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Healthcare and Ethics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328239/normal-modern-reconstructive-surgery-in-a-mexican-public-hospital
#1
Samuel Taylor-Alexander
A growing corpus of anthropological scholarship demonstrates how science and medicine in Mexico are imbued by national concerns with modernization. Drawing on ethnographic research in a public hospital located in the south of Mexico City, I unpack one manifestation of this dynamic, which is the conjugation of the normal and the modern in Mexican reconstructive surgery. The aspiration toward normality underlies everyday clinic practices and relationships in this field, including why parents want surgery for their children and how doctors see their patients and their responsibilities toward them...
March 22, 2017: Medical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326914/so-you-think-you-ve-designed-an-effective-recruitment-protocol
#2
Cara Green, Virginia Vandall-Walker
Background Recruiting acutely ill patients to participate in research can be challenging. This paper outlines the difficulties the first author encountered in a study and the steps she took to overcome problems with research ethics, gain access to participants and implement a recruitment protocol in multiple hospitals. It also compares these steps with literature related to recruitment. Aim To inform and inspire neophyte researchers about the need for planning and resilience when dealing with recruitment challenges in multiple hospitals...
March 22, 2017: Nurse Researcher
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320789/-right-home-a-randomised-controlled-trial-of-sustained-nurse-home-visiting-from-pregnancy-to-child-age-2%C3%A2-years-versus-usual-care-to-improve-parent-care-parent-responsivity-and-the-home-learning-environment-at-2%C3%A2-years
#3
Sharon Goldfeld, Anna Price, Hannah Bryson, Tracey Bruce, Fiona Mensah, Francesca Orsini, Lisa Gold, Harriet Hiscock, Charlene Smith, Lara Bishop, Dianne Jackson, Lynn Kemp
INTRODUCTION: By the time children start school, inequities in learning, development and health outcomes are already evident. Sustained nurse home visiting (SNHV) offers a potential platform for families experiencing adversity, who often have limited access to services. While SNHV programmes have been growing in popularity in Australia and internationally, it is not known whether they can improve children's learning and development when offered via the Australian service system. The right@home trial aims to investigate the effectiveness of an SNHV programme, offered to women from pregnancy to child age 2 years, in improving parent care of and responsivity to the child, and the home learning environment...
March 20, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319151/ethical-problems-in-an-era-where-disasters-have-become-a-part-of-daily-life-a-qualitative-study-of-healthcare-workers-in-turkey
#4
M Murat Civaner, Kevser Vatansever, Kayihan Pala
BACKGROUND: Natural disasters, armed conflict, migration, and epidemics today occur more frequently, causing more death, displacement of people and economic loss. Their burden on health systems and healthcare workers (HCWs) is getting heavier accordingly. The ethical problems that arise in disaster settings may be different than the ones in daily practice, and can cause preventable harm or the violation of basic human rights. Understanding the types and the determinants of ethical challenges is crucial in order to find the most benevolent action while respecting the dignity of those affected people...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318398/health-and-identity-related-interactions-between-lesbian-bisexual-queer-and-pansexual-women-and-their-healthcare-providers
#5
Aleta Baldwin, Brian Dodge, Vanessa Schick, Debra Herbenick, Stephanie Sanders, Roshni Dhoot, Dennis Fortenberry
Disclosure of sexual identity among sexual minority women is related to better outcomes and improved quality of care. The existing literature on sexual minority women's experiences of identity disclosure and related interactions with healthcare providers draws little distinction between different groups of sexual minority women, despite the different barriers, stigma and health outcomes that exist between them. This paper presents factors influencing identity disclosure and describes the characteristics of interactions that sexual minority women have with their healthcare providers around sexual identity and health...
March 20, 2017: Culture, Health & Sexuality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302637/protocol-for-determining-primary-healthcare-practice-characteristics-models-of-practice-and-patient-accessibility-using-an-exploratory-census-survey-with-linkage-to-administrative-data-in-nova-scotia-canada
#6
Emily Gard Marshall, Richard J Gibson, Beverley Lawson, Frederick Burge
INTRODUCTION: There is little evidence on how primary care providers (PCPs) model their practices in Nova Scotia (NS), Canada, what services they offer or what accessibility is like for the average patient. This study will create a database of all family physicians and primary healthcare nurse practitioners in NS, including information about accessibility and the model of care in which they practice, and will link the survey data to administrative health databases. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: 3 census surveys of all family physicians, primary care nurse practitioners (ie, PCPs) and their practices in NS will be conducted...
