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Behavior and social work

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537945/making-sense-of-effective-partnerships-among-senior-leaders-in-the-national-health-service
#1
Mahima Mitra, Timothy Hoff, Paul Brankin, Sue Dopson
BACKGROUND: Changing health care systems depend on strong organizational leadership that realizes the collaborative potential of both physician and nonphysician leaders. PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to seek insight into the everyday health care leader experience by examining 24 physician and nonphysician leaders working in the U.K. National Health Service. We explored (a) how they make sense of and act with respect to specific collaborative tensions in their interactions and (b) which aspects of their everyday leadership contexts heighten the probability for producing and resolving such tensions...
May 22, 2017: Health Care Management Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537796/coping-with-stress-as-an-lgbtq-healthcare-professional
#2
Michele J Eliason, Carl Streed, Michael Henne
Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, and other sexual/gender minority (LGBTQ+) healthcare providers face both general work-related stresses and working in heteronormative settings with ill-informed or hostile coworkers and patients, yet there has been little study of whether the coping strategies are specific to LGBTQ+ stress. We analyzed qualitative data from 277 healthcare professionals. Sources of stress included religiously and politically conservative coworkers, coworker/patient lack of knowledge, stresses of closeted, and concerns about being out to patients...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Homosexuality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534822/violence-victimization-in-korean-adolescents-risk-factors-and-psychological-problems
#3
Subin Park, Yeeun Lee, Hyesue Jang, Minkyung Jo
We examined the risk factors for and psychological problems associated with violence victimization in a nationwide representative sample of Korean adolescents. Data from the 2016 Korean Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey was used. Participants were asked about their experience of being a victim of violence that required medical treatment during the past 12 months, as well as their perceived health, happiness, sleep satisfaction, stress, depressed mood, and suicidality. The 12-month prevalence of violence victimization requiring medical treatment was 2...
May 19, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530430/subjective-social-status-life-course-ses-and-bmi-in-young-adulthood
#4
Matt Bradshaw, Blake Victor Kent, W Matthew Henderson, Anna Catherine Setar
OBJECTIVE: Socioeconomic status (SES) is associated with many aspects of health and well-being, including body mass index (BMI). Most research in this area has focused on objective indicators of SES such as education and income, but recent work suggests that subjective social status (SSS) is also important. This study contributes to a growing body of research on SSS and BMI. METHOD: Data from Waves I and IV the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health), a study of 14,780 individuals followed from adolescence to young adulthood, were analyzed...
May 22, 2017: Health Psychology: Official Journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529756/a-socioecological-framework-for-research-on-work-and-obesity-in-diverse-urban-transit-operators-based-on-gender-race-and-ethnicity
#5
REVIEW
BongKyoo Choi, Peter Schnall, Marnie Dobson, Haiou Yang, Dean Baker, YoungJu Seo
Urban transit (bus and rail) operators, totaling nearly 700,000 persons, are one of the heaviest occupational groups in the United States (US). Little is known about occupational risk factors for weight gain and obesity and their interrelationship with health-related behaviors, particularly among female minority (African Americans and Hispanics) transit operators who are at greater risk for obesity. As a step towards developing successful obesity interventions among urban transit operators, this paper aims to present a new socioecological framework for studying working conditions, chronic strain, health-related behaviors, weight gain/obesity, and obesity disparity in diverse urban transit operators based on gender, race, and ethnicity...
2017: Annals of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528425/neet-adolescents-grown-up-eight-year-longitudinal-follow-up-of-education-employment-and-mental-health-from-adolescence-to-early-adulthood-in-mexico-city
#6
Raúl A Gutiérrez-García, Corina Benjet, Guilherme Borges, Enrique Méndez Ríos, María Elena Medina-Mora
The purpose is to examine the socio-demographic and mental health outcomes in early adulthood of those who as adolescents were not in education, employment or training, termed NEET, compared to their counterparts who studied, worked, or both. One thousand and seventy-one youth residing in Mexico City participated in a representative, prospective, longitudinal 8-year two-Wave cohort study. At Wave I the participants were aged 12-17 and at Wave II aged 19 and 26. The Composite International Diagnostic Interview assessed psychiatric disorders, substance use and abuse, suicidal behavior, interpersonal relationships, employment and education...
May 20, 2017: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527789/neural-processes-underlying-cultural-differences-in-cognitive-persistence
#7
Eva H Telzer, Yang Qu, Lynda C Lin
Self-improvement motivation, which occurs when individuals seek to improve upon their competence by gaining new knowledge and improving upon their skills, is critical for cognitive, social, and educational adjustment. While many studies have delineated the neural mechanisms supporting extrinsic motivation induced by monetary rewards, less work has examined the neural processes that support intrinsically motivated behaviors, such as self-improvement motivation. Because cultural groups traditionally vary in terms of their self-improvement motivation, we examined cultural differences in the behavioral and neural processes underlying motivated behaviors during cognitive persistence in the absence of extrinsic rewards...
May 17, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527693/two-hit-model-of-schizophrenia-induced-by-neonatal-immune-activation-and-peripubertal-stress-in-rats-study-of-sex-differences-and-brain-oxidative-alterations
#8
Aline Santos Monte, Bruna Stefânia Ferreira Mello, Vládia Célia Moreira Borella, Tatiane da Silva Araujo, Francisco Eliclécio Rodrigues da Silva, Francisca Cléa F de Sousa, Antônio Carlos Pinheiro de Oliveira, Clarissa Severino Gama, Mary V Seeman, Silvânia Maria Mendes Vasconcelos, David Freitas De Lucena, Danielle Macêdo
Schizophrenia is considered to be a developmental disorder with distinctive sex differences. Aiming to simulate the vulnerability of the third trimester of human pregnancy to the developmental course of schizophrenia, an animal model was developed, using neonatal poly(I:C) as a first-hit, and peripubertal stress as a second-hit, i.e. a two-hit model. Since, to date, there have been no references to sex differences in the two-hit model, our study sought to determine sex influences on the development of behavior and brain oxidative change in adult rats submitted to neonatal exposure to poly(I:C) on postnatal days 5-7 as well as peripubertal unpredictable stress (PUS)...
May 17, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526663/effects-of-using-child-personas-in-the-development-of-a-digital-peer-support-service-for-childhood-cancer-survivors
#9
Pontus Wärnestål, Petra Svedberg, Susanne Lindberg, Jens M Nygren
BACKGROUND: Peer support services have the potential to support children who survive cancer by handling the physical, mental, and social challenges associated with survival and return to everyday life. Involving the children themselves in the design process allows for adapting services to authentic user behaviors and goals. As there are several challenges that put critical requirements on a user-centered design process, we developed a design method based on personas adapted to the particular needs of children that promotes health and handles a sensitive design context...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525788/psychosocial-relationship-status-and-quality-as-predictors-of-exercise-intervention-adherence-and-substance-use-outcomes-results-from-the-stride-ctn-0037-study
#10
Joseph M Trombello, Thomas Carmody, Tracy L Greer, Robrina Walker, Chad D Rethorst, Madhukar H Trivedi
Social/intimate relationship status and quality are associated with health-promoting behaviors, while living alone or being isolated are adversely associated with physical and mental health outcomes. Limited work has investigated how particular components of one's social environment - usual living arrangements, satisfaction with those arrangements, and global social and family discord - are related to substance use reduction and intervention adherence. We investigated these questions in 270 individuals receiving study intervention for stimulant abuse/dependence through the multi-site Stimulant Reduction Intervention using Dosed Exercise (CTN-0037) trial...
April 28, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525618/establishing-expanding-and-certifying-a-closed-colony-of-phlebotomus-argentipes-diptera-psychodidae-for-xenodiagnostic-studies-at-the-kala-azar-medical-research-center-muzaffarpur-bihar-india
#11
Puja Tiwary, Shakti Kumar Singh, Anurag Kumar Kushwaha, Edgar Rowton, David Sacks, Om Prakash Singh, Shyam Sundar, Phillip Lawyer
This pilot project was preliminary and essential to a larger effort to define the ability of certain human-subject groups across the infection spectrum to serve as reservoirs of Leishmania donovani infection to sand flies in areas of anthroponotic transmission such as in Bihar state, India. This is possible only via xenodiagnosis of well-defined subject groups using live vector sand flies. The objective was to establish at the Kala Azar Medical Research Center (KAMRC), Muzaffarpur, Bihar, India, a self-sustaining colony of Phlebotomus argentipes (Annandale & Brunneti), closed to infusion with wild-caught material and certified safe for human xenodiagnosis...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Medical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522892/enhancing-communication-in-adults-with-dementia-and-age-related-hearing-loss
#12
REVIEW
Sara K Mamo, Esther Oh, Frank R Lin
For many adults with dementia, age-related hearing loss is undiagnosed and/or untreated. Untreated hearing loss can exacerbate common dementia-related behavioral symptoms, such as depression, apathy, agitation. Despite the potential benefits to the individual and the family, pursuing and adopting hearing aids for persons with dementia presents with many challenges. As such, this group of vulnerable older adults is well suited for alternative approaches that adopt an interventional audiology framework. This article reviews alternative hearing care models that we have tested when working with older adults with cognitive impairments...
May 2017: Seminars in Hearing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516263/-social-inequalities-in-the-prevalence-of-chronic-back-pain-among-adults-in-germany
#13
Benjamin Kuntz, Jens Hoebel, Judith Fuchs, Hanne Neuhauser, Thomas Lampert
BACKGROUND: Back pain is a common cause for health care utilization and inability to work and associated with corresponding costs. The aim of the study was to investigate socioeconomic inequalities in chronic back pain in the adult general population. METHODS: The analyses were based on pooled data of three waves (2009, 2010, 2012) of the nationwide German Health Update (GEDA) study carried out by the Robert Koch Institute (n = 62,606 aged 18 years and older)...
