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Forensic biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214756/multifarious-applications-of-atomic-force-microscopy-in-forensic-science-investigations
#1
REVIEW
Gaurav Pandey, Maithri Tharmavaram, Deepak Rawtani, Sumit Kumar, Y Agrawal
Forensic science is a wide field comprising of several subspecialties and uses methods derived from natural sciences for finding criminals and other evidence valid in a legal court. A relatively new area; Nano-forensics brings a new era of investigation in forensic science in which instantaneous results can be produced that determine various agents such as explosive gasses, biological agents and residues in different crime scenes and terrorist activity investigations. This can be achieved by applying Nanotechnology and its associated characterization techniques in forensic sciences...
February 11, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211993/recent-lab-on-chip-developments-for-novel-drug-discovery
#2
REVIEW
Nauman Khalid, Isao Kobayashi, Mitsutoshi Nakajima
Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) and micro total analysis systems (μTAS) revolutionized the biochemical and electronic industries, and this miniaturization process became a key driver for many markets. Now, it is a driving force for innovations in life sciences, diagnostics, analytical sciences, and chemistry, which are called 'lab-on-a-chip, (LOC)' devices. The use of these devices allows the development of fast, portable, and easy-to-use systems with a high level of functional integration for applications such as point-of-care diagnostics, forensics, the analysis of biomolecules, environmental or food analysis, and drug development...
February 17, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Systems Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197142/home-made-cost-effective-preservation-buffer-is-a-better-alternative-to-commercial-preservation-methods-for-microbiome-research
#3
Sebastian Menke, Mark A F Gillingham, Kerstin Wilhelm, Simone Sommer
The investigation of wildlife gastrointestinal microbiomes by next-generation sequencing approaches is a growing field in microbial ecology and conservation. Such studies often face difficulties in sample preservation if neither freezing facilities nor liquid nitrogen (LQN) are readily available. Thus, in order to prevent microbial community changes because of bacterial growth after sampling, preservation buffers need to be applied to samples. However, the amount of microbial community variation attributable to the different preservation treatments and potentially affecting biological interpretation is hardly known...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176637/personalized-medicine-applied-to-forensic-sciences-new-advances-and-perspectives-for-a-tailored-forensic-approach
#4
Alessandro Santurro, Anna Maria Vullo, Marina Borro, Giovanna Gentile, Raffaele La Russa, Maurizio Simmaco, Paola Frati, Vittorio Fineschi
Personalized medicine (PM), included in P5 medicine (Personalized, Predictive, Preventive, Participative and Precision medicine) is an innovative approach to the patient, emerging from the need to tailor and to fit the profile of each individual. PM promises to dramatically impact also on forensic sciences and justice system in ways we are only beginning to understand. The application of omics (genomic, transcriptomics, epigenetics/imprintomics, proteomic and metabolomics) is ever more fundamental in the so called "molecular autopsy"...
February 7, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164539/post-mortem-identification-of-a-fire-carbonized-body-by-str-genotyping
#5
Raluca Dumache, Camelia Muresan, Veronica Ciocan, Alexandru F Rogobete, Alexandra Enache
BACKGROUND: Identification of bodies of unknown identity that are victims of exposure to very high temperatures, resulting from fires, plane crashes, and terrorist attacks, represents one of the most difficult sides of forensic genetics, because of the advanced state of decomposition. The aim of this study was the identification of the carbonized cadaver of a fire victim through STR genotyping. METHODS: We used blood samples obtained from the iliac artery during the autopsy examination as biological samples from the unidentified victim...
October 1, 2016: Clinical Laboratory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160742/determination-of-rodenticides-and-related-metabolites-in-rabbit-liver-and-biological-matrices-by-liquid-chromatography-coupled-to-orbitrap-high-resolution-mass-spectrometry
#6
Marina López-García, Roberto Romero-González, Antonia Garrido Frenich
An analytical method based on ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) coupled to Orbitrap high resolution mass spectrometry was developed for the determination of rodenticides (bromadiolone, brodifacoum, difenacoum, chlorophacinone, diphacinone, coumachlor and warfarin) in liver matrix. Different extraction conditions were tested, obtaining the best results when the "dilute and shoot" method (acidified acetonitrile as extraction solvent) and a clean-up step with primary secondary amine (PSA) were used...
January 28, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160051/characterization-and-identification-of-eight-designer-benzodiazepine-metabolites-by-incubation-with-human-liver-microsomes-and-analysis-by-a-triple-quadrupole-mass-spectrometer
#7
Souleiman El Balkhi, Maxime Chaslot, Nicolas Picard, Sylvain Dulaurent, Martine Delage, Olivier Mathieu, Franck Saint-Marcoux
Designer benzodiazepines (DBZDs) have become of particular importance in the past few years. The metabolite monitoring of DBZD in biological fluids could be of great interest in clinical and forensic toxicology. However, DBZD metabolites are not known or not commercially available. The identification of some DBZD metabolites has been mostly explored by self-administration studies or by in vitro studies followed by high-resolution mass spectrometry. The question arose whether a unit resolution instrument could be efficient enough to allow the identification of DBZD metabolites...
February 4, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28144937/a-comparative-taphonomic-analysis-of-24-trophy-skulls-from-modern-forensic-cases
#8
Josephine M Yucha, James T Pokines, Eric J Bartelink
Cranial remains retained from fallen enemies are commonly referred to as "trophy skulls," and many such crania were acquired as souvenirs by U.S. servicemembers during WWII and the Vietnam conflict. These remains increasingly have become the subject of forensic anthropological analysis as their possessors, typically veterans or their relatives, try to discard or repatriate them. The present research uses a qualitative analytical approach to review 24 cases of reported trophy skulls (14 previously unpublished cases and 10 from the literature) to determine which perimortem and postmortem characteristics are most useful for generating a taphonomic profile...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28127407/metabolites-replace-the-parent-drug-in-the-drug-arena-the-cases-of-fonazepam-and-nifoxipam
#9
REVIEW
Maria Katselou, Ioannis Papoutsis, Panagiota Nikolaou, Chara Spiliopoulou, Sotiris Athanaselis
Fonazepam (desmethylflunitrazepam) and nifoxipam (3-hydroxy-desmethylflunitrazepam) are benzodiazepine derivatives and active metabolites of flunitrazepam. They recently invaded the drug arena as substances of abuse and alerted the forensic community after being seized in powder and tablet forms in Europe between 2014 and 2016. A review of all the existing knowledge of fonazepam and nifoxipam is reported, concerning their chemistry, synthesis, pharmacology and toxicology, prevalence/use, biotransformation and their analysis in biological samples...
2017: Forensic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28123277/can-lip-prints-provide-biologic-evidence
#10
Preeti Sharma, Neeraj Sharma, Vijay Wadhwan, Pooja Aggarwal
BACKGROUND: Lip prints are unique and can be used in personal identification. Very few studies are available which establish them as biological evidence in the court of law. Thus, the objective of this study was to attempt to isolate DNA and obtain full short tandem repeat (STR) loci of the individual from the lip prints on different surfaces. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twelve lip prints were procured on different surfaces such as tissue paper, cotton cloth, ceramic tile, and glass surface...
September 2016: Journal of Forensic Dental Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110168/ultra-high-performance-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry-uhplc-ms-ms-for-determination-of-ghb-precursors-and-metabolites-in-different-specimens-application-to-clinical-and-forensic-cases
#11
Francesco Paolo Busardò, Chrystalla Kyriakou, Emilia Marchei, Roberta Pacifici, Daniel Sejer Pedersen, Simona Pichini
Gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) acts as a precursor and metabolite of the inhibitory central nervous system (CNS) neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). Sodium salt of GHB has been used as a medication for narcolepsy and alcohol withdrawal. Moreover, GHB and its precursor gamma-butyrolactone (GBL), are illegal recreational drugs of abuse. A procedure based on ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry has been developed and validated in plasma, urine, cerebrospinal fluid and hair for acute and chronic exposure to GHB and in seized preparations coming from black market...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105649/reanalysis-of-korean-war-anthropological-records-to-support-the-resolution-of-cold-cases
#12
Emily K Wilson
Re-investigation of previously unidentified remains from the Korean War has yielded 55 new identifications, each with corresponding records of prior anthropological analyses. This study compares biological assessments for age at death, stature, and ancestry across (i) anthropological analyses from the 1950s, (ii) recent anthropological analyses of those same sets of remains, and (iii) the reported antemortem biological information for the identified individual. A comparison of long bone measurements from both the 1950s and during reanalysis is also presented...
January 20, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088090/degradation-in-forensic-trace-dna-samples-explored-by-massively-parallel-sequencing
#13
Eirik Nataas Hanssen, Robert Lyle, Thore Egeland, Peter Gill
Routine forensic analysis using STRs will fail if the DNA is too degraded. The DNA degradation process in biological stain material is not well understood. In this study we sequenced old semen and blood stains by massively parallel sequencing. The sequence data coverage was used to measure degradation across the genome. The results supported the contention that degradation is uniform across the genome, showing no evidence of regions with increased or decreased resistance towards degradation. Thus the lack of genetic regions robust to degradation removes the possibility of using such regions to further optimize analysis performance for degraded DNA...
January 3, 2017: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080046/application-of-2-aminothiazoline-4-carboxylic-acid-as-a-forensic-marker-of-cyanide-exposure
#14
Monika Rużycka, Joanna Giebułtowicz, Marcin Fudalej, Paweł Krajewski, Piotr Wroczyński
Cyanides are infamous for their highly poisonous properties. Accidental cyanide poisoning occurs frequently, but occasionally, intentional poisonings also occur. Inhalation of fumes generated by fire may also cause cyanide poisoning. There are many limitations in direct analysis of cyanide. 2-Aminothiazoline-4-carboxylic acid (ATCA), a cyanide metabolite, seems to be the only surrogate that is being used in the detection of cyanide because of its stability and its cyanide-dependent quality in biological matrix...
