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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652821/who-are-the-subjects-with-gambling-related-problems-requiring-treatment-a-study-in-northern-italy
#1
Raimondo Maria Pavarin, Angelo Fioritti, Silvia Marani, Daniele Gambini, Elsa Turino, Antonella Piazza
BACKGROUND: This study analyzes data related to Hospital (HOS), Public Treatment Service Dedicated to Drug Addicts (SERD), or Community Mental Health Center (CMHC) clients with a first diagnosis of Pathological Gambling (PG) in the period 2000/2016 in Northern Italy. The aims were to describe trends and characteristics of pathological gamblers (PGs) and to estimate the prevalence of other diagnoses before or after the diagnosis of PG. METHODS: Participants aged over 17 years with an ICD-9 or ICD-10 PG diagnosis were selected...
April 13, 2018: Journal of Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651928/rural-postpartum-women-with-substance-use-disorders
#2
Debra Kramlich, Rebecca Kronk, Lenora Marcellus, Alison Colbert, Karen Jakub
The incidence of perinatal opioid use and neonatal withdrawal continues to rise rapidly in the face of the growing opioid addiction epidemic in the United States, with rural areas more severely affected. Despite decades of research and development of practice guidelines, maternal and neonatal outcomes have not improved substantially. This focused ethnography sought to understand the experience of accessing care necessary for substance use disorder recovery, pregnancy, and parenting. Personal accounts of 13 rural women, supplemented by participant observation and media artifacts, uncovered three domains with underlying themes: challenges of getting treatment and care (service availability, distance/geographic location, transportation, provider collaboration/coordination, physical and emotional safety), opportunities to bond (proximity, information), and importance of relationships (respect, empathy, familiarity, inclusion, interactions with care providers)...
April 1, 2018: Qualitative Health Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651507/efficacy-and-side-effects-of-baclofen-and-the-novel-gaba-b-receptor-positive-allosteric-modulator-cmppe-in-animal-models-for-alcohol-and-cocaine-addiction
#3
Valentina Vengeliene, Tatiane T Takahashi, Olga A Dravolina, Irina Belozertseva, Edwin Zvartau, Anton Y Bespalov, Rainer Spanagel
RATIONALE: Preclinical studies suggest that the GABAB receptor is a potential target for treatment of substance use disorders. However, recent clinical trials report adverse effects in patients treated with the GABAB receptor agonist baclofen and even question efficacy. How can the discrepancy between preclinical and clinical findings be explained? OBJECTIVE: To test efficacy and adverse effects of baclofen and the novel GABAB positive allosteric modulator (PAM) CMPPE in rat addiction models, which were developed in accordance with DSM...
April 12, 2018: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651257/mindfulness-based-interventions-for-the-treatment-of-substance-and-behavioral-addictions-a-systematic-review
#4
Marta Sancho, Marta De Gracia, Rita C Rodríguez, Núria Mallorquí-Bagué, Jéssica Sánchez-González, Joan Trujols, Isabel Sánchez, Susana Jiménez-Murcia, Jose M Menchón
Background: Emotion (dys)regulation as well as the interventions for improving these difficulties are receiving a growing attention in the literature. The aim of the present paper was to conduct a systematic review about the efficacy of mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) in both substance and behavioral addictions (BAs). Method: A literature search was conducted using Cochrane, PubMed, and Web of Science. Fifty-four randomized controlled trials published in English since 2009 to April 2017 were included into a narrative synthesis...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650301/-pulmonary-intravascular-talcosis-a-case-report
#5
J Reverso-Meinietti, F Vandenbos, K Risso, J Coyne, S Leroy, B Padovani, F Burel-Vandenbos
INTRODUCTION: Pulmonary intravascular talcosis is a rare condition occurring in intravenous drug users injecting oral medications. Talc results in a foreign-body granulomatous reaction giving a radiological haematogenic miliary appearance mimicking miliary tuberculosis. Drug users represent a population at risk for both these conditions and their distinction may be challenging. CASE REPORT: We reported the case of a man, 33 year-old, intravenous drug addict, detected by the health services because he was the partner of a person who died of contagious and multi-resistant tuberculosis...
