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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805927/the-relationship-between-different-measures-of-feed-efficiency-and-feeding-behavior-traits-in-duroc-pigs
#1
D Lu, S Jiao, F Tiezzi, M Knauer, Y Huang, K A Gray, C Maltecca
Utilization of feed in livestock species consists of a wide range of biological processes, and therefore, its efficiency can be expressed in various ways, including direct measurement, such as daily feed intake, as well as indicator measures, such as feeding behavior. Measuring feed efficiency is important to the swine industry, and its accuracy can be enhanced by using automated feeding systems, which record feed intake and associated feeding behavior of individual animals. Each automated feeder space is often shared among several pigs and therefore raises concerns about social interactions among pen mates with regard to feeding behavior...
August 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805441/examining-overlap-in-behavioral-and-neural-representations-of-morals-facts-and-preferences
#2
Jordan Theriault, Adam Waytz, Larisa Heiphetz, Liane Young
Metaethical judgments refer to judgments about the information expressed by moral claims. Moral objectivists generally believe that moral claims are akin to facts, whereas moral subjectivists generally believe that moral claims are more akin to preferences. Evidence from developmental and social psychology has generally favored an objectivist view; however, this work has typically relied on few examples, and analyses have disallowed statistical generalizations beyond these few stimuli. The present work addresses whether morals are represented as fact-like or preference-like, using behavioral and neuroimaging methods, in combination with statistical techniques that can (a) generalize beyond our sample stimuli, and (b) test whether particular item features are associated with neural activity...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805090/examining-young-children-s-social-competence-using-functional-ability-profiles
#3
Tara W McLaughlin, Patricia A Snyder, James Algina
PURPOSE: To explore the use of International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health for Children and Youth (ICF-CY) based profiles of children's functional abilities in relation to their social competence. Subgroups based on shared profiles of functional ability were investigated as an alternative or complement to subgroups defined by disability categories. METHODS: Secondary analysis of a nationally representative data set of young children identified for special education services in the United States was used for the present study...
August 13, 2017: Disability and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804393/ageism-among-physicians-nurses-and-social-workers-findings-from-a-qualitative-study
#4
Aya Ben-Harush, Sharon Shiovitz-Ezra, Israel Doron, Sara Alon, Arthur Leibovitz, Hava Golander, Yafa Haron, Liat Ayalon
This study investigated ageism among healthcare professionals in various therapeutic settings in Israel. Using a qualitative approach, the current study aimed to examine similarities and differences across healthcare disciplines. Three focus groups were conducted with physicians, nurses, and social workers. Data from each focus group were analyzed separately, and then commonalities and differences across the groups were evaluated. Three main themes relating to older adults emerged from the data. The first theme pertains to perceived difficulties that healthcare professionals experience in working with older adults and their family members; the second focuses on invisibility and discriminatory communication patterns; and the third theme relates to provision of inappropriate care to older adults...
March 2017: European Journal of Ageing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803131/do-continuum-beliefs-reduce-schizophrenia-stigma-effects-of-a-laboratory-intervention-on-behavioral-and-self-reported-stigma
#5
Ryan Thibodeau, Lindsay N Shanks, Brian P Smith
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Correlational research shows that belief in a continuum of psychiatric problems predicts decreased public stigma. However, the correlational findings fail to inform the stigma reduction prospects of manipulating continuum beliefs. All extant experimental work has been executed online. This study examined effects of a laboratory-based continuum intervention on behavioral and self-report measures of psychiatric stigma. METHODS: Sixty-nine undergraduates believed that they would meet a man with schizophrenia...
August 5, 2017: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802575/military-experience-can-influence-women-s-eating-habits
#6
Jessica Y Breland, Rosemary Donalson, Andrea Nevedal, Julie V Dinh, Shira Maguen
BACKGROUND: Disordered eating, ranging from occasional binge eating or restriction to behaviors associated with eating disorder diagnoses, is common among military personnel and veterans. However, there is little information on how military service affects eating habits. OBJECTIVE: To describe possible pathways between military service and disordered eating among women veterans, a high risk group. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty women veterans who reported changing eating habits in response to stress participated in audio-recorded focus groups or dyadic interviews between April 2013 and October 2014...
August 9, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801991/early-autism-symptoms-in-infants-with-tuberous-sclerosis-complex
#7
Nicole M McDonald, Kandice J Varcin, Rujuta Bhatt, Joyce Y Wu, Mustafa Sahin, Charles A Nelson, Shafali S Jeste
Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a rare, autosomal dominant genetic syndrome that confers significantly increased risk for autism spectrum disorder (ASD), with 50-60% of infants with TSC meeting criteria for ASD by 3 years of age. In a previous study of the current longitudinal cohort, we found that infants with TSC who develop ASD (TSC/ASD) evidence decreased cognitive abilities that diverge from infants with TSC and no ASD (TSC/no ASD). We extended this work by asking whether TSC/ASD infants (n = 13) differed from TSC/no ASD infants (n = 10) and infants with low developmental risk and no ASD (LR; n = 21) in their social communication functioning during the first year of life...
August 11, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799413/an-initial-open-trial-of-a-brief-behavioral-activation-treatment-for-depression-and-medication-adherence-in-hiv-infected-patients
#8
Matthew T Tull, Christopher R Berghoff, Joseph R Bardeen, Michelle Schoenleber, Deborah J Konkle-Parker
Advances in HIV treatment through highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) have led to a steady decline in HIV-related mortality rates. However, HAART requires adherence to strict and often complicated medication regimens, and nonadherence to HAART can significantly decrease its effectiveness. Depression has consistently shown a robust association with medication nonadherence; consequently, numerous psychological interventions have been developed to target depression and increase medication adherence among HIV-infected individuals...
August 1, 2017: Behavior Modification
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798009/preliminary-evaluation-of-a-brief-web-and-mobile-phone-intervention-for-men-with-depression-men-s-positive-coping-strategies-and-associated-depression-resilience-and-work-and-social-functioning
#9
Andrea Susan Fogarty, Judy Proudfoot, Erin Louise Whittle, Janine Clarke, Michael J Player, Helen Christensen, Kay Wilhelm
BACKGROUND: Previous research has identified that men experiencing depression do not always access appropriate health services. Web-based interventions represent an alternative treatment option for men, are effective in reducing anxiety and depression, and have potential for wide dissemination. However, men do not access Web-based programs at the same rate as women. Programs with content explicitly tailored to men's mental health needs are required. OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the applicability of Man Central, a new Web and mobile phone intervention for men with depression...
August 10, 2017: JMIR Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796630/opportunities-and-challenges-for-personal-heat-exposure-research
#10
Evan R Kuras, Molly B Richardson, Miriam M Calkins, Kristie L Ebi, Jeremy J Hess, Kristina W Kintziger, Meredith A Jagger, Ariane Middel, Anna A Scott, June T Spector, Christopher K Uejio, Jennifer K Vanos, Benjamin F Zaitchik, Julia M Gohlke, David M Hondula
BACKGROUND: Environmental heat exposure is a public health concern. The impacts of environmental heat on mortality and morbidity at the population scale are well documented, but little is known about specific exposures that individuals experience. OBJECTIVES: The first objective of this work was to catalyze discussion of the role of personal heat exposure information in research and risk assessment. The second objective was to provide guidance regarding the operationalization of personal heat exposure research methods...
August 1, 2017: Environmental Health Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792672/constitutive-loss-and-acute-pharmacological-manipulation-of-erbb4-signaling-do-not-affect-attention-and-inhibitory-control-in-mice
#11
Elena Marchisella, Ruud Wijnands, Bastijn Koopmans, Sabine Spijker, Maarten Loos
The receptor tyrosine kinase ErbB4 and its ligand trophic factors of the neuregulin (NRG) family have been associated with schizophrenia and other mental disorders in human genetic studies. In vivo studies in mice have shown how abnormal Nrg-ErbB4 signaling leads to deviant behaviors relevant to distinct aspects of schizophrenia, including hyperactivity, sensory gating deficits, working and spatial memory deficits and impaired social behavior. However, so far little is known on the role of ErbB4 in attention and inhibitory control, two aspects of executive functions that are impaired in schizophrenia...
August 9, 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790824/pivotal-response-treatment-for-autism-spectrum-disorder-current-perspectives
#12
REVIEW
Jiedi Lei, Pamela Ventola
Pivotal response treatment (PRT) is an evidence-based behavioral intervention based on applied behavior analysis principles aimed to improve social communication skills in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). PRT adopts a more naturalistic approach and focuses on using a number of strategies to help increase children's motivation during intervention. Since its conceptualization, PRT has received much empirical support for eliciting therapeutic gains in greater use of functional social communication skills in individuals with ASD...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782091/infant-parasympathetic-and-sympathetic-activity-during-baseline-stress-and-recovery-interactions-with-prenatal-adversity-predict-physical-aggression-in-toddlerhood
#13
J Suurland, K B van der Heijden, S C J Huijbregts, S H M van Goozen, H Swaab
Exposure to prenatal adversity is associated with aggression later in life. Individual differences in autonomic nervous system (ANS) functioning, specifically nonreciprocal activation of the parasympathetic (PNS) and sympathetic (SNS) nervous systems, increase susceptibility to aggression, especially in the context of adversity. Previous work examining interactions between early adversity and ANS functioning in infancy is scarce and has not examined interaction between PNS and SNS. This study examined whether the PNS and SNS moderate the relation between cumulative prenatal risk and early physical aggression in 124 children (57% male)...
