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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231478/event-related-brain-potential-indices-of-cognitive-function-and-brain-resource-reallocation-during-working-memory-in-patients-with-multiple-sclerosis
#1
Thomas J Covey, Janet L Shucard, David W Shucard
OBJECTIVE: To examine event-related brain potentials (ERPs) in Multiple Sclerosis (MS) during a visual n-back working memory (WM) task, and test the hypothesis that compensatory brain function may be associated with variance in task performance in MS patients. METHODS: Midline ERPs for 25MS patients and 18 HCs were obtained for a visual n-back task that placed increasing demands on WM. N-back behavioral measures and neuropsychological performance measures of WM were also obtained...
January 29, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230841/magnetoencephalography-for-brain-electrophysiology-and-imaging
#2
REVIEW
Sylvain Baillet
We review the aspects that uniquely characterize magnetoencephalography (MEG) among the techniques available to explore and resolve brain function and dysfunction. While emphasizing its specific strengths in terms of millisecond source imaging, we also identify and discuss current practical challenges, in particular in signal extraction and interpretation. We also take issue with some perceived disadvantages of MEG, including the misconception that the technique is redundant with electroencephalography. Overall, MEG contributes uniquely to our deeper comprehension of both regional and large-scale brain dynamics: from the functions of neural oscillations and the nature of event-related brain activation, to the mechanisms of functional connectivity between regions and the emergence of modes of network communication in brain systems...
February 23, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230631/aerobic-exercise-and-its-effects-on-cognition-in-schizophrenia
#3
Peter Falkai, Berend Malchow, Andrea Schmitt
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Schizophrenia is a severe neuropsychiatric disorder with incomplete remission because of negative and cognitive symptoms in a large proportion of patients. Antipsychotic medication is successful in modulating positive symptoms, but only to a lower extent negative symptoms including cognitive dysfunction. Therefore, development of innovative add-on treatment is highly needed. In this review, recent evidence from clinical studies reveals effects of aerobic exercise on cognitive deficits in schizophrenia patients...
February 21, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229394/epileptic-encephalopathies-clinical-syndromes-and-pathophysiological-concepts
#4
REVIEW
Markus von Deimling, Ingo Helbig, Eric D Marsh
Epileptic encephalopathies account for a large proportion of the intractable early-onset epilepsies and are characterized by frequent seizures and poor developmental outcome. The epileptic encephalopathies can be loosely divided into two related groups of named syndromes. The first comprises epilepsies where continuous EEG changes directly result in cognitive and developmental dysfunction. The second includes patients where cognitive impairment is present at seizure onset and is due to the underlying etiology but the epileptic activity may then worsen the cognitive abilities over time...
February 2017: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229372/measuring-inhibition-and-cognitive-flexibility-in-friedreich-ataxia
#5
Louise A Corben, Felicity Klopper, Monique Stagnitti, Nellie Georgiou-Karistianis, John L Bradshaw, Gary Rance, Martin B Delatycki
Friedreich ataxia (FRDA) is an autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder with subtle impact on cognition. Inhibitory processes and cognitive flexibility were examined in FRDA by assessing the ability to suppress a predictable verbal response. We administered the Hayling Sentence Completion Test (HSCT), the Trail Making Test, and the Stroop Test to 43 individuals with FRDA and 42 gender- and age-matched control participants. There were no significant group differences in performance on the Stroop or Trail Making Test whereas significant impairment in cognitive flexibility including the ability to predict and inhibit a pre-potent response as measured in the HSCT was evident in individuals with FRDA...
February 22, 2017: Cerebellum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229084/restricted-cd4-t-cell-receptor-repertoire-impairs-cognitive-function-via-alteration-of-th2-cytokine-levels
#6
COMMENT
Eun Ji Song, Seong Gak Jeon, Kyoung Ah Kim, Jin-Il Kim, Minho Moon
Despite the effects of CD4+ T cell dysfunction on cognitive and behavioral impairment are well established, the effects of Th2 cytokines on the adult hippocampal neurogenesis and cognitive function in restricted CD4+ T cell receptor (TCR) repertoire model have not been fully elucidate. We found that mice with restricted CD4+ repertoire TCR showed decreased adult hippocampal neurogenesis using OT-II mice. Moreover, we demonstrated that OT-II mice showed increased Th2 cytokine levels in peripheral organs and IL-4 levels in brain...
