keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Forensic biology

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781966/health-outcomes-of-youth-in-the-united-states-exposed-to-parental-incarceration-an-integrative-review
#1
Samantha J Boch, Jodi L Ford
In the United States, parental incarceration (PI) has been increasingly recognized as an understudied adverse childhood experience. In response, a rapidly expanding body of research has begun to investigate the effects of PI on youth mental and physical health outcomes. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this integrative review was to synthesize recent quantitative evidence investigating the effects of PI on youths' mental and physical health outcomes. DESIGN AND MEASURES: Electronic strategies were used to find relevant quantitative articles published between September 2006 and 2016 using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses-Equity guidelines...
April 2018: Journal of Forensic Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775922/acid-phosphatase-test-on-phadebas-%C3%A2-sheets-an-optimized-method-for-presumptive-saliva-and-semen-detection
#2
Yael Herman, Ilan Feine, Ron Gafny
The precise and efficient detection of semen and saliva in sexual assault case-work items is a critical step in the forensic pipeline. The outcome of this stage may have a profound impact on identifying perpetrators as well as on the investigation process and the final outcome in court. Semen detection is usually based on the activity of acid phosphatase (AP), an enzyme found in high concentration in the seminal plasma. Amylase, an enzyme catalyzing starch hydrolysis is found in high concentrations in saliva and therefore is a useful target for its detection...
April 30, 2018: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775918/determining-gender-by-taking-measurements-from-magnetic-resonance-images-of-the-patella
#3
Hacer Yasar Teke, Özge Ünlütürk, Elif Günaydin, Semra Duran, Sait Özsoy
BACKGROUND: A key step in making a positive identification in forensic medicine is the establishment of a biological profile, which involves determining factors such as gender, age, ancestry, and stature. The goal of this study was to determine if gender could be established by taking various measurements of the patella taken from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) images and analyzing the variations by gender. METHODS: The sample group consisted of 220 patients (110 male and 110 female) whose patella were measured using MRI images of their left knee...
May 8, 2018: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772600/an-accurate-bacterial-dna-quantification-assay-for-hts-library-preparation-of-human-biological-samples
#4
Sarah Seashols-Williams, Raquel Green, Denise Wohlfahrt, Angela Brand, Antonio Limjuco Tan-Torres, Francy Nogales, J Paul Brooks, Baneshwar Singh
Sequencing and classification of microbial taxa within forensically relevant biological fluids has the potential for applications in the forensic science and biomedical fields. The quantity of bacterial DNA from human samples is currently estimated based on quantity of total DNA isolated. This method can miscalculate bacterial DNA quantity due to the mixed nature of the sample, and consequently library preparation is often unreliable. We developed an assay that can accurately and specifically quantify bacterial DNA within a mixed sample for reliable 16S ribosomal DNA (16S rDNA) library preparation and high throughput sequencing (HTS)...
May 17, 2018: Electrophoresis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772013/rapid-differentiation-of-epithelial-cell-types-in-aged-biological-samples-using-autofluorescence-and-morphological-signatures
#5
Emily R Brocato, M Katherine Philpott, Catherine C Connon, Christopher J Ehrhardt
Establishing the tissue source of epithelial cells within a biological sample is an important capability for forensic laboratories. In this study we used Imaging Flow Cytometry (IFC) to analyze individual cells recovered from buccal, epidermal, and vaginal samples that had been dried between 24 hours and more than eight weeks. Measurements capturing the size, shape, and fluorescent properties of cells were collected in an automated manner and then used to build a multivariate statistical framework for differentiating cells based on tissue type...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758014/investigating-the-epigenetic-discrimination-of-identical-twins-using-buccal-swabs-saliva-and-cigarette-butts-in-the-forensic-setting
#6
Athina Vidaki, Vivian Kalamara, Elena Carnero-Montoro, Timothy D Spector, Jordana T Bell, Manfred Kayser
Monozygotic (MZ) twins are typically indistinguishable via forensic DNA profiling. Recently, we demonstrated that epigenetic differentiation of MZ twins is feasible; however, proportions of twin differentially methylated CpG sites (tDMSs) identified in reference-type blood DNA were not replicated in trace-type blood DNA. Here we investigated buccal swabs as typical forensic reference material, and saliva and cigarette butts as commonly encountered forensic trace materials. As an analog to a forensic case, we analyzed one MZ twin pair...
May 14, 2018: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754040/synthetic-cannabinoid-bb-22-quchic-human-hepatocytes-metabolism-with-liquid-chromatography-high-resolution-mass-spectrometry-detection
#7
Jeremy Carlier, Xingxing Diao, Marilyn A Huestis
Clandestine laboratories continue producing new synthetic cannabinoids that mimic and magnify natural cannabinoids effects to circumvent drug scheduling legislation. New synthetic cannabinoids are highly potent and responsible for many acute intoxications and deaths. Characterization of metabolic pathways is critical to identify metabolite markers whose detection can prove intake. BB-22 is a new potent synthetic cannabinoid whose toxicological and metabolic properties are currently unavailable. Analytical methods require constant updating and are challenging due to extensive synthetic cannabinoid metabolism and low marker concentrations...
May 7, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745329/building-bridges-between-clinical-and-forensic-toxicology-laboratories
#8
Bernardino Barcelo Martin, Isabel Gomila, Valeria Noce
BACKGROUND: Clinical and forensic toxicology can be defined as the two disciplines involved the detection, identification and measurement of xenobiotics in biological and non-biological specimens to help in the diagnosis, treatment, prognosis, prevention of poisonings and to disclose causes and contributory causes of fatal intoxications, respectively. OBJECTIVE: This article explores the close connections between clinical and forensic toxicology in overlapping areas of interest...
May 9, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29734052/critical-analysis-of-forensic-cut-offs-and-legal-thresholds-a-coherent-approach-to-inference-and-decision
#9
A Biedermann, F Taroni, S Bozza, M Augsburger, C G G Aitken
In this paper we critically discuss the definition and use of cut-off values by forensic scientists, for example in forensic toxicology, and point out when and why such values - and ensuing categorical conclusions - are inappropriate concepts for helping recipients of expert information with their questions of interest. Broadly speaking, a cut-off is a particular value of results of analyses of a target substance (e.g., a toxic substance or one of its metabolites in biological sample from a person of interest), defined in a way such as to enable scientists to suggest conclusions regarding the condition of the person of interest...
April 25, 2018: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29714155/investigating-the-isolation-and-amplification-of-micrornas-for-forensic-body-fluid-identification
#10
Claire L Glynn, Kelsie R O Leary
BACKGROUND: The discovery of forensic DNA typing evolved molecular biology far beyond what could have been expected in terms of its forensic application, and now there exists other developments in molecular biology which are ready for application to forensic challenges. One such challenge is the identification of the body fluid source of stains recovered from evidence items and crime scenes. Currently there are significant efforts in the research field to develop novel methods for the molecular identification of body fluids, with microRNAs (miRNAs) revealing great potential...
April 30, 2018: MicroRNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29705644/japaneseplex-a-forensic-snp-assay-for-identification-of-japanese-people-using-japanese-specific-alleles
#11
Isao Yuasa, Atsushi Akane, Toshimichi Yamamoto, Aya Matsusue, Minoru Endoh, Mayumi Nakagawa, Kazuo Umetsu, Takaki Ishikawa, Morio Iino
It is sometimes necessary to determine whether a forensic biological sample came from a Japanese person. In this study, we developed a 60-locus SNP assay designed for the differentiation of Japanese people from other East Asians using entirely and nearly Japanese-specific alleles. This multiplex assay consisted of 6 independent PCR reactions followed by single nucleotide extension. The average number and standard deviation of Japanese-specific alleles possessed by an individual were 0.81 ± 0.93 in 108 Koreans from Seoul, 8...
April 24, 2018: Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29702739/midfacial-growth-patterns-in-males-from-newborn-to-5-years-old-based-on-computed-tomography
#12
Andrej Evteev, Anatoliy Anikin, Leonid Satanin
OBJECTIVES: Growth patterns of the human facial skeleton have been of great interest and importance for biological anthropologists, forensic scientists, craniofacial surgeons, and orthopedists. Nevertheless, growth trends of the facial skeleton in infancy and early childhood are still poorly known and clinical CT data have been insufficiently used for studying craniofacial ontogeny. The purpose of this study was to provide a comprehensive quantitative description of human midfacial ontogeny in infancy and early childhood, and to contribute to debates regarding the role of modularity vs...
April 27, 2018: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29701148/quantification-of-methamphetamine-%C3%A2-shabu%C3%A2-in-biological-matrices-to-detect-prenatal-exposure-a-case-report-and-a-literature-review
#13
Pilar Jarque, Antonia Roca, Isabel Gomila, Valeria Noce, B Bernardino Barcelo, Julia Klein
BACKGROUND: Methamphetamine misuse represents an increasing global public health problem. Its consumption during pregnancy becomes a relevant issue, since it has clinical consequences for the child's health and the pregnant woman. Despite this, there are only few data in the literature that include analytical results in the matrices used to detect prenatal exposure. OBJECTIVES: 1) Present a case report of prenatal methamphetamine exposure with toxicological analytical confirmation in biological matrices; and 2) Perform a compilation of prenatal methamphetamine exposure studies and case reports which include toxicological analytical results...
April 26, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29698658/a-novel-use-of-infra-red-spectroscopy-nirs-and-atr-ftir-coupled-with-variable-selection-algorithms-for-the-identification-of-insect-species-diptera-sarcophagidae-of-medico-legal-relevance
#14
Taciano M Barbosa, Leomir A S de Lima, Marfran C D Dos Santos, Simão D Vasconcelos, Renata A Gama, Kássio M G Lima
Unequivocal identification of fly specimens is an essential requirement in forensic entomology. Herein, a simple, non-destructive and rapid method based on two vibrational spectroscopy techniques [Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) and attenuated total reflection Fourier-transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy] coupled with variable selection techniques such as genetic algorithm-linear discriminant analysis (GA-LDA) and successive projection algorithm-linear discriminant analysis (SPA-LDA) were applied for identifying and discriminating six species of flesh flies (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) native to Neotropical regions...
April 23, 2018: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29698560/review-and-perspectives-on-the-applications-of-mass-spectrometry-imaging-under-ambient-conditions
#15
Consuelo J Perez, Aafreen K Bagga, Shamina S Prova, Maryam Y Taemeh, Demian R Ifa
Ambient MS-based techniques are performed under ambient conditions in which the ionization and desorption occur in the open environment allowing the direct analysis of molecules on surfaces with minimal or no sample preparation. A selected group of ambient MS techniques demonstrate imaging capabilities that can provide information about the localization of molecules on complex sample surfaces such as biological tissues. 2D, 3D, and multimodal imaging have unlocked an array of applications to systematically address complex problems in many areas of research such as drug monitoring, natural products forensics, and cancer diagnostics...
April 26, 2018: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry: RCM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689732/a-novel-algorithm-for-thermal-image-encryption
#16
Iqtadar Hussain, Amir Anees, Abdulmohsen Algarni
Thermal images play a vital character at nuclear plants, Power stations, Forensic labs biological research, and petroleum products extraction. Safety of thermal images is very important. Image data has some unique features such as intensity, contrast, homogeneity, entropy and correlation among pixels that is why somehow image encryption is trickier as compare to other encryptions. With conventional image encryption schemes it is normally hard to handle these features. Therefore, cryptographers have paid attention to some attractive properties of the chaotic maps such as randomness and sensitivity to build up novel cryptosystems...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Integrative Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683043/toxicological-hair-analysis-pre-analytical-analytical-and-interpretive-aspects
#17
Himanshu Khajuria, Biswa Prakash Nayak, Ashish Badiye
Background and aims Hair analysis for drug detection is one of the widely accepted imperative techniques in the field of forensic toxicology. The current study was designed to investigate the efficacy of chromatography for detection of drugs of abuse in hair. Method A comprehensive review of articles from last two decades on hair analyses via PubMed and similar resources was performed. Issues concerning collection, decontamination and analytical techniques are summarised. Physiochemical nature of hair, mechanism of drug incorporation and its stability in hair are briefly discussed...
January 1, 2018: Medicine, Science, and the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679840/estimation-of-stature-from-sternum-exploring-the-quadratic-models
#18
Ashish Saraf, Tanuj Kanchan, Kewal Krishan, Navneet Ateriya, Puneet Setia
Identification of the dead is significant in examination of unknown, decomposed and mutilated human remains. Establishing the biological profile is the central issue in such a scenario, and stature estimation remains one of the important criteria in this regard. The present study was undertaken to estimate stature from different parts of the sternum. A sample of 100 sterna was obtained from individuals during the medicolegal autopsies. Length of the deceased and various measurements of the sternum were measured...
April 14, 2018: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678345/dimensions-around-the-nutrient-foramina-of-the-tibia-and-fibula-in-the-estimation-of-sex
#19
Mamorapelo D Fasemore, Mubarak A Bidmos, Palesa Mokoena, Aminu Imam, Brendon K Billings, Pedzisai Mazengenya
Sex estimation from skeletal remains is one of the key components in establishing a biological profile and consequent identification of an individual in a forensic and medico-legal practice. The use of dimensions around the nutrient foramen in instances where long bones may be fragmented and damaged is of benefit due to the fact that the nutrient foramen is easily identifiable and may be preserved on the shaft of long bones. This study is an investigation of the usefulness of various measurements around the nutrient foramen of the tibia and fibula of South Africans in an attempt to develop osteometric standards for sex estimation...
March 30, 2018: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676435/the-macromorphoscopic-databank
#20
Joseph T Hefner
The development of identification standards in forensic anthropology requires large and appropriate reference samples comprising individuals with modern birth years. Recent advances in macromorphoscopic trait data collection and analysis have created a need for reference data for classification models and biological distance analyses. The Macromorphoscopic Databank (N ∼ 7,397) serves that function, making publicly available trait scores for a large sample (n = 2,363) of modern American populations and world-wide groups of various geographic origins (n = 1,790)...
April 20, 2018: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
keyword
keyword
73506
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"