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excess male mortality

Jongha Park
Cardiovascular (CV) risk assessment is not easy in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. Age, male sex, race, family history of CV disease, smoking status and diabetes should be considered as CV risk factors as the general population. It is also accepted that hypertension (HTN) is associated with the greater risk of CV complications in this population. However, there are some concerns in this issue.First, supporting evidence for specific blood pressure (BP) targets in CKD is scarce. Many observational studies reported a J-shaped association between BP level and CV mortality unlike a linear association in the general population...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Victor Grech, Dorota Zammit, Hagen Scherb
Males are usually born in excess of females. The sex ratio at birth (SR) is often expressed as the ratio of male to total births. A wide variety of factors have been shown to influence SR, including terrorist attacks, which have been shown to reduce SR. This paper reviews the effects on SR outcomes of the stressful events in France in 1968 (in association with the student and worker riots) and in Japan following the Aum Shinrikyo religious cult's attack on the Tokyo subway using sarin nerve gas in 1995. Both countries displayed seasonal variation in SR...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Biosocial Science
D W Donnelly, A T Gavin
ABSTRACT: Whilst survival rates for childhood cancers are excellent, it is known that these patients have an increased risk of death from disease recurrence and other causes. We investigate patterns, trends and survival of cancers in children and young adults in N. Ireland. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 21 years (1993-2013) of cancer incidence data including non-malignant brain tumours from the N. Ireland Cancer Registry for persons aged 0-24 years was analysed using Joinpoint regresssion for trend and the Kaplan Meier method for survival analysis up to end 2013 with excess mortality calculated at one and five years after first cancer diagnosis using standardised mortality ratios...
September 2016: Ulster Medical Journal
James E Leone, Michael J Rovito, Elizabeth M Mullin, Shan D Mohammed, Christina S Lee
Epidemiologic data suggest men often experience excessive morbidity and early mortality, possibly compromising family and community health over the lifespan. Moreover, the negative financial/economic consequences affected by poor male health outcomes also has been of great concern in the United States and abroad. Early and consistent access to preventative health care may improve health outcomes; however, men are far less likely to access these services. The purpose of this study was to understand what factors preclude men from accessing health care...
October 3, 2016: American Journal of Men's Health
Günay Can, Altan Onat, Eray Yurtseven, Yusuf Karadeniz, Tuğba Akbaş-Şimşek, Ayşem Kaya, Hüsniye Yüksel
BACKGROUND: We determined the proportion of the effects of body mass index (BMI) or its categories on cardiometabolic outcomes mediated through systolic blood pressure (SBP), total cholesterol and fasting glucose. METHODS: Cox regression analyses were performed for incident outcomes among Turkish Adult Risk Factor study participants in whom the three mediators had been determined (n = 2158, age 48.5 ± 11 years). Over a mean 10.2-years' follow-up, new coronary heart disease (CHD) developed in 406, diabetes in 284 individuals, and 149 CHD deaths occurred...
September 29, 2016: BMC Endocrine Disorders
Małgorzata Pikala, Monika Burzyn Ska, Robert Pikala, Marek Bryła, Irena Maniecka-Bryła
BACKGROUND: The aim of the study is to evaluate the differences in premature mortality between educational groups of Polish inhabitants in 2002 and 2011. METHODS: The analysis included all deaths among inhabitants of Poland, aged 25-64 years, which occurred in 2002 (N=97 004) and 2011 (N=104 598). We calculated age-standardised death rates (SDRs) and summary measures on inequalities. The relative index of inequality (RII) was calculated with Poisson regression...
2016: BMJ Open
Andrea M Teng, June Atkinson, George Disney, Nick Wilson, Diana Sarfati, Melissa McLeod, Tony Blakely
BACKGROUND: Cancer makes up a large and increasing proportion of excess mortality for indigenous, marginalised and socioeconomically deprived populations, and much of this inequality is preventable. This study aimed to determine which cancers give rise to changing ethnic inequalities over time. METHODS: New Zealand census data from 1981, 1986, 1991, 1996, 2001, and 2006, were all probabilistically linked to three to five subsequent years of mortality (68 million person-years) and cancer registrations (87 million person years) and weighted for linkage bias...
