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Forensic biology

Antinea Menéndez Garmendia, Gabriela Sánchez-Mejorada, Jorge A Gómez-Valdés
Stature estimation is an important step to create a biological profile for human identification of unknown individuals in forensic anthropological practice, and it is well known that the long bone length is highly correlated with this feature. The purpose of the present study is to develop formulae for height estimation, based on simple linear regression model for humerus, femur and tibia in Mexican contemporary population. Stature was taken in 56 males and 30 female corpses as well as maximum length of three long bones of the limbs after autopsy following the Menéndez et al...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
Katharine L Hanlon
Cross-polarisation, with regard to visible light, is a process wherein two polarisers with perpendicular orientation to one another are used on the incident and reflected lights. Under cross-polarised light birefringent structures which are otherwise invisible become apparent. Cross-polarised light eliminates glare and specular highlights, allowing for an unobstructed view of subsurface pathology. Parallel-polarisation occurs when the polarisers are rotated to the same orientation. When cross- or parallel-polarisation is applied to photography, images can be generated which aid in visualisation of surface and subsurface elements...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Visual Communication in Medicine
Isabella Aquila, Santo Gratteri, Matteo A Sacco, Emilio Nuzzolese, Vittorio Fineschi, Paola Frati, Pietrantonio Ricci
INTRODUCTION: "Bolus death" or "Café Coronary syndrome" refers to death due to asphyxia caused by an occlusion of the upper airways due to food. In this kind of asphyxia, the food bolus obstructs the larynx or the bronchial branches. This kind of event often affects subjects with acute intoxication due to alcohol or drugs, or with edentulism and with neurological or psychiatric diseases. CASE REPORT: An elderly woman, suffering from schizophrenia, was found dead in her house due to food bolus asphyxia...
January 2018: Medical Hypotheses
Thomas Wells Cronin, Missael Garcia, Viktor Gruev
Multispectral, hyperspectral, polarimetric, and other types of multichannel imaging spectrometers are coming into common use for a variety of applications, including remote sensing, material identification, forensics, and medical diagnosis. These instruments are often bulky and intolerant of field abuse, so designing compact, reliable, portable, and robust devices is a priority. In contrast to most engineering designs, animals have been building compact and robust multichannel imaging systems for millennia - their eyes...
January 9, 2018: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
Fei Zhao, Eun Yeong Lee, Yong Shin
In this study, we developed an amine-functionalized, diatomaceous earth-based, dimethyl suberimidate assisted (ADD) system as a novel binding strategy to improve solid-phase extraction method for rapid and simple purification of RNA from biological samples including human cells and pathogenic bacteria. This ADD system is based on reversible cross-linking reactions between RNA and the silica matrix. The formation of robust covalent bonds protects RNA from both the sufferance of washing steps and isolation with ribonuclease (RNase)-rich samples, leading to the extraction of higher quality RNA...
January 9, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Elena Pilli, Stefania Vai, Marina Grazia Caruso, Giancarlo D'Errico, Andrea Berti, David Caramelli
One of the major challenges of molecular biology in anthropological analysis is the identification via DNA typing of bone or teeth samples that can be collected from archaeological site in order to investigate kinship relationships. Due to the difficulties of isolating and analysing DNA from such samples, several efforts have been made to solve these problems, but less work has been conducted to identify the proper type of bone samples for the DNA analysis. Therefore, following the promising results obtained from the DNA analysis of petrous bones by different groups of researchers, for the first time, here we investigated the possibility of using petrous bones as skeletal elements useful for short tandem repeat (STR) typing via capillary electrophoresis technique in ancient bone samples...
December 24, 2017: Forensic Science International
S H Du, D R Li, H J Wang, Q Wang
Reverse transcription quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) is a convenient and highly efficient method for the detection of mRNA in tissues or body fluid samples. It has the characteristics of easy operation, high sensitivity and specificity, etc. With a wide application in medicine, biology and other fields, RT-qPCR technique has made some progresses in the research field of forensic pathology. This paper reviews the application value of RT-qPCR in the study of forensic pathology and current situation, as well as the research progress at home and abroad reviews...
October 2017: Fa Yi Xue za Zhi
G H Ren, R H Weng, Y Shi, P Huang, Z D Li, Y Shao, K F Deng, N G Liu, Y J Chen
Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight imaging mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-IMS) can analysis unknown compounds in sections and obtain molecule imaging by scanning biological tissue sections, which has become a powerful tool for the research of biomarker, lipid distribution and drug metabolism, etc. This article reviews the application of this technique in protein identification, clinical application, drug discovery, lipid research and brain injury.
October 2017: Fa Yi Xue za Zhi
Duncan Taylor, Alex Biedermann, Tacha Hicks, Christophe Champod
The hierarchy of propositions has been accepted amongst the forensic science community for some time. It is also accepted that the higher up the hierarchy the propositions are, against which the scientist are competent to evaluate their results, the more directly useful the testimony will be to the court. Because each case represents a unique set of circumstances and findings, it is difficult to come up with a standard structure for evaluation. One common tool that assists in this task is Bayesian networks (BNs)...
December 15, 2017: Forensic Science International. Genetics
Noriko Iwamoto, Takashi Shimada
Since the turn of the century, mass spectrometry (MS) technologies have continued to improve dramatically, and advanced strategies that were impossible a decade ago are increasingly becoming available. The basic characteristics behind these advancements are MS resolution, quantitative accuracy, and information science for appropriate data processing. The spectral data from MS contain various types of information. The benefits of improving the resolution of MS data include accurate molecular structural-derived information, and as a result, we can obtain a refined biomolecular structure determination in a sequential and large-scale manner...
December 21, 2017: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Robert M White, John M Mitchell, E Dale Hart, Amy Evans, Meredith Meaders, Sarah E Norsworthy, Eugene D Hayes, Ron Flegel, George C Maha, Megan D Shaffer, Erin M Hall, Kelley Rogers
For forensic biological sample collections, the specimen donor is linked solidly to his or her specimen through a chain of custody (CoC) sometimes referenced as a chain of evidence. Rarely, a donor may deny that a urine or oral fluid (OF) specimen is his or her specimen even with a patent CoC. The goal of this pilot study was to determine the potential effects of short-term storage on the quality and quantity of DNA in both types of specimen under conditions that may be encountered with employment-related drug testing specimens...
November 13, 2017: Forensic Science International
Joe Adserias-Garriga, Christian Thomas, Douglas H Ubelaker, Sara C Zapico
When human remains are found, the priority of the investigation is to ascertain the identity of the deceased. A positive identification is a key factor in providing closure for the family of the deceased; it is also required to issue the death certificate and therefore, to settle legal affairs. Moreover, it is difficult for any forensic investigation involving human remains to be solved without the determination of an identity. Therefore, personal identification is necessary for social, legal and forensic reasons...
December 9, 2017: Archives of Oral Biology
Clémence Delteil, Lucile Tuchtan, Julia Torrents, Caroline Capuani, Marie-Dominique Piercecchi-Marti
The aim of postmortem medicolegal examination in pediatric death is primarily to establish the circumstances and causes of death and to exclude child abuse. In France, pediatric death is systematically documented by medicolegal or medical autopsy. In case of medicolegal autopsy, the complementary examinations, requested and financed by justice, are rarely limited to a histopathological examination. However in medical autopsies other tools are available to the pathologist as toxicology, biochemistry and molecular biology...
January 2018: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
S D Liu, D M Zhang, W Zhang, W F Zhang
Because of the exist of complex matrix, the confirming indicators of qualitative results for toxic substances in biological samples by chromatography-mass spectrometry are different from that in non-biological samples. Even in biological samples, the confirming indicators are different in various application areas. This paper reviews the similarities and differences of confirming indicators for the analyte in biological samples by chromatography-mass spectrometry in the field of forensic toxicological analysis and other application areas...
April 2017: Fa Yi Xue za Zhi
R Y Song, R T Ding, W Cui
Sudden cardiac death (SCD), most commonly seen in coronary heart disease, is a kind of sudden death caused by series of cardiac parameters, which usually combines with myocardial infarction. However, some SCDs (including early myocardial infarction) happen suddenly and cause death in a very short time. In these circumstances, typical morphological changes are lack in macroscopic or microscopic fields, which make such SCDs become the emphasis and difficulty in the present research. SCD caused by myocardial infarction and abnormalities of cardiac conduction system (CCS) is related to atherosclerosis of coronary artery closely...
April 2017: Fa Yi Xue za Zhi
X Shen, M Li, Y L Wang, Y L Chen, Y Lin, Z M Zhao, T Z Que
OBJECTIVES: To explore the forensic application value of MPure-12 automatic nucleic acid purification (MPure-12 Method) for DNA extraction by extracting and typing DNA from bloodstains and various kinds of biological samples with different DNA contents. METHODS: Nine types of biological samples, such as bloodstains, semen stains, and saliva were collected. DNA were extracted using MPure-12 method and Chelex-100 method, followed by PCR amplification and electrophoresis for obtaining STR-profiles...
April 2017: Fa Yi Xue za Zhi
S J Ji, W Liu
OBJECTIVES: To establish a LC-MS/MS method which is accurate and sensitive for determination of koumine, gelsemine, and gelsenicine in biological samples and to verify the method. METHODS: Strychnine was used as internal standard. Analytes in blood, urine and liver with 1% sodium hydroxide solution were extracted by ethyl acetate. Chromatographic separation was achieved on a ZORBAX SB-C₁₈ column (150 mm×2.1 mm, 5 μm), and gradient elution was performed with the buffer solution of methanol-20 mmol/L ammonium acetate (including 0...
April 2017: Fa Yi Xue za Zhi
Y Zeng, J L Ma, L Chen
Under hypoxia condition, microRNA (miRNA) can interact with transcription factors for regulating the cell metabolism, angiogenesis, erythropoiesis, cellular proