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Behavior and social work

Ioana Miruna Balmus, Radu Lefter, Alin Ciobica, Iulia Antioch, Daniela Ababei, Romeo Dobrin
INTRODUCTION: Oxytocin (OT) is a well-known neuropeptides which together with vasopressin, melatonin, insulin and other hormones can alter both behavior and physiological or neuronal functions. This growing interest on OT roles is also based on the demonstrated beneficial effects as a stress reliever and a social bonding agent. The association between old age and OT was only vaguely studied. Little or few is known on the effect of the OT hormone on the old body. Hereby, we present our preliminary results in the research on behavioral changes regarding the intraperitoneal administration of OT in aged rats...
March 2018: Psychiatria Danubina
Carolyn M Bauer, Loreto A Correa, Luis A Ebensperger, L Michael Romero
The Common Degu (Octodon degus) is a small rodent endemic to central Chile. It has become an important model for comparative vertebrate endocrinology because of several uncommon life-history features - it is diurnal, shows a high degree of sociality, practices plural breeding with multiple females sharing natal burrows, practices communal parental care, and can easily be studied in the laboratory and the field. Many studies have exploited these features to make contributions to comparative endocrinology. This review summarizes contributions in four major areas...
March 12, 2018: General and Comparative Endocrinology
Casey R Guillot, Heidemarie Blumenthal, Michael J Zvolensky, Norman B Schmidt
Anxiety sensitivity (AS)- fear of anxiety symptoms and their potential negative consequences-has been implicated in the development of substance use problems and motivation to use substances for coping with distress, though the AS components (physical, cognitive, and social concerns) have not been studied extensively in relation to alcohol- and cannabis-related variables. In a cross-sectional design, self-report measures of AS and alcohol and cannabis use, motives, and problems were administered to 364 treatment-seeking cigarette smokers with a history of alcohol and cannabis use...
March 8, 2018: Addictive Behaviors
Nadia J Sweis
OBJECTIVES: To highlight the physical, psychological, social, and economic reasons related to sex differences in smoking behaviors in Jordan. METHODS: A cross-sectional questionnaire-based survey was conducted among Jordanian adult smokers. RESULTS: Sex was a significant predictor of physical reasons related to smoking; when controlling for other factors (t765 = 5.027; P < 0.001), women were more affected by physical factors than were men...
March 12, 2018: Value in Health Regional Issues
Joanna M Drinane, Jesse Owen, Karen W Tao
Therapy is predicated on the need for clients to share intimate details about their lives, including their cultural values, attitudes, and beliefs. Previous studies have found that clients conceal certain aspects of their lives including, but not limited to their symptoms and their feelings about the therapy process. To date, there has not been an investigation focused on whether clients conceal aspects of their cultural identities, whether some therapists are more likely to have clients conceal aspects of their cultural identities, and if cultural concealment is associated with therapy outcomes...
March 2018: Journal of Counseling Psychology
Geertjan Overbeek, Daphne van de Bongardt, Laura Baams
One main source of sexual socialization lies within family interactions. Especially sexuality-specific parenting may determine adolescents' sexual development-adolescents' sexual behavior and sexual risk behavior, sexualized media consumption and permissive sexual attitudes-to a significant extent, but different ideas exist about how this works. In this longitudinal study, we examined two hypotheses on how sexuality-specific parenting-parenting aimed specifically at children's sexual attitudes and behaviors-relates to adolescents' sexual development...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Youth and Adolescence
Gráinne I McNamara, Rosalind M John, Anthony R Isles
Genomic imprinting, the epigenetic process by which transcription occurs from a single parental allele, is believed to influence social behaviors in mammals. An important social behavior is group living, which is enriched in Eutherian mammals relative to monotremes and marsupials. Group living facilitates resource acquisition, defense of territory and co-care of young, but requires a stable social group with complex inter-individual relationships. Co-occurring with increased group living in Eutherians is an increase in the number of imprinted loci, including that spanning the maternally expressed Cdkn1c ...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Eunyoung Bang, Boyoung Lee, Joon-Oh Park, Yooncheol Jang, Aekyong Kim, Sungwuk Kim, Hee-Sup Shin
In recent years, as the aging population grows, aging-induced cognitive impairments including dementia and Alzheimer's disease (AD) have become the biggest challenges for global public health and social care. Therefore, the development of potential therapeutic drugs for aging-associated cognitive impairment is essential. Metabolic dysregulation has been considered to be a key factor that affects aging and dementia. Adenosine monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a primary sensor of cellular energy states and regulates cellular energy metabolism...
February 2018: Experimental Neurobiology
Lisa C Hiura, Lavinia Tan, Timothy D Hackenberg
The present research measured social reinforcement in rats, using a social-release procedure in which lever presses permitted 10-s access to a familiar social partner. The work requirements for reinforcement increased systematically according to progressive-ratio (PR) schedules. Social and food reinforcement value were compared across blocks of sessions (Experiment 1) and concurrently within the same sessions (Experiment 2). To assess motivational effects, response and reinforcer rates for both reinforcer types were studied under food restriction, social restriction, and combined food and social restriction...
March 10, 2018: Behavioural Processes
Nathan W Burke, Russell Bonduriansky
Facultative reproductive strategies that incorporate both sexual and parthenogenetic reproduction should be optimal, yet are rarely observed in animals. Resolving this paradox requires an understanding of the economics of facultative asexuality. Recent work suggests that switching from parthenogenesis to sex can be costly and that females can resist mating to avoid switching. However, it remains unclear whether these costs and resistance behaviors are dependent on female age. We addressed these questions in the Cyclone Larry stick insect, Sipyloidea larryi , by pairing females with males (or with females as a control) in early life prior to the start of parthenogenetic reproduction, or in mid- or late life after a period of parthenogenetic oviposition...
March 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Martina Zandara, Carolina Villada, Vanesa Hidalgo, Alicia Salvador
The feeling of stress is increasing in today's societies, particularly in young adults subjected to social evaluative situations in highly competitive academic and work contexts. Threat appraisal is a primary and fundamental reaction when people face a stressful situation. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of dispositional optimism as an antecedent and displacement behavior as a consequence of threat appraisal of a social-evaluative situation of stress. A second objective was to verify the moderating role of physiological responses to stress (heart rate and cortisol reactivity) in the relationship between threat appraisal and displacement behavior...
March 13, 2018: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
Leif Karlsson, Anna Nordenström, Tatja Hirvikoski, Svetlana Lajic
Dexamethasone (DEX) is used to prevent prenatal virilization in female fetuses with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH). Since treatment has to be started before the genotype of the fetus is known, 7 out of 8 fetuses will be exposed to DEX without benefit. Previously, we have observed negative effects on cognition and behavior in DEX treated children. Here we evaluated neuropsychological functions, psychopathology and autistic traits in non-CAH DEX-treated adults exposed during the first trimester of fetal life (duration 6...
March 1, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Marcel Riehle, Tania M Lincoln
People with schizophrenia show marked reductions in their emotional expressiveness, generally known as blunted affect. In this study, we tested whether interaction partners would evaluate community-dwelling participants with schizophrenia less favorably than healthy controls and whether this difference would be explained by reduced smiling behavior related to schizophrenia. We also tested whether deficient affect recognition would predict reduced smiling. We created 3 study groups, consisting of 28 participants each, participants with schizophrenia (SZ), healthy controls (HC), and naive healthy interaction partners (IP)...
February 2018: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
Gökhan Aydogan, Andrea Jobst, Fabian Loy, Sandra Dehning, Peter Zill, Norbert Müller, Martin Kocher
Decision-making in groups is a remarkable and decisive element of human societies. Humans are able to organize themselves in groups, engage in collaborative decision-making processes and arrive at a binding agreement, even in the absence of unanimous consent. However, the transfer of decision-making autonomy requires a willingness to deliberately expose oneself to the decisions of others. A lack of trust in the abilities of others or of the underlying decision-making process, i.e. public trust, can lead to a breakdown of organizations in political or economic domains...
March 8, 2018: Hormones and Behavior
Netta Weinstein, Nicole Legate, William S Ryan, Laura Hemmy
OBJECTIVE: Work on longevity has found protective social, cognitive and emotional factors, but to date we have little understanding of the impact of motivational dynamics. Autonomy orientation, or stable patterns of self-regulation, is theorized to be a protective factor for long-term mental and physical health (Ryan & Deci, 2017), and is therefore a prime candidate for examining how stable psychosocial factors are linked to longevity, or life expectancy. METHOD: Essays written in the 1930s by participants in the Nun Study were coded for indicators of an autonomy orientation...
March 10, 2018: Journal of Personality
Nada El Osta, Lana El Osta, Lydia Rabbaa Khabbaz, Robert Saad, Carole Abi-Ghosn, Martine Hennequin, Stephanie Tubert-Jeannin, Jihad Fakhouri
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The percentage of Lebanese older people has increased considerably. Given that Lebanese seniors are marginalized in the health policy-making process, we suggest a high social inequality in oral health that has not been studied so far. The purpose of our study was to describe and compare oral health status in a group of Lebanese older people according to their socioeconomic status (SES) MATERIALS AND METHODS: Participants were recruited from three different primary health care clinics in Beirut, Lebanon...
March 8, 2018: Aging Clinical and Experimental Research
Lixin Jiang, Tahira M Probst, Wendi Benson, Jesse Byrd
Recent years have witnessed a staggeringly high number of workplace aggressive behaviors as well as employee accidents and injuries. Exposure to workplace aggression is associated with a host of negative psychological, emotional, and physiological outcomes, yet research relating workplace aggression to employee safety outcomes is lacking. This study aims to examine the association between exposure to workplace physical and verbal aggression with workplace injuries and underreporting of accidents and near misses...
March 5, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Holly Sairsingh, Phyllis Solomon, Amy Helstrom, Dan Treglia
Objective: Women are serving in the armed forces and deployed to areas of conflict in increasing numbers. Problems such as depressive symptoms and risks related to combat exposure can have negative effects on adjustment following service; understanding the relationship between these problems may contribute to strategies providers can use to facilitate healthy adjustment after deployment. The purpose of this study is to examine social factors as they relate to mental health adjustment, namely depressive symptoms among female veterans who served in Iraq and Afghanistan as part of Operation Enduring Freedom, Operation Iraqi Freedom, and Operation New Dawn (OND)...
March 1, 2018: Military Medicine
Talita Maria Monteiro Farias Barbosa, Ivonaldo Leidson Barbosa Lima, Giorvan Ânderson Dos Santos Alves, Isabelle Cahino Delgado
PURPOSE: To analyze the contributions of speech-language therapy in the integration of young individuals with Down syndrome (DS) into the workplace, with reference to their professionalization. METHODS: A questionnaire was distributed to eight undergraduate students (tutors) who participated in a project with individuals with DS, five mothers of individuals with DS, and five employees from the institution in which the present study was conducted. The questionnaire assessed the communication, memory, behavior, social interaction, autonomy and independence of the participants with DS, called "trainees"...
March 1, 2018: CoDAS
Julie Sadino, Zoe Donaldson
Over a lifetime, humans build relationships with family, friends, and partners that are critically important for our mental and physical health. Unlike commonly used laboratory mice and rats, Microtine rodents provide a unique model to study the neurobiology underlying pair bonding and the selective attachments that form between adults. Comparisons between monogamous prairie voles and the closely related, but non-monogamous meadow and montane voles, have revealed that brain-region-specific neuropeptide receptor patterning modulates social behavior between and within species...
March 7, 2018: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
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