August 7, 2017: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28778056/cognitive-predictors-of-adaptive-functioning-in-children-with-symptomatic-epilepsy
#14
Elizabeth N Kerr, Nora Fayed
The current study sought to understand the contribution of the attention and working memory challenges experienced by children with active epilepsy without an intellectual disability to adaptive functioning (AF) while taking into account intellectual ability, co-occurring brain-based psychosocial diagnoses, and epilepsy-related variables. METHODS: The relationship of attention and working memory with AF was examined in 76 children with active epilepsy with intellectual ability above the 2nd percentile recruited from a tertiary care center...
July 28, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776147/looming-threats-and-animacy-reduced-responsiveness-in-youth-with-disrupted-behavior-disorders
#15
Stuart F White, Laura C Thornton, Joseph Leshin, Roberta Clanton, Stephen Sinclair, Dionne Coker-Appiah, Harma Meffert, Soonjo Hwang, James R Blair
Theoretical models have implicated amygdala dysfunction in the development of Disruptive Behavior Disorders (DBDs; Conduct Disorder/Oppositional Defiant Disorder). Amygdala dysfunction impacts valence evaluation/response selection and emotion attention in youth with DBDs, particularly in those with elevated callous-unemotional (CU) traits. However, amygdala responsiveness during social cognition and the responsiveness of the acute threat circuitry (amygdala/periaqueductal gray) in youth with DBDs have been less well-examined, particularly with reference to CU traits...
August 3, 2017: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771733/basic-income-guarantee-a-review-of-implications-for-oral-health
#16
Yi-An Chen, Carlos Quiñonez
OBJECTIVES: To: a) Familiarize readers with the concept of a basic income guarantee (BIG) and its different forms; b) Consider how BIG could improve oral health and decrease oral health disparities; c) Motivate readers to advocate for the evaluation of oral health outcomes in BIG experiments. METHODS: Published articles and book chapters that have analyzed and reviewed data from past BIG pilot projects were examined for their findings on health and socioeconomic outcomes...
August 3, 2017: Journal of Public Health Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771020/the-influence-of-peer-behavior-as-a-function-of-social-and-cultural-closeness-a-meta-analysis-of-normative-influence-on-adolescent-smoking-initiation-and-continuation
#17
Jiaying Liu, Siman Zhao, Xi Chen, Emily Falk, Dolores Albarracín
Although the influence of peers on adolescent smoking should vary depending on social dynamics, there is a lack of understanding of which elements are most crucial and how this dynamic unfolds for smoking initiation and continuation across areas of the world. The present meta-analysis included 75 studies yielding 237 effect sizes that examined associations between peers' smoking and adolescents' smoking initiation and continuation with longitudinal designs across 16 countries. Mixed-effects models with robust variance estimates were used to calculate weighted-mean Odds ratios...
August 3, 2017: Psychological Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769743/neural-response-to-biological-motion-in-healthy-adults-varies-as-a-function-of-autistic-like-traits
#18
Meghan H Puglia, James P Morris
Perception of biological motion is an important social cognitive ability that has been mapped to specialized brain regions. Perceptual deficits and neural differences during biological motion perception have previously been associated with autism, a disorder classified by social and communication difficulties and repetitive and restricted interests and behaviors. However, the traits associated with autism are not limited to diagnostic categories, but are normally distributed within the general population and show the same patterns of heritability across the continuum...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768609/toward-predicting-social-support-needs-in-online-health-social-networks
#19
Min-Je Choi, Sung-Hee Kim, Sukwon Lee, Bum Chul Kwon, Ji Soo Yi, Jaegul Choo, Jina Huh
BACKGROUND: While online health social networks (OHSNs) serve as an effective platform for patients to fulfill their various social support needs, predicting the needs of users and providing tailored information remains a challenge. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to discriminate important features for identifying users' social support needs based on knowledge gathered from survey data. This study also provides guidelines for a technical framework, which can be used to predict users' social support needs based on raw data collected from OHSNs...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760176/psychometrics-matter-in-health-behavior-a-long-term-reliability-generalization-study
#20
Andrew C Pickett, Danny Valdez, Adam E Barry
OBJECTIVES: Despite numerous calls for increased understanding and reporting of reliability estimates, social science research, including the field of health behavior, has been slow to respond and adopt such practices. Therefore, we offer a brief overview of reliability and common reporting errors; we then perform analyses to examine and demonstrate the variability of reliability estimates by sample and over time. METHODS: Using meta-analytic reliability generalization, we examined the variability of coefficient alpha scores for a well-designed, consistent, nationwide health study, covering a span of nearly 40 years...
September 1, 2017: American Journal of Health Behavior
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