May 17, 2017: Bundesgesundheitsblatt, Gesundheitsforschung, Gesundheitsschutz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509905/crowdsourced-validation-of-a-machine-learning-classification-system-for-autism-and-adhd
#14
M Duda, N Haber, J Daniels, D P Wall
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) together affect >10% of the children in the United States, but considerable behavioral overlaps between the two disorders can often complicate differential diagnosis. Currently, there is no screening test designed to differentiate between the two disorders, and with waiting times from initial suspicion to diagnosis upwards of a year, methods to quickly and accurately assess risk for these and other developmental disorders are desperately needed...
May 16, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506922/oxytocin-effects-in-schizophrenia-reconciling-mixed-findings-and-moving-forward
#15
REVIEW
Ellen R Bradley, Joshua D Woolley
Schizophrenia is a severe mental illness that causes major functional impairment. Current pharmacologic treatments are inadequate, particularly for addressing negative and cognitive symptoms of the disorder. Oxytocin, a neuropeptide known to moderate social behaviors, has been investigated as a potential therapeutic for schizophrenia in recent years. Results have been decidedly mixed, leading to controversy regarding oxytocin's utility. In this review, we outline several considerations for interpreting the extant literature and propose a focused agenda for future work that builds on the most compelling findings regarding oxytocin effects in schizophrenia to date...
May 12, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501928/the-behavioral-and-social-sciences-contributions-and-opportunities-in-academic-medicine
#16
Patrick O Smith, R Kevin Grigsby
The Association of American Medical Colleges plays a leading role in supporting the expansion and evolution of academic medicine and medical science in North America, which are undergoing high-velocity change. Behavioral and social science concepts have great practical value when applied to the leadership practices and administrative structures that guide and support the rapid evolution of academic medicine and medical sciences. The authors are two behavioral and social science professionals who serve as academic administrators in academic medical centers...
May 13, 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychology in Medical Settings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500676/an-evaluation-of-interdependent-and-independent-group-contingencies-during-the-good-behavior-game
#17
Emily A Groves, Jennifer L Austin
The Good Behavior Game (GBG) uses an interdependent group contingency to improve classroom behavior. Despite the wealth of research on the effectiveness of the GBG, some teachers may have concerns about their students' abilities to work in teams, particularly if they have a history of poor social skills. We used an alternating treatments design to compare the relative effectiveness of the GBG with interdependent and independent group contingencies in a classroom for children with emotional and behavioral disorders...
May 13, 2017: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500558/natural-peer-leaders-as-substance-use-prevention-agents-the-teens-life-choice-project
#18
Megan M Golonka, Kristen F Peairs, Patrick S Malone, Christina L Grimes, Philip R Costanzo
In adolescent social groups, natural peer leaders have been found to engage in more frequent experimentation with substance use and to possess disproportionate power to affect the behavior and social choices of their associated peer followers. In the current exploratory study, we used sociometrics and social cognitive mapping to identify natural leaders of cliques in a seventh grade population and invited the leaders to develop anti-drug presentations for an audience of younger peers. The program employed social-psychological approaches directed at having leaders proceed from extrinsic inducements to intrinsic identification with their persuasive products in the context of the group intervention process...
May 12, 2017: Prevention Science: the Official Journal of the Society for Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499113/social-and-individual-level-predictors-of-alcohol-use-initiation-and-escalation-replicating-and-extending-tests-of-differential-effects
#19
Hector I Lopez-Vergara, Jennifer E Merrill, Tim Janssen, Kristina M Jackson
OBJECTIVE: Although alcohol use is considered a developmental phenomenon, there is a relative dearth of studies disaggregating predictors of alcohol use initiation versus early escalation of drinking. One perspective that has emerged is that social levels of influence may be relevant for the initiation of drinking, whereas individual levels of influence may be relevant for the early escalation in level of drinking among initiators, which we refer to as the specificity hypothesis. METHOD: A sample of alcohol-naive youth (n = 944; mean age = 12...
May 2017: Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495358/animal-to-human-translational-paradigms-relevant-for-approach-avoidance-conflict-decision-making
#20
Namik Kirlic, Jared Young, Robin L Aupperle
Avoidance behavior in clinical anxiety disorders is often a decision made in response to approach-avoidance conflict, resulting in a sacrifice of potential rewards to avoid potential negative affective consequences. Animal research has a long history of relying on paradigms related to approach-avoidance conflict to model anxiety-relevant behavior. This approach includes punishment-based conflict, exploratory, and social interaction tasks. There has been a recent surge of interest in the translation of paradigms from animal to human, in efforts to increase generalization of findings and support the development of more effective mental health treatments...
April 24, 2017: Behaviour Research and Therapy
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