September 26, 2016: BMC Cancer
Chih-Chin Shih, Mei-Hui Liao, Tsan-Seng Hsiao, Hiong-Ping Hii, Ching-Hui Shen, Shiu-Jen Chen, Shuk-Man Ka, Yung-Lung Chang, Chin-Chen Wu
Excessive inflammatory and oxidative stress lead to circulatory failure, multiple organ dysfunction, and high mortality in patients with sepsis. Microbial infection-induced DNA hypermethylation is associated with the augmentation of inflammation and oxidative stress. In our previous study, the antiarrhythmic drug procainamide inhibits the expression of DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) and diminishes IL-6 levels in rats with rhabdomyolysis. Thus, we further evaluated the effects of procainamide on the development of circulatory failure and multiple organ dysfunction in rats with endotoxic shock...
2016: PloS One
Jari-Pekka Klemettilä, Olli Kampman, Niko Seppälä, Merja Viikki, Mari Hämäläinen, Eeva Moilanen, Esa Leinonen
BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia is associated with excess cardiovascular comorbidity and mortality related to lifestyle factors, such as lack of physical activity, poor diet, and smoking. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome is increased among patients with schizophrenia, with the highest rates among patients on clozapine treatment. Smoking, obesity, physical inactivity, airway inflammation and obstruction, and adipose tissue and inflammatory marker activation are related in systemic inflammation...
September 23, 2016: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry
Garthika Navaranjan, Colin Berriault, Minh Do, Paul J Villeneuve, Paul A Demers
OBJECTIVES: The study objectives were to extend the follow-up of the Ontario uranium miners cohort, one of the largest cohorts of uranium miners with low cumulative exposures, to examine the relationship between radon exposure and lung cancer mortality and, for the first time incidence, and address gaps in the literature, including dose-response relationship between radon exposure and other cancer sites, and non-cancer mortality. METHODS: The cohort of mine and mill workers was created using data from Canada's National Dose Registry and the Ontario Mining Master File...
September 20, 2016: Occupational and Environmental Medicine
Yinkun Yan, Dongqing Hou, Junting Liu, Xiaoyuan Zhao, Hong Cheng, Bo Xi, Jie Mi
OBJECTIVE: Atherosclerosis and arterial stiffness predict cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. We aimed to investigate the influence of BMI and blood pressure (BP) in childhood, and change in BMI and BP, on the development of subclinical atherosclerosis and arterial stiffness in adulthood. METHODS: The study consisted of 1256 individuals aged 27-42 years who had 2-10 measurements of BMI and BP from childhood. In the final survey (2010-2011), subclinical markers of vascular damage, including carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT), carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV), and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV), were measured...
September 17, 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Jongha Park
Cardiovascular (CV) risk assessment is not easy in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. Age, male sex, race, family history of CV disease, smoking status and diabetes should be considered as CV risk factors as the general population. It is also accepted that hypertension (HTN) is associated with the greater risk of CV complications in this population. However, there are some concerns in this issue.First, supporting evidence for specific blood pressure (BP) targets in CKD is scarce. Many observational studies reported a J-shaped association between BP level and CV mortality unlike a linear association in the general population...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Marie-Annick Clavel, Christophe Tribouilloy, Jean-Louis Vanoverschelde, Rodolfo Pizarro, Rakesh M Suri, Catherine Szymanski, Siham Lazam, Pablo Oberti, Hector I Michelena, Allan Jaffe, Maurice Enriquez-Sarano
BACKGROUND: Studies suggesting that B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) may predict outcomes of mitral regurgitation (MR) are plagued by small size, inconsistent etiologies, and lack of accounting for shifting normal BNP ranges with age and sex. OBJECTIVES: This study assessed the effect of BNP activation on mortality in a large, multicenter cohort of patients with degenerative MR. METHODS: In 1,331 patients with degenerative MR, BNP was prospectively measured at diagnosis and expressed as BNPratio (ratio to upper limit of normal for age, sex, and assay)...
September 20, 2016: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
Simon Pius, Mustapha Bello, Gadzama Balla Galadima, Halima A Ibrahim, Samuel Timothy Yerima, Jose Pwavimbo Ambe
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: The aim and objective of the study was to determine the incidence, bacterial isolates and the antibiogram sensitivity of the isolates in neonates with septicaemia. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The neonates with clinical diagnosis of neonatal septicaemia (NNS) were consecutively enrolled into our special care baby unit. The patients were investigated including blood cultures, cerebrospinal fluid cultures and urine among others. Data were analysed with Statistical Package for Social Sciences software version 16...