April 9, 2018: La Revue de Médecine Interne
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649583/noradrenergic-%C3%AE-receptor-antagonism-in-the-basolateral-amygdala-impairs-reconsolidation-but-not-extinction-of-alcohol-self-administration-intra-bla-propranolol-impairs-reconsolidation-of-alcohol-self-administration
#6
Rose Chesworth, Laura H Corbit
A critical barrier to recovery from alcohol addiction is relapse propensity. Alcohol cues can trigger relapse, and pharmacologically facilitating processes such as extinction, which decreases cue associations, may help prevent relapse. The noradrenergic system mediates extinction learning for alcohol; however, the neural locus of this effect is unknown. This study sought to determine whether the basolateral amygdala (BLA), a region critical for fear extinction, also mediates extinction of alcohol seeking. Hooded Wistar rats (N = 12-15 per experiment) were implanted with bilateral cannula targeting the BLA and trained to lever press for 10% ethanol during auditory or visual cues...
April 9, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649120/what-is-the-evidence-for-food-addiction-a-systematic-review
#7
REVIEW
Eliza L Gordon, Aviva H Ariel-Donges, Viviana Bauman, Lisa J Merlo
The diagnostic construct of "food addiction" is a highly controversial subject. The current systematic review is the first to evaluate empirical studies examining the construct of "food addiction" in humans and animals. Studies were included if they were quantitative, peer-reviewed, and in the English language. The 52 identified studies (35 articles) were qualitatively assessed to determine the extent to which their findings indicated the following addiction characteristics in relation to food: brain reward dysfunction, preoccupation, risky use, impaired control, tolerance/withdrawal, social impairment, chronicity, and relapse...
April 12, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649094/methadone-maintenance-treatment-a-15-year-retrospective-study-in-split-dalmatia-county-croatia
#8
Davorka Sutlovic, Zeljko Kljucevic, Livia Sliskovic, Helena Susnjar, Ivo Viskovic, Marija Definis-Gojanovic
BACKGROUND: The aim of this retrospective study is to use existing epidemiological data on patients in methadone maintenance treatment in Split Dalmatia County from 2001 to 2015 in order to evaluate the substitution treatment system and policy of opiate addicts treatment, the epidemiological trend, and risk of overdose mortality. In addition, we would like to highlight the problem of poor control of methadone therapy, and thus the possibility of selling methadone. The result is a greater number of deaths caused by methadone in people who were not in methadone therapy...
April 11, 2018: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29648844/acceptability-of-nonabstinent-treatment-outcome-goals-among-addiction-treatment-providers-in-ukraine
#9
Alan K Davis, Tetiana Nickelsen, Robert A Zucker, Erin E Bonar, Maureen A Walton
We examined whether acceptability of nonabstinence treatment outcome goals varied as a function of a patient's severity of diagnosis (ICD-10 harmful use vs. dependence syndrome; World Health Organization, 1992), finality of outcome goal (intermediate vs. final), and type of substance (e.g., tobacco, alcohol, cannabis), among addiction treatment providers in Ukraine. We surveyed 44% of Ukrainian treatment providers (n = 446/1023; Mage = 40.4, SD = 8.6; Male = 67%; MYears Of Experience = 10.2, SD = 7.2). For tobacco use, most respondents (78%-93%) rated nonabstinence as acceptable, regardless of diagnostic severity or finality of outcome goal (i...
April 12, 2018: Psychology of Addictive Behaviors: Journal of the Society of Psychologists in Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643474/histone-deacetylase-6-controls-notch3-trafficking-and-degradation-in-t-cell-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia-cells
#10
Marica Pinazza, Margherita Ghisi, Sonia Minuzzo, Valentina Agnusdei, Gianluca Fossati, Vincenzo Ciminale, Laura Pezzè, Yari Ciribilli, Giorgia Pilotto, Carolina Venturoli, Alberto Amadori, Stefano Indraccolo
Several studies have revealed that endosomal sorting controls the steady-state levels of Notch at the cell surface in normal cells and prevents its inappropriate activation in the absence of ligands. However, whether this highly dynamic physiologic process can be exploited to counteract dysregulated Notch signaling in cancer cells remains unknown. T-ALL is a malignancy characterized by aberrant Notch signaling, sustained by activating mutations in Notch1 as well as overexpression of Notch3, a Notch paralog physiologically subjected to lysosome-dependent degradation in human cancer cells...
April 12, 2018: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628533/alone-on-the-inside-the-impact-of-social-isolation-and-helping-others-on-aod-use-and-criminal-activity
#11
Byron R Johnson, Maria E Pagano, Matthew T Lee, Stephen G Post
Because addiction is a socially isolating disease, social support for recovery is an important element of treatment planning. This study examines the relationship between social isolation, giving and receiving social support in Alcoholics Anonymous during treatment, and post-treatment outcomes among juvenile offenders court-referred to addiction treatment. Adolescents ( N = 195) aged 14 to 18 years were prospectively assessed at treatment admission, treatment discharge, 6 months, and 12 months after treatment discharge...
2018: Youth & Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628449/ethical-guidelines-for-genetic-research-on-alcohol-addiction-and-its-applications
#12
Audrey R Chapman, Adrian Carter, Jonathan M Kaplan, Kylie Morphett, Wayne Hall
Research on the genomic correlates to addiction raises ethical issues in a number of different domains. In this paper, we evaluate the status of genetic research on alcohol dependence as background to addressing the ethical issues raised in conducting research on addiction and the application of that research to the formulation of public policies. We conclude that genetic testing is not yet ready for use in the prediction of alcohol dependence liability. Pharmacogenetic testing for responses to treatments may have more clinical utility, although additional research is required to demonstrate utility and cost-effectiveness...
2018: Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628018/barriers-and-facilitators-affecting-the-implementation-of-substance-use-screening-in-primary-care-clinics-a-qualitative-study-of-patients-providers-and-staff
#13
Jennifer McNeely, Pritika C Kumar, Traci Rieckmann, Erica Sedlander, Sarah Farkas, Christine Chollak, Joseph L Kannry, Aida Vega, Eva A Waite, Lauren A Peccoralo, Richard N Rosenthal, Dennis McCarty, John Rotrosen
BACKGROUND: Alcohol and drug use are leading causes of morbidity and mortality that frequently go unidentified in medical settings. As part of a multi-phase study to implement electronic health record-integrated substance use screening in primary care clinics, we interviewed key clinical stakeholders to identify current substance use screening practices, barriers to screening, and recommendations for its implementation. METHODS: Focus groups and individual interviews were conducted with 67 stakeholders, including patients, primary care providers (faculty and resident physicians), nurses, and medical assistants, in two urban academic health systems...
April 9, 2018: Addiction Science & Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627881/public-stigma-across-addictive-behaviors-casino-gambling-esports-gambling-and-internet-gaming
#14
Samuel C Peter, Qian Li, Rory A Pfund, James P Whelan, Andrew W Meyers
The negative psychological effects of public stigma on disordered gamblers have been well documented. Public stigma deters treatment-seeking and other help-seeking behaviors, and negatively impacts individuals' view of themselves. Different types of disordered gambling activities may attract different degrees of stigma. One increasingly popular form of gambling involves placing bets on the outcomes of competitive video games, also called eSports gambling. This activity shares characteristics with Internet gaming and gambling...
April 7, 2018: Journal of Gambling Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627310/understanding-antidepressant-discontinuation-syndrome-ads-through-preclinical-experimental-models
#15
REVIEW
Konstantin N Zabegalov, Tatiana O Kolesnikova, Sergey L Khatsko, Andrey D Volgin, Oleg A Yakovlev, Tamara G Amstislavskaya, Polina A Alekseeva, Darya A Meshalkina, Ashton J Friend, Wandong Bao, Konstantin A Demin, Raul R Gainetdinov, Allan V Kalueff
Antidepressant drugs are currently one of the most prescribed medications. In addition to treatment resistance and side effects of antidepressants, their clinical use is further complicated by antidepressant discontinuation syndrome (ADS). ADS is a common problem in patients following the interruption, dose reduction, or discontinuation of antidepressant drugs. Clinically, ADS resembles a classical drug withdrawal syndrome, albeit differing from it because antidepressants generally do not induce addiction. The growing clinical importance and prevalence of ADS necessitate novel experimental (animal) models of this disorder...
April 5, 2018: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626743/examining-racial-ethnic-differences-in-patterns-of-benzodiazepine-prescription-and-misuse
#16
Benjamin Cook, Timothy Creedon, Ye Wang, Chunling Lu, Nicholas Carson, Piter Jules, Esther Lee, Margarita Alegría
BACKGROUND: Benzodiazepines (BZDs) are widely prescribed during psychiatric treatment. Unfortunately, their misuse has led to recent surges in overdose emergency visits and drug-related deaths. METHODS: Electronic health record data from a large healthcare system were used to describe racial/ethnic, sex, and age differences in BZD use and dependence. Among patients with a BZD prescription, we assessed differences in the likelihood of subsequently receiving a BZD dependence diagnosis, number of BZD prescriptions, receiving only one BZD prescription, and receiving 18 or more BZD prescriptions...
March 26, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625852/double-blind-evaluation-of-homeopathy-on-cocaine-craving-a-randomized-controlled-pilot-study
#17
Ubiratan Cardinalli Adler, Ana Carolina Acorinte, Fernando Oliveira Calzavara, Adriano André da Silva, Amarilys de Toledo Cesar, Maristela Schiabel Adler, Edson Zangiacomi Martinez, José Carlos Fernandes Galduróz
BACKGROUND: Brazil is among the nations with the greatest rates of annual cocaine usage. Pharmacological treatment of cocaine addiction is still limited, opening space for nonconventional interventions. Homeopathic Q-potencies of opium and Erythroxylum coca have been tested in the integrative treatment of cocaine craving among homeless addicts, but this setting had not proven feasible, due to insufficient recruitment. OBJECTIVE: This study investigates the effectiveness and tolerability of homeopathic Q-potencies of opium and E...
March 30, 2018: Journal of Integrative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625579/is-treatment-outcome-improved-if-patients-match-themselves-to-treatment-options-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#18
Morten Ellegaard Hell, William R Miller, Bent Nielsen, Anette Søgaard Nielsen
BACKGROUND: Research on matching patients to treatment has shown that matching grounded in expert views is little better than allocating patients by chance. Furthermore, there is growing emphasis on involving patients in their own treatment as a key to health behavior change. Research on the benefit of having patients choose their treatment from among options, in contrast to being assigned to a treatment by experts, has been limited. Consequently, we designed a rigorous test of patient self-matching to determine whether it does improve retention, adherence, and outcome in alcoholism treatment...
April 6, 2018: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623562/decline-in-buprenorphine-naloxone-prescriptions-in-a-state-medicaid-population-following-formulary-conversion-from-suboxone-to-bunavail
#19
Richard Soper, Sireesh Appajosyula, Christina Deximo
INTRODUCTION: A large, statewide, fee-for-service Medicaid plan recently (October 2015) executed a complete switch from sublingual buprenorphine-naloxone [(SLBN), Suboxone® ] to buccal buprenorphine-naloxone [(BBN), Bunavail® ] on its preferred drug formulary. This complete formulary switch provided an opportunity to assess dynamic changes in prescribing patterns, patient/physician acceptance, and indices of potential misuse/diversion. METHODS: For the period January 1, 2015 through December 31, 2016, two datasets were analyzed: prescriptions and associated costs for buprenorphine-naloxone (BN) products and urine toxicology test results for patients in the Medicaid plan...
April 6, 2018: Advances in Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621907/does-high-dose-benzodiazepine-abuse-really-produce-liver-toxicity-results-from-a-series-of-201-benzodiazepine-monoabusers
#20
Fabio Lugoboni, Antonio Mirijello, Laura Morbioli, Elena Arzenton, Roberto Leone, Marco Faccini, Rebecca Casari, Salvatore De Cosmo, Antonio Gasbarrini, Giovanni Addolorato
BACKGROUND: Several side-effects related to prolonged benzodiazepines (BZD) use have been reported. Given the primary role of liver in BZD metabolism, toxicity related to prolonged high-dose BZD use could be conceivable. No data are available on the long-term impact of high-dose BZD use on liver. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: A total of 201 BZD mono-abusers admitted to an Addiction Unit for detoxification were evaluated. Liver enzymes were evaluated at admission, before starting any treatment...
April 6, 2018: Expert Opinion on Drug Safety
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