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Hypnogogic hallucinations

Baland Jalal
Sleep paralysis (SP) is a common state of involuntary immobility occurring at sleep onset or offset. It can include terrifying hypnogogic or hypnopompic hallucinations of menacing bedroom intruders. Unsurprisingly, the experience is associated with great fear and horror worldwide. To date, there exist no direct treatment intervention for SP. In this article, I propose for the first time a type of focused inward-attention meditation combined with muscle relaxation as a direct intervention to be applied during the attack, to ameliorate and possibly eliminate it (what could be called, meditation-relaxation or MR therapy for SP)...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Baland Jalal, Devon E Hinton
Among Egyptian college students in Cairo (n = 100), this study examined the relationship between sleep paralysis (SP) and anxiety symptoms, viz., posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), trait anxiety, and pathological worry. SP rates were high; 43% of participants reported at least one lifetime episode of SP, and 24% of those who reported at least one lifetime episode had experienced four or more episodes during the previous year. Fourteen percent of men had experienced SP as compared to 86% of women. As hypothesized, relative to non-SP experiencers, participants who had SP reported higher symptoms of PTSD, trait anxiety, and pathological worry...
November 2015: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
Mohamed O E Babiker, Manish Prasad
OBJECTIVE: To provide a diagnostic and management approach for narcolepsy in children. METHODS: Narcolepsy is a chronic disabling disorder characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness, cataplexy, hypnogogic and/or hypnopompic hallucinations, and sleep paralysis. All four features are present in only half of the cases. Excessive daytime sleepiness is the essential feature of narcolepsy at any age and is usually the first symptom to manifest. A combination of excessive daytime sleepiness and definite cataplexy is considered pathognomonic of narcolepsy syndrome...
June 2015: Pediatric Neurology
Gregory Blecher, Natalie Wainbergas, Michael McGlynn, Arthur Teng
Our patient with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) not only displayed many typical syndromic features but also presented several unique challenges, with gross velopharyngeal insufficiency necessitating repair and severe obstructive sleep apnea developing thereafter, requiring ongoing non-invasive ventilation. This coincided with development of a narcolepsy-like syndrome, treated with dexamphetamine. Cataplexy, hypnogogic/hypnopompic hallucinations, sleep paralysis were absent and HLA-DQB1*06:02 was negative. Growth hormone (GH) therapy was commenced at 8 months of age and, as recommended, regular polysomnograms were conducted...
September 2014: Respirology Case Reports
Baland Jalal, Vilayanur S Ramachandran
Sleep paralysis (SP) is a common condition occurring either at sleep onset or sleep offset. During SP the sleeper experiences gross motor paralysis while the sensory system is clear. Hypnogogic and hypnopompic hallucinations are common during SP and may involve seeing, hearing, and sensing the presence of menacing intruders in one's bedroom. This "intruder" is often perceived as a shadowy humanoid figure. Supernatural accounts of this hallucinated intruder are common across cultures. In this paper, we postulate that a functional disturbance of the right parietal cortex explains the shadowy nocturnal bedroom intruder hallucination during SP...
December 2014: Medical Hypotheses
Swarup Kumar, Haritha Sagili
Narcolepsy is a chronic lifelong sleep disorder and it often leaves a debilitating effect on the quality of life of the sufferer. This disorder is characterized by a tetrad of excessive daytime sleepiness, cataplexy (brief loss of muscle tone following strong emotion), hypnogogic hallucinations and sleep paralysis. There are two distinct subgroups of Narcolepsy: Narcolepsy with cataplexy and Narcolepsy without cataplexy. For over 100 years, clinicians have recognised narcolepsy, but only in the last few decades have scientists been able to shed light on the true cause and pathogenesis of narcolepsy...
February 2014: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
Eric Young, Se Xiong, Laurel Finn, Terry Young
Concerns regarding sleep disorders in Hmong immigrants in the US emerged when an astonishingly high mortality rate of Sudden Unexplained Nocturnal Death Syndrome (SUNDS) was documented in Hmong men. Stress, genetics, and cardiac abnormalities interacting with disordered sleep were hypothesized as contributing factors to SUNDS. Most recently, sleep apnea has been implicated in nighttime deaths of Brugada Syndrome. This syndrome is thought to comprise a spectrum of sudden cardiac death disorders, including SUNDS...
February 2013: Social Science & Medicine
David T Bradford
This study is an 11-part investigation of the psychology and neuropsychology of early Christian asceticism as represented by Evagrius Ponticus (AD 345-399), the tradition's first ascetical theologian and possibly its mosfinfluential. Evagrius's biography is reviewed in the first section. The living circuinstaii and perceptual consequences of desert asceticism are considered in the second. Penitence, dispassion, and the mysticism of "pure prayer" are discussed in the third. Austerities are addressed in the fourth section, particularly fasting, prostrations, and prolonged standing...
October 2011: Psychological Reports
Paul C Peterson, Aatif M Husain
Narcolepsy is a disabling disease with a prevalence of 0.05%. It is characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness, cataplexy, sleep paralysis, hypnogogic hallucinations, automatic behavior, and disrupted nocturnal sleep. The presentation can be very variable, making diagnosis difficult. Loss of hypocretin containing neurons in the lateral hypothalamus has been noted in autopsy studies, and the cerebrospinal fluid level of hypocretin is reduced in patients with narcolepsy with cataplexy. New treatment options are available for the many symptoms of this disease...