March 16, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299245/medical-big-data-for-research-use-current-status-and-related-issues
#7
Koichi Benjamin Ishikawa
Advances in the computerization of information and development of technology have mitigated restrictions on handling of a large amount of information. This has resulted in growth of expectations for the use of large-scale databases, or so-called "big data." This is also the case in the field of healthcare. Projects that involve building of the national receipt database (NDB) of medical fee bill (receipt) information and special health check-up information based on the Act on Assurance of Medical Care for Elderly People and the development of medical information databases have been pursued by the national government, and considerable attention has also been focused on researches conducted through the secondary uses of publicly collected data...
September 2016: Japan Medical Association Journal: JMAJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295894/cost-effectiveness-analysis-appraisal-and-application-an-emergency-medicine-perspective
#8
Michael D April, Brian P Murray
Cost-effectiveness is an important goal for emergency care delivery. The many diagnostic, treatment, and disposition decisions made in the emergency department (ED) have a significant impact upon healthcare resource utilization. Cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) is an analytic tool to optimize these resource allocation decisions through the systematic comparison of costs and effects of alternative healthcare decisions. Yet few emergency medicine leaders and policy-makers have any formal training in CEA methodology...
March 10, 2017: Academic Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289851/withdrawal-of-artificial-nutrition-and-hydration-in-neonatal-intensive-care-parents-and-healthcare-practitioners-views
#9
Véronique Fournier, Elisabeth Belghiti, Laurence Brunet, Marta Spranzi
Withdrawing Artificial Nutrition and Hydration (WANH) in the neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) has long been controversial. In France, the practice has become a legal option since 2005. But even though, the question remains as to what the stakeholders' experience is, and whether they consider it ethically appropriate. In order to contribute to the debate, we initiated a study in 2009 to evaluate parental and health care professionals (HCP) perspectives, after they experienced WAHN for a newborn. The study included 25 cases from 5 different clinical neonatology departments...
March 13, 2017: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282721/ethical-issues-surrounding-personalized-medicine-a-literature-review
#10
Pooneh Salari, Bagher Larijani
More than a decade ago, personalized medicine was presented in modern medicine. Personalized medicine means that the right drug should be prescribed for the right patient based on genetic data. No doubt is developing medical sciences, and its shift into personalized medicine complicates ethical challenges more than before. In this review, we categorized all probable ethical considerations of personalized medicine in research and development and service provision. Based on our review, extensive changes in healthcare system including ethical changes are needed to overcome the ethical obstacles including knowledge gap and informed consent, privacy and confidentiality and availability of healthcare services...
March 2017: Acta Medica Iranica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277389/organizational-silence-among-nurses-the-impact-on-organizational-cynicism-and-intention-to-leave-work
#11
Esra Çaylak, Serap Altuntaş
BACKGROUND: In recent years, organizational silence and organizational cynicism, factors that have been shown to inhibit the improvement of organizations, have been highlighted in the health sector. Nearly every aspect of these two issues has been studied. PURPOSE: This research was conducted to identify the relationship between the organizational silence, organizational cynicism, and intention to leave work of nurses. METHODS: This descriptive and correlational study was carried out in August and September 2013 with 323 nurses at a university hospital in Ankara...
April 2017: Journal of Nursing Research: JNR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276842/different-views-on-treatment-decisions-by-first-year-interprofessional-healthcare-students
#12
N Nagao, Y Tamura, P Bontje, Y Takimoto, M Hirai, Y Ishikawa
This study explored ethical treatment decisions of healthcare professional students beginning their education. As part of a first-semester modern medicine and bioethics course, 311 students watched and discussed, in interprofessional groups, a video titled Dax's Case: Who Should Decide? regarding the treatment of a life-threatening infectious disease against Dax's wish. The students then discussed and made their decision regarding treating or not. Their decisions, recorded on a worksheet, were classified as "will treat" or "won't treat...
February 28, 2017: Journal of Interprofessional Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276585/electronic-case-report-forms-and-electronic-data-capture-within-clinical-trials-and-pharmacoepidemiology
#13
REVIEW
David A Rorie, Robert W V Flynn, Kerr Grieve, Alexander Doney, Isla Mackenzie, Thomas M MacDonald, Amy Rogers
AIMS: Researchers in clinical and pharmacoepidemiology fields have adopted information technology (IT) and electronic data capture, but these remain underutilised despite the benefits. This review discusses electronic case report forms and electronic data capture, specifically within pharmacoepidemiology and clinical research. METHODS: The review used PubMed and the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers library (IEEE). Search terms used were agreed by the authors and documented...
