shakila Zaman, Khalida Aamir, Lars Å Hanson, Stefan Lange
BACKGROUND: Diarrheal illnesses in young children cause morbidity and preventable deaths in developing countries. We evaluated two high doses of Salovum® [Antisecretory Factor] to treat diarrhea in young children and followed for recurrence 6 weeks post treatment. METHODS: Forty children, 6-24 months old, admitted with acute diarrhea, to the Outpatient Department of Children's Hospital in Lahore, Pakistan were selected. The patients were randomly allocated to either Group A given 2 sachets, or to Group B, given 4 sachets...
April 3, 2018: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
Genevieve Santillanes, Emily Rose
The article discusses the evaluation of dehydration in children and reviews the literature on physical findings of dehydration. Pediatric dehydration is a common problem in emergency departments and wide practice variation in treatment exists. Dehydration can be treated with oral, nasogastric, subcutaneous, or intravenous fluids. Although oral rehydration is underutilized in the United States, most children with dehydration can be successfully rehydrated via the oral route. Selection of oral rehydration solution and techniques for successful oral rehydration are presented...
May 2018: Emergency Medicine Clinics of North America
Subhajit Dutta, Mehali Mitra, Puja Agarwal, Kalyan Mahapatra, Sayanti De, Upasana Sett, Sujit Roy
Plants, being sessile in nature, are constantly exposed to various environmental stresses, such as solar UV radiations, soil salinity, drought and desiccation, rehydration, low and high temperatures and other vast array of air and soil borne chemicals, industrial waste products, metals and metalloids. These agents, either directly or indirectly via the induction of oxidative stress and overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS), frequently perturb the chemical or physical structures of DNA and induce both cytotoxic or genotoxic stresses...
April 5, 2018: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Chang Kai Su, Kou Lin Zhang
Two new CoII coordination polymers (CPs), namely, catena-poly[[[(5-amino-2,4,6-tribromobenzene-1,3-dicarboxylato-κO)aquacobalt(II)]-bis[μ-1,3-bis(imidazol-1-ylmethyl)benzene-κ2 N:N']] 4.75-hydrate], {[Co(C8 H2 Br3 NO4 )(C14 H14 N4 )2 (H2 O)]·4.75H2 O}n , (1), and poly[(μ-5-amino-2,4,6-tribromobenzene-1,3-dicarboxylato-κ2 O1 :O3 )[μ-1,2-bis(imidazol-1-ylmethyl)benzene-κ2 N:N']cobalt(II)], [Co(C8 H2 Br3 NO4 )(C14 H14 N4 )]n , (2), have been synthesized successfully by the assembly of multifunctional 5-amino-2,4,6-tribromoisophthalic acid (H2 ATBIP) and CoII ions in the presence of the flexible isomeric bis(imidazole) ligands 1,3-bis(imidazol-1-ylmethyl)benzene (mbix) and 1,2-bis(imidazol-1-ylmethyl)benzene (obix)...
April 1, 2018: Acta Crystallographica. Section C, Structural Chemistry
Wynston Ray Woodenberg, Sershen, Boby Varghese, Norman Pammenter
Plant cell walls (CWs) are dynamic in that they can change conformation during ontogeny and in response to various stresses. Though seeds are the main propagatory units of higher plants, little is known of the conformational responses of zygotic embryo CWs to drying. This study employed cryo-scanning electron microscopy to compare the effects of desiccation on zygotic embryo CW morphology across three gymnosperm species that were shown here to differ in seed desiccation sensitivity: Podocarpus henkelii (highly desiccation-sensitive), Podocarpus falcatus (moderately desiccation-sensitive), and Pinus elliottii (desiccation-tolerant)...