2017: Neurogenesis (Austin, Tex.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228721/patients-with-chronic-spinal-cord-injury-exhibit-reduced-autonomic-modulation-during-an-emotion-recognition-task
#7
Gonzalo Varas-Díaz, Enzo P Brunetti, Gonzalo Rivera-Lillo, Pedro E Maldonado
Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a devastating event for individuals, who frequently develop motor and sensory impairment as well as autonomic dysfunction. Previous studies reported that autonomic activity plays a major role in social cognition and that difficulties in the ability to interpret social information are commonly observed in a variety of mental disorders, which in turn correlate with a poor autonomic nervous system (ANS) regulation. It is well established that subjects with SCI have an alteration in ANS regulation mechanisms...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228718/current-concepts-on-the-physiopathological-relevance-of-dopaminergic-receptors
#8
REVIEW
Ada Ledonne, Nicola B Mercuri
Dopamine (DA) is a key neurotransmitter modulating essential functions of the central nervous system (CNS), like voluntary movement, reward, several cognitive functions and goal-oriented behaviors. The factual relevance of DAergic transmission can be well appreciated by considering that its dysfunction is recognized as a core alteration in several devastating neurological and psychiatric disorders, including Parkinson's disease (PD) and associated movement disorders, as well as, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and addiction...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228566/reduced-cognitive-function-in-patients-with-parkinson-disease-and-obstructive-sleep-apnea
#9
Victoria P Mery, Priti Gros, Anne-Louise Lafontaine, Ann Robinson, Andrea Benedetti, R John Kimoff, Marta Kaminska
OBJECTIVE: To assess the association between obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and nonmotor symptoms (NMS), including cognitive dysfunction, in patients with Parkinson disease (PD). METHODS: Patients with idiopathic PD, recruited from a movement disorder clinic, underwent overnight polysomnography. OSA was defined as an apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) ≥15/h. PD severity was assessed using the Hoehn & Yahr (H&Y) scale and the Movement Disorder Society Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (MDS-UPDRS)...
February 22, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227395/impaired-episodic-memory-network-in-subjects-at-high-risk-for-alzheimer-s-disease
#10
Yafeng Zhan, Jianhua Ma, Kaibin Xu, Yanhui Ding, Yue Cui, Zhengyi Yang, Yong Liu, Yafeng Zhan, Jianhua Ma, Kaibin Xu, Yanhui Ding, Yue Cui, Zhengyi Yang, Yong Liu, Yanhui Ding, Kaibin Xu, Yue Cui, Yafeng Zhan, Jianhua Ma, Zhengyi Yang, Yong Liu
Episodic memory dysfunction is one of the hallmark symptoms of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). This cognitive impairment may be related to abnormal brain structure and activity. Functional connectivity mapping (FCM) analysis provides a powerful tool for exploring the topology of human brain function using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Thus, it would be advantageous to investigate the changes in functional connectivity within the episodic memory network in a longitudinal MCI dataset, as it may be helpful in identifying a potential marker of disease progress...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227344/detection-of-mental-stress-due-to-oral-academic-examination-via-ultra-short-term-hrv-analysis
#11
R Castaldo, W Xu, P Melillo, L Pecchia, L Santamaria, C James, R Castaldo, W Xu, P Melillo, L Pecchia, L Santamaria, C James, R Castaldo, C James, W Xu, P Melillo, L Santamaria, L Pecchia
Mental stress may cause cognitive dysfunctions, cardiovascular disorders and depression. Mental stress detection via short-term Heart Rate Variability (HRV) analysis has been widely explored in the last years, while ultra-short term (less than 5 minutes) HRV has been not. This study aims to detect mental stress using linear and non-linear HRV features extracted from 3 minutes ECG excerpts recorded from 42 university students, during oral examination (stress) and at rest after a vacation. HRV features were then extracted and analyzed according to the literature using validated software tools...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227248/the-precuneus-may-encode-irrationality-in-human-gambling
#12
P Sacre, M S D Kerr, S Subramanian, K Kahn, J Gonzalez-Martinez, M A Johnson, S V Sarma, J T Gale, P Sacre, M S D Kerr, S Subramanian, K Kahn, J Gonzalez-Martinez, M A Johnson, S V Sarma, J T Gale, S Subramanian, M S D Kerr, M A Johnson, J T Gale, K Kahn, P Sacre, S V Sarma, J Gonzalez-Martinez
Humans often make irrational decisions, especially psychiatric patients who have dysfunctional cognitive and emotional circuitry. Understanding the neural basis of decision-making is therefore essential towards patient management, yet current studies suffer from several limitations. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies in humans have dominated decision-making neuroscience, but have poor temporal resolution and the blood oxygenation level-dependent signal is only a proxy for neural activity. On the other hand, lesion studies in humans used to infer functionality in decision-making lack characterization of neural activity altogether...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226697/differences-in-white-matter-microstructure-between-parkinson-s-disease-patients-with-and-without-rem-sleep-behavior-disorder
#13
Farzaneh Rahmani, Mina Ansari, Atefeh Pooyan, Mehdi M Mirbagheri, Mohammad Hadi Aarabi, Farzaneh Rahmani, Mina Ansari, Atefeh Pooyan, Mehdi M Mirbagheri, Mohammad Hadi Aarabi, Mehdi M Mirbagheri, Farzaneh Rahmani, Atefeh Pooyan, Mina Ansari, Mohammad Hadi Aarabi
REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is characterized by increased muscle tone and violent limb movements and usually occurs during the early stages of Parkinson disease (PD). PD patients with RBD represent faster motor progression and cognitive dysfunction. We used diffusion imaging to assess which regions are involved in this phenomenon. In the current study, we computed Quantitative Anisotropic (QA), which is based on spin distribution function (SDF) that quantifies the density of diffusing water and is more sensitive to psychological differences between groups and also diffusion MRI connectometry to conduct group analysis between age and gender matched PD patients with and without RBD...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226306/task-dependent-modulation-of-amygdala-connectivity-in-social-anxiety-disorder
#14
Lora Minkova, Ronald Sladky, Georg S Kranz, Michael Woletz, Nicole Geissberger, Christoph Kraus, Rupert Lanzenberger, Christian Windischberger
Increased amygdala activation is consistently found in patients suffering from social anxiety disorder (SAD), a psychiatric condition characterized by an intense fear of social situations and scrutiny. Disruptions in the amygdalar-frontal network in SAD may explain the inability of frontal regions to appropriately down-regulate amygdalar hyper-activation. In this study, we measured 15 SAD patients and 15 healthy controls during an affective counting Stroop task with emotional faces to assess the interaction of affective stimuli with a cognitive task in SAD, as well as to investigate the causal interactions between the amygdala and the medial orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) using dynamic causal modeling (DCM)...
February 9, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226077/superficial-siderosis-of-the-central-nervous-system-is-a-rare-and-possibly-underdiagnosed-disorder
#15
Yara Dadalti Fragoso, Tarso Adoni, Joseph Bruno Bidin Brooks, Sidney Gomes, Marcus Vinicius Magno Goncalves, Cassio Lemos Jovem, Andre Palma da Cunha Matta, Joao Filipe Oliveira, Fabio Siquinelli, Carlos Bernardo Tauil, Guilherme Navarro Troiani, Paulo Roberto Wille
Methods: Series of cases collected from Brazilian centers. Results: We studied 13 cases of patients presenting with progressive histories of neurological dysfunction caused by SS-CNS. The most frequent clinical findings in these patients were progressive gait ataxia, hearing loss, hyperreflexia and cognitive dysfunction. The diagnoses of SS-CNS were made seven months to 30 years after the disease onset. Conclusion: SS-CNS is a rare disease that may remain undiagnosed for long periods...
February 2017: Arquivos de Neuro-psiquiatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225493/acetylcholinesterase-inhibitor-treatment-alleviated-cognitive-impairment-caused-by-delayed-encephalopathy-due-to-carbon-monoxide-poisoning-two-case-reports-and-a-review-of-the-literature
#16
Kumi Yanagiha, Kazuhiro Ishii, Akira Tamaoka
INTRODUCTION: Delayed encephalopathy due to carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning can even occur in patients with mild symptoms of acute CO poisoning. Some cases taking conventional hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) therapy or steroid-pulse therapy may be insufficient, and AchEI may be effective. PATIENT CONCERNS AND DIAGNOSES: We report two cases of delayed encephalopathy after acute CO poisoning involving two women aged 69 (Case 1) and 60 years (Case 2) whose cognitive function improved with acetylcholinesterase inhibitor (AchEI) treatment...