March 9, 2017: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274965/identifying-opportunities-for-nature-engagement-in-cancer-care-practice-and-design-protocol-for-four-round-modified-electronic-delphi
#14
Sarah Blaschke, Clare C O'Callaghan, Penelope Schofield
INTRODUCTION: Opportunities to engage with nature have shown relevance in experiences of health and recovery of patients with cancer and are attracting interest in cancer care practice and design. Such healthcare innovations can widen the horizon of possible supportive care solutions but require deliberate and rigorous investigation to ensure responsible action is taken and wastage avoided. This protocol outlines a study designed to solicit knowledge from relevant experts drawn from a range of healthcare practitioners, management representatives, designers and researchers to explore levels of opinion consensus for determining opportunities for, and barriers to, providing helpful nature engagement in cancer care settings...
March 8, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270704/role-of-ethical-beliefs-and-attitudes-of-dental-students-in-providing-care-for-hiv-aids-patients
#15
Saad Ahmed Khan, Min Li Liew, Hanan Omar
INTRODUCTION: Dental care has remained as an unmet need for people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHAs). Dental students are considered as future healthcare workforce and having beliefs which are discriminating may have negative attitudes towards providing care to these individuals (Azodo et al., 2010). The study aimed to assess the ethical beliefs and attitudes of dental students towards PLWHAs for providing care. METHODS: It is a descriptive correlational and cross sectional study...
January 2017: Saudi Dental Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265798/the-role-of-a-hospital-ethics-consultation-service-in-decision-making-for-unrepresented-patients
#16
Andrew M Courtwright, Joshua Abrams, Ellen M Robinson
Despite increased calls for hospital ethics committees to serve as default decision-makers about life-sustaining treatment (LST) for unrepresented patients who lack decision-making capacity or a surrogate decision-maker and whose wishes regarding medical care are not known, little is known about how committees currently function in these cases. This was a retrospective cohort study of all ethics committee consultations involving decision-making about LST for unrepresented patients at a large academic hospital from 2007 to 2013...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28255279/diagnosing-dementia-ethnography-interactional-ethics-and-everyday-moral-reasoning
#17
Alexandra Hillman
This article highlights the contribution of ethnography and qualitative sociology to the ethical challenges that frame the diagnosis of dementia. To illustrate this contribution, the paper draws on an ethnographic study of UK memory clinics carried out between 2012 and 2014. The ethnographic data, set alongside other studies and sociological theory, contest the promotion of a traditional view of autonomy; the limiting of the point of ethical interest to a distinct moment of diagnosis disclosure; and the failure to recognise risk and uncertainty in the building of clinical 'facts' and their communication...
February 2017: Social Theory & Health: STH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253515/growth-promotion-ethics-and-the-challenge-to-resist-cosmetic-endocrinology%C3%A2
#18
David B Allen
The advancement of "human growth hormone (hGH)-for-height" - increasing height attainment in children short for reasons other than GH deficiency - arose from intuitive, deep-seated assumptions about the disability of short stature, its improvement with hGH-mediated height gain, and the safety of escalating dosages of hGH in healthy children. Evidence challenging these assumptions now strengthens criticism of hGH-for-height as cosmetic endocrinology. To counter this characterization, collective acceptance of guidelines is needed that advise nontreatment of the vast majority of short children, support strategies that minimize treatment duration and dosage, and restrain enhancement of normal adult stature...
March 2, 2017: Hormone Research in Pædiatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249603/the-importance-of-professional-values-from-clinical-nurses-perspective-in-hospitals-of-a-medical-university-in-iran
#19
Batool Poorchangizi, Jamileh Farokhzadian, Abbas Abbaszadeh, Moghaddameh Mirzaee, Fariba Borhani
BACKGROUND: Today, nurses are required to have knowledge and awareness concerning professional values as standards to provide safe and high-quality ethical care. Nurses' perspective on professional values affects decision-making and patient care. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the importance of professional values from clinical nurses' perspective. METHODS: The present cross-sectional study was conducted in 2016 in four educational hospitals of Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Iran...
March 1, 2017: BMC Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28246142/evaluating-the-effectiveness-impact-and-safety-of-live-attenuated-and-seasonal-inactivated-influenza-vaccination-protocol-for-the-seasonal-influenza-vaccination-effectiveness-ii-sive-ii-study
#20
Colin R Simpson, Nazir I Lone, Kimberley Kavanagh, Chris Robertson, Jim McMenamin, Beatrix von Wissmann, Eleftheria Vasileiou, Chris Butler, Lewis D Ritchie, Rory Gunson, Jürgen Schwarze, Aziz Sheikh
INTRODUCTION: Seasonal (inactivated) influenza vaccination is recommended for all individuals aged 65+ and in individuals under 65 who are at an increased risk of complications of influenza infection, for example, people with asthma. Live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) was recommended for children as they are thought to be responsible for much of the transmission of influenza to the populations at risk of serious complications from influenza. A phased roll-out of the LAIV pilot programme began in 2013/2014...
February 28, 2017: BMJ Open
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