April 4, 2018: Protoplasma
Joseph T Church, Nicole L Werner, Meghan A Coughlin, Julia Menzel-Smith, Mary Najjar, Benjamin D Carr, Hemant Parmar, Jeff Neil, Dimitrios Alexopoulos, Carlos Perez-Torres, Xia Ge, Scott C Beeman, Joel R Garbow, George B Mychaliska
PURPOSE: We evaluated whether brain development continues and brain injury is prevented during Artificial Placenta (AP) support utilizing extracorporeal life support (ECLS). METHODS: Lambs at EGA 118days (term=145; n=4) were placed on AP support (venovenous ECLS with jugular drainage and umbilical vein reinfusion) for 7days and sacrificed. Early (EGA 118; n=4) and late (EGA 127; n=4) mechanical ventilation (MV) lambs underwent conventional MV for up to 48h and were sacrificed, and early (n=5) and late (n=5) tissue control (TC) lambs were sacrificed at delivery...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
Ülo Niinemets, León A Bravo, Lucian Copolovici
Exposure to recurrent desiccation cycles carries a risk of accumulation of reactive oxygen species that can impair leaf physiological activity upon rehydration, but development of filmy fern stress status through desiccation and rewatering cycles has been poorly studied. We studied foliage photosynthetic rate and volatile marker compounds characterizing cell wall modifications (methanol) and stress development (lipoxygenase (LOX) pathway volatiles and methanol) through desiccation/rewatering cycles in lower-canopy species Hymenoglossum cruentum and Hymenophyllum caudiculatum, lower- to upper-canopy species H...
March 30, 2018: Plant, Cell & Environment
Juliana Perdiz Senna, Thaís Nogueira Barradas, Stephani Cardoso, Talita Carvalho Castiglione, Michael J Serpe, Kattya Gyselle de Holanda E Silva, Claudia Regina Elias Mansur
Amphotericin B (AmB) is the first-choice drug to treat several fungal infections. However, due to its low solubility it can only be administrated intravenously. Nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC) have the ability to encapsulate hydrophobic drugs in an aqueous matrix, making them interesting for use in alternative drug delivery systems for AmB. Their combination with stimuli-sensitive polymers such as alginate can be used as a strategy to protect acid sensitive molecules from gastric acid. The proposal of this work was to develop a dual-strategy hydrogel/NLC delivery system for amphotericin B...
March 14, 2018: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Viktor Kamiloski, Katerina Kasapinova
The studies that evaluated blood loss during hip surgery found a relatively small loss that does not explain the large hemoglobin drop postoperatively. The aim of this study was to determine the fall in hemoglobin level after admission and rehydration in patients with hip fractures and to identify the patients that need blood transfusion. This retrospective study included data on 374 patients with hip fracture with surgery delayed by more than 24 hours and complete blood count repeated prior to surgery after fluid resuscitation for a minimum of 24 hours...
December 2017: Acta Clinica Croatica
C F Resende, V S Pacheco, F F Dornellas, A M S Oliveira, J C E Freitas, P H P Peixoto
In this study, the activities of antioxidant enzymes, photosynthetic pigments, proline and carbohydrate contents in Pitcairnia encholirioides under ex vitro conditions of water deficit were evaluated. Results show that plants under progressive water stress, previously in vitro cultured in media supplemented with 30 g L-1 sucrose and GA3, accumulated more proline and increased peroxidase (POD) activity and the contents of photosynthetic pigments and carbohydrates. For plants previously in vitro cultured with 15 g L-1 sucrose and NAA, no differences were found for proline content and there were reductions in activities of peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT) and poliphenoloxidase (PPO), and in contents of carbohydrates, with progress of ex vitro water deficit...
March 22, 2018: Brazilian Journal of Biology, Revista Brasleira de Biologia
Tamlyn Anne Rautenberg, Ute Zerwes, Way Seah Lee
Objective: To perform cost utility (CU) and budget impact (BI) analyses augmented by scenario analyses of critical model structure components to evaluate racecadotril as adjuvant to oral rehydration solution (ORS) for children under 5 years with acute diarrhea in Malaysia. Methods: A CU model was adapted to evaluate racecadotril plus ORS vs ORS alone for acute diarrhea in children younger than 5 years from a Malaysian public payer's perspective. A bespoke BI analysis was undertaken in addition to detailed scenario analyses with respect to critical model structure components...
2018: ClinicoEconomics and Outcomes Research: CEOR
Chen Tan, Giovana Bonat Celli, Michelle Lee, Jonathan Licker, Alireza Abbaspourrad
This study fabricated a novel biohybrid microgel containing polysaccharide-based polyelectrolyte complexes (PECs) for anthocyanins. Herein, anthocyanins were encapsulated into PECs composed of chondroitin sulfate and chitosan, followed by incorporation into alginate microgels using emulsification/internal gelation method. We demonstrated that PECs incorporation strongly affected the properties of microgels, dependent on the polysaccharide concentration and pH in which they were fabricated. The dense internal network surrounded by an alginate shell was clearly visualized in cross-sectioned PECs-microgels...