February 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225481/the-dysfunction-of-inhibition-control-in-pituitary-patients-evidence-from-the-go-nogo-event-related-potential-study
#17
Chenglong Cao, Jian Song, Shun Yao, Yan Yan, Shun Li, Guibao Peng, Pan Ma, Hao Du, Cheng Huang, Huichao Ding, Yuanzhi He, Ronghui Sun, Guozheng Xu
Pituitary tumor is an intracranial tumor; because of the development of neuroimaging technology in recent years, morbidity is likely to increase. Evidence showed impaired cognitive ability of patients with pituitary adenoma. There is evidence that neurobehavioral disorders are common in pituitary adenoma patients. This disorder is because of the cognitive and emotional function of the important functional areas of the brain oppressed and hormone imbalance. Individuals' mental activity is controlled by the brain and the abnormal mental activity is caused by both the structural abnormalities of the brain and neurochemical dysfunction...
February 20, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224622/slc2a3-single-nucleotide-polymorphism-and-duplication-influence-cognitive-processing-and-population-specific-risk-for-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#18
Sören Merker, Andreas Reif, Georg C Ziegler, Heike Weber, Ute Mayer, Ann-Christine Ehlis, Annette Conzelmann, Stefan Johansson, Clemens Müller-Reible, Indrajit Nanda, Thomas Haaf, Reinhard Ullmann, Marcel Romanos, Andreas J Fallgatter, Paul Pauli, Tatyana Strekalova, Charline Jansch, Alejandro Arias Vasquez, Jan Haavik, Marta Ribasés, Josep Antoni Ramos-Quiroga, Jan K Buitelaar, Barbara Franke, Klaus-Peter Lesch
BACKGROUND: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common, highly heritable neurodevelopmental disorder with profound cognitive, behavioral, and psychosocial impairments with persistence across the life cycle. Our initial genome-wide screening approach for copy number variants (CNVs) in ADHD implicated a duplication of SLC2A3, encoding glucose transporter-3 (GLUT3). GLUT3 plays a critical role in cerebral glucose metabolism, providing energy for the activity of neurons, which, in turn, moderates the excitatory-inhibitory balance impacting both brain development and activity-dependent neural plasticity...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224477/genistein-alleviates-neuroinflammation-and-restores-cognitive-function-in-rat-model-of-hepatic-encephalopathy-underlying-mechanisms
#19
Ajaz Ahmad Ganai, Mohammad Husain
Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a neuropsychiatric syndrome resulting from acute liver failure. Previously, we demonstrated hepatoprotective effects of genistein in D-galactosamine (D-GalN)-induced fulminant hepatic failure (FHF). In this study, we evaluated behavioural and neuroprotective effects of genistein in rat model of HE. HE was induced by intraperitonial administration of D-GalN (250 mg/kg BW) twice a week for 30 days Genistein was given as co-treatment through oral gavage daily at dose of 5 mg/kg BW...
February 21, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224377/curcumin-attenuates-surgery-induced-cognitive-dysfunction-in-aged-mice
#20
Xiang Wu, Huixin Chen, Chunhui Huang, Xinmei Gu, Jialing Wang, Dilin Xu, Xin Yu, Chu Shuai, Liping Chen, Shun Li, Yiguo Xu, Tao Gao, Mingrui Ye, Wei Su, Haixiong Liu, Jinrong Zhang, Chuang Wang, Junping Chen, Qinwen Wang, Wei Cui
Post-operative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is associated with elderly patients undergoing surgery. However, pharmacological treatments for POCD are limited. In this study, we found that curcumin, an active compound derived from Curcuma longa, ameliorated the cognitive dysfunction following abdominal surgery in aged mice. Further, curcumin prevented surgery-induced anti-oxidant enzyme activity. Curcumin also increased brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)-positive area and expression of pAkt in the brain, suggesting that curcumin activated BDNF signaling in aged mice...
February 21, 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
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