July 2016: Nigerian Postgraduate Medical Journal
David M Ferrero, Jim Larson, Bo Jacobsson, Gian Carlo Di Renzo, Jane E Norman, James N Martin, Mary D'Alton, Ernesto Castelazo, Chris P Howson, Verena Sengpiel, Matteo Bottai, Jonathan A Mayo, Gary M Shaw, Ivan Verdenik, Nataša Tul, Petr Velebil, Sarah Cairns-Smith, Hamid Rushwan, Sabaratnam Arulkumaran, Jennifer L Howse, Joe Leigh Simpson
BACKGROUND: Preterm birth is the most common single cause of perinatal and infant mortality, affecting 15 million infants worldwide each year with global rates increasing. Understanding of risk factors remains poor, and preventive interventions have only limited benefit. Large differences exist in preterm birth rates across high income countries. We hypothesized that understanding the basis for these wide variations could lead to interventions that reduce preterm birth incidence in countries with high rates...
2016: PloS One
Efrén Murillo-Zamora, Raúl García-Ceballos, Iván Delgado-Enciso, Raquel Garza-Guajardo, Oralia Barboza-Quintana, Irám P Rodríguez-Sánchez, Oliver Mendoza-Cano
BACKGROUND: Excess body weight has become a major public health problem worldwide, and the burden of overweight and obesity was calculated in this work from a health economics perspective. OBJECTIVE: To estimate the burden of disease attributable to overweight and obesity among males and females aged 20 years and older using years of life lost (YLL) and age-standardized YLL rates (ASYLL), and to rank the leading causes of premature death. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study took place (2010-2014) and 6,054 deaths were analyzed...
2016: Global Health Action
Jin Young Nam, Juyoung Kim, Kyung Hee Cho, Young Choi, Jaewoo Choi, Jaeyong Shin, Eun-Cheol Park
BACKGROUND: Previous evidence suggests that there is a correlation between prolonged sitting time and cardio-metabolic disease, such as metabolic syndrome (MS). Cardiovascular disease is the second-leading cause of mortality in South Korea, a country with the longest working hours among all member states of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development. However, no previous study has investigated the relationships of overall sitting-time and occupation with MS in South Korea...
2016: BMC Public Health
Belén Alejos, Victoria Hernando, Jose Iribarren, Juan Gonzalez-García, Asuncion Hernando, Jesus Santos, Victor Asensi, Ana Gomez-Berrocal, Julia Del Amo, Inma Jarrin
We aimed to estimate overall and cause-specific excess mortality of HIV-positive patients compared with the general population, and to assess the effect of risk factors.We included patients aged >19 years, recruited from January 1, 2004 to May 31, 2014 in Cohort of the Spanish Network on HIV/AIDS Research. We used generalized linear models with Poisson error structure to model excess mortality rates.In 10,340 patients, 368 deaths occurred. Excess mortality was 0.82 deaths per 100 person-years for all-cause mortality, 0...
September 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Su-Young Jung, Hyunwook Kim, Seohyun Park, Jong Hyun Jhee, Hae-Ryong Yun, Hyoungnae Kim, Youn Kyung Kee, Chang-Yun Yoon, Hyung Jung Oh, Tae Ik Chang, Jung Tak Park, Tae-Hyun Yoo, Shin-Wook Kang, Hajeong Lee, Dong Ki Kim, Seung Hyeok Han
Electrolyte and mineral disturbances remain a major concern in patients undergoing continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT); however, it is not clear whether those imbalances are associated with adverse outcomes in patients with septic acute kidney injury (AKI) undergoing CRRT. We conducted a post-hoc analysis of data from a prospective randomized controlled trial. A total of 210 patients with a mean age of 62.2 years (136 [64.8%] males) in 2 hospitals were enrolled. Levels of sodium, potassium, calcium, and phosphate measured before (0 hour) and 24 hours after CRRT initiation...
September 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
David T Mage, Maria Luisa Latorre, Alejandro G Jenik, E Maria Donner
INTRODUCTION: The cause of the sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is perhaps the oldest of unsolved mysteries of medicine, possibly dating back to Exodus in Biblical times when Egyptian children died in their sleep as if from a plague. It occurs when infants die unexpectedly with no sufficient cause of death found in a forensic autopsy, including death scene investigation and review of medical history. That SIDS is an X-linked recessive death from infectious respiratory disease of a physiologically anemic infant and not a simple anomalous cardiac or neurological condition is an extraordinary claim that requires extraordinary evidence...
2016: Frontiers in Neurology
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