November 2008: Brain & Development
S Nightingale, J C Orgill, I O Ebrahim, S F de Lacy, S Agrawal, A J Williams
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep Behavior Disorder (RBD) is a movement disorder associated with loss of REM-related muscle atonia and is characterized by complex, vigorous and frequently violent dream-enacting behavior during REM sleep. RBD is usually idiopathic or secondary to neurological problems such as Parkinson's disease. This study looked at the association of RBD with another sleep disorder, narcolepsy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Seventy-eight questionnaires were sent to known narcoleptics chosen at random from those with contact details available at the center...
May 2005: Sleep Medicine
U Seneviratne, K Puvanendran
INTRODUCTION: The aims of the study were to determine the demographic, clinical, and polysomnographic characteristics of narcolepsy, and to address the difficulties in diagnosing narcolepsy and cataplexy, which is a cardinal symptom. We also ventured to investigate the differences between narcolepsy with and without cataplexy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data were collected retrospectively from patients diagnosed with narcolepsy at the Sleep Disorder Unit of Singapore General Hospital over 5 years...
January 2005: Annals of the Academy of Medicine, Singapore
R R David, H H Fernandez
Musical release hallucinations are complex auditory phenomena, affecting mostly the deaf geriatric population, in which individuals hear vocal or instrumental music. Progressive hearing loss from otosclerosis disrupts the usual external sensory stimuli necessary to inhibit the emergence of memory traces within the brain, thereby "releasing" previously recorded perceptions. Responses to conventional antipsychotic agents have been variable and extrapyramidal and other side effects have limited their use. We report the first case of hypnogogic release hallucinations successfully treated with the atypical antipsychotic quetiapine...
2000: Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry and Neurology
J A Joyce
Narcolepsy is a derangement of the normal sleep-wakefulness rhythms. Originally, narcolepsy was thought to be a form of epilepsy; however, with the development and subsequent refinement of the electroencephalograph, this notion is no longer accepted. The disorder is characterized by inappropriate intrusions of rapid eye movement sleep into the wakeful state and multiple disruptions of the sleep cycles. Narcolepsy usually has its onset anytime between the ages of 10 years and 50 years, with the greatest majority of patients first reporting noticeable symptoms between the ages of 15 and 35 years...
February 1999: AANA Journal
K Podoll, V Mühlbauer, I Houben, H Ebel
Macrosomatognosia and microsomatognosia, in which the entire body or parts of the body are perceived as abnormally large or small, can occur as hypnagogic hallucinations in sane and healthy subjects. A review of the literature and five original observations are presented. The mouth and the hands are anatomic regions which are frequently affected, paralleling the dominance of their representation in the sensory maps of the human brain. The clinical differential diagnosis of the said phenomena includes narcolepsy, epileptic and migraine aura, drug-induced body schema disturbances and basic symptoms of functional psychoses...
August 1998: Fortschritte der Neurologie-Psychiatrie
G E Francisco, C B Ivanhoe
Narcolepsy is a rare sequela of brain injury. We report the case of a 27-yr-old male with post-traumatic narcolepsy who was successfully treated with methylphenidate. This patient sustained moderate brain injury from a motorcycle accident. Subsequently, he manifested the classic tetrad of narcolepsy: cataplexy, excessive daytime sleepiness, sleep paralysis, and hypnogogic hallucinations. There was no premorbid seizure or sleep disorder. There was no family history of sleep disorders. Polysomnography and Multiple Sleep Latency Test confirmed the diagnosis of narcolepsy...
January 1996: American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation
V V Bel'shov
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 1980: Anesteziologiia i Reanimatologiia
M B Scharf, D Brown, M Woods, L Brown, J Hirschowitz
Thirty patients with polysomnographically confirmed narcolepsy were treated with GHB (gamma-hydroxybutyrate) for up to 30 weeks. The number of nightly awakenings significantly decreased, while Stages 3 and 4 sleep substantially increased. The clinical symptoms of cataplexy, sleep paralysis, hypnogogic hallucinations, daily naps, and sleep attacks all showed significant improvements. Daytime sleepiness, while not completely eliminated, was controlled with lower doses of stimulant medication than patients were taking before the study...
June 1985: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
S Jakes, D R Hemsley
The present report is of the relationships between personality measures, hallucinatory experiences, and hypnogogic/hypnopompic imagery in the normal population. 'Psychoticism' was significantly related to reports of hallucinatory experiences, and a measure of hallucinatory predisposition was significantly associated with strong hypnogogic/hypnopompic imagery.
June 1987: Perceptual and Motor Skills
R L Manfredi, R W Brennan, R J Cadieux
Besides sleep apnea, the main disorders of excessive daytime sleepiness include narcolepsy and hypersomnia. Narcolepsy is characterized by periods of irresistible sleepiness and sleep attacks of brief duration and, most often, by one or more of the auxiliary symptoms: cataplexy, sleep paralysis, and hypnogogic hallucinations. Generally, sleepiness and sleep attacks in hypersomnia are of longer duration and are more resistible than in narcolepsy; also, the auxiliary symptoms are absent. There are three types of hypersomnia: idiopathic, secondary, and periodic...
September 1987: Seminars in Neurology
J Nahmias, M S Karetzky
Narcolepsy, a disabling disorder, has been underdiagnosed. The classic tetrad of symptoms includes sudden sleep attacks, cataplexy, sleep paralysis, and hypnogogic hallucinations. Diagnosis and treatment will restore a normal quality of life.
August 1989: New Jersey Medicine: the Journal of the Medical Society of New Jersey
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