March 27, 2018: Biomacromolecules
Janell A Routh, Anagha Loharikar, Elly Chemey, Aulive Msoma, Maureen Ntambo, Richard Mvula, Tracy Ayers, Andrews Gunda, Elizabeth T Russo, Beth Tippett Barr, Siri Wood, Robert Quick
Integrating public health interventions with antenatal clinic (ANC) visits may motivate women to attend ANC, thereby improving maternal and neonatal health, particularly for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected persons. In 2009, in an integrated ANC/Preventing Mother-to-Child Transmission program, we provided free hygiene kits (safe storage containers, WaterGuard water treatment solution, soap, and oral rehydration salts) to women at their first ANC visit and refills at subsequent visits. To increase fathers' participation, we required partners' presence for women to receive hygiene kits...
March 26, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Eric R Coon, Paul C Young, Ricardo A Quinonez, Daniel J Morgan, Sanket S Dhruva, Alan R Schroeder
Importance: Medical overuse has historically focused on adult health care, but interest in how children are affected by medical overuse is increasing. This review examines important research articles published in 2016 that address pediatric overuse. Observations: A structured search of PubMed and a manual review of the tables of contents of 10 journals identified 169 articles related to pediatric overuse published in 2016, from which 8 were selected based on the quality of methods and potential harm to patients in terms of prevalence and magnitude...
March 26, 2018: JAMA Pediatrics
Stephen D Atkinson, Sascha L Hallett, Jerri L Bartholomew
Genotypes of the myxosporean parasite Ceratonova shasta are defined by the number of ATC repeats in the parasite's ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer region 1. These genotypes correlate with specific salmonid fish hosts. We observed coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) with mixtures of genotypes II and III, and assumed that this was a consequence of fish having an aggregate infection from multiple individual parasites. We hypothesized that although multiple ITS copies are present within a parasite spore, the DNA sequences of these copies are identical, and thus individual C...
March 27, 2018: Parasitology
C-Y Hsu, T-C Chen, C-B Chang, Y-C Liu, T-R Lin
PURPOSE: In conventional cytology, preparation of a specimen by wet fixation for Papanicolaou stain is potentially subject to dry effect or cell loss which may make cytologic interpretation difficult or even impossible. We have been routinely making an additional smear for rehydration with normal saline (rehydration method) before wet fixation to overcome the above shortcomings. METHODS: We reviewed malignant pleural effusion and ascites 15 cases each in our cytology laboratory over the past 1 year...
April 2018: Cytopathology: Official Journal of the British Society for Clinical Cytology
Ed Oakley, Trusha Brys, Meredith Borland, Jocelyn Neutze, Natalie Phillips, David Krieser, Stuart R Dalziel, Andrew Davidson, Susan Donath, Kim Jachno, Mike South, Amanda Williams, Franz E Babl
BACKGROUND: There are no medications known that improve the outcome of infants with bronchiolitis. Studies have shown the management of bronchiolitis to be varied. OBJECTIVES: To describe medication use at the seven study hospitals from a recent multi-centre randomised controlled trial on hydration in bronchiolitis (comparative rehydration in bronchiolitis [CRIB]). METHODS: A retrospective analysis of extant data of infants between 2 months (corrected for prematurity) and 12 months of age admitted with bronchiolitis identified through the CRIB trial...
March 23, 2018: Emergency Medicine Australasia: EMA
Delphine Adam, Marta Maciejewska, Aymeric Naômé, Loïc Martinet, Wouter Coppieters, Latifa Karim, Denis Baurain, Sébastien Rigali
Cave moonmilk deposits host an abundant and diverse actinobacterial population that has a great potential for producing novel natural bioactive compounds. In our previous attempt to isolate culturable moonmilk-dwelling Actinobacteria, only Streptomyces species were recovered, whereas a metagenetic study of the same deposits revealed a complex actinobacterial community including 46 actinobacterial genera in addition to streptomycetes. In this work, we applied the rehydration-centrifugation method to lessen the occurrence of filamentous species and tested a series of strategies to achieve the isolation of hard-to-culture and rare Actinobacteria from the moonmilk deposits of the cave "Grotte des Collemboles"...
March 22, 2018: Antibiotics
Andrés M Patiño, Regan H Marsh, Eric J Nilles, Christopher W Baugh, Shada A Rouhani, Stephanie Kayden
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 21, 2018: New England Journal of Medicine
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