January 12, 2017: Chemical Research in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073087/a-nearest-neighbour-approach-by-genetic-distance-to-the-assignment-of-individual-trees-to-geographic-origin
#15
Bernd Degen, Céline Blanc-Jolivet, Katrin Stierand, Elizabeth Gillet
During the past decade, the use of DNA for forensic applications has been extensively implemented for plant and animal species, as well as in humans. Tracing back the geographical origin of an individual usually requires genetic assignment analysis. These approaches are based on reference samples that are grouped into populations or other aggregates and intend to identify the most likely group of origin. Often this grouping does not have a biological but rather a historical or political justification, such as "country of origin"...
December 29, 2016: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070717/identification-of-new-synthetic-cannabinoid-adb-chminaca-mab-chminaca-metabolites-in-human-hepatocytes
#16
Jeremy Carlier, Xingxing Diao, Cristina Sempio, Marilyn A Huestis
ADB-CHMINACA (MAB-CHMINACA) is a new synthetic cannabinoid with high potency and many reported adverse events and fatalities. The drug is currently scheduled in several countries in Europe and the USA. Analytical methods need to be developed to confirm ADB-CHMINACA intake for clinical and forensic programs. For many synthetic cannabinoids, parent compound is not detectable in biological samples after intake, making the detection of metabolites the only way to prove consumption. Therefore, detection of ADB-CHMINACA metabolites in biological specimens is critical...
January 9, 2017: AAPS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063583/analysis-of-fingerprint-samples-testing-various-conditions-for-forensic-dna-identification
#17
Lana Ostojic, Elisa Wurmbach
Fingerprints can be of tremendous value for forensic biology, since they can be collected from a wide variety of evident types, such as handles of weapons, tools collected in criminal cases, and objects with no apparent staining. DNA obtained from fingerprints varies greatly in quality and quantity, which ultimately affects the quality of the resulting STR profiles. Additional difficulties can arise when fingerprint samples show mixed STR profiles due to the handling of multiple persons. After applying a tested protocol for sample collection (swabbing with 5% Triton X-100), DNA extraction (using an enzyme that works at elevated temperatures), and PCR amplification (AmpFlSTR® Identifiler® using 31cycles) extensive analysis was performed to better understand the challenges inherent to fingerprint samples, with the ultimate goal of developing valuable profiles (≥50% complete)...
January 2017: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057371/3-meo-pcp-intoxication-in-two-young-men-first-in-vivo-detection-in-italy
#18
Elisabetta Bertol, Jennifer Pascali, Diego Palumbo, Valeria Catalani, Maria Grazia Di Milia, Alessia Fioravanti, Francesco Mari, Fabio Vaiano
3-MeO-PCP or 3-methoxyphencyclidine is a derivative of phencyclidine. It acts as a dissociative anesthetic and it has allegedly hallucinogenic and sedative effects. There are almost no documented intoxication cases and references about its pharmacology and toxicity in literature. This study presents two concomitant intoxication cases due to consumption of 3-MeO-PCP and alcohol. A 19 (A) and a 21 years old (B) men were brought to Santa Maria Nuova Hospital in a comatose state (Glasgow score 3). They showed respiratory acidosis, right anisocoria with mydriatic pupils and hypothermia...
December 26, 2016: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052103/bmi-and-whr-are-reflected-in-female-facial-shape-and-texture-a-geometric-morphometric-image-analysis
#19
Christine Mayer, Sonja Windhager, Katrin Schaefer, Philipp Mitteroecker
Facial markers of body composition are frequently studied in evolutionary psychology and are important in computational and forensic face recognition. We assessed the association of body mass index (BMI) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) with facial shape and texture (color pattern) in a sample of young Middle European women by a combination of geometric morphometrics and image analysis. Faces of women with high BMI had a wider and rounder facial outline relative to the size of the eyes and lips, and relatively lower eyebrows...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28033585/carbon-coated-magnetic-nanoparticles-as-a-novel-magnetic-solid-phase-extraction-adsorbent-for-simultaneous-extraction-of-methamphetamine-and-ephedrine-from-urine-samples
#20
Arezou Taghvimi, Hamed Hamishehkar
This paper develops a highly selective, specific and efficient method for simultaneous determination of ephedrine and methamphetamine by a new carbon coated magnetic nanoparticles (C/MNPs) as a magnetic solid phase extraction (MSPE) adsorbent in biological urine medium. The characterization of synthesized magnetic nano adsorbent was completely carried out by various characterization techniques like Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, powder x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM)...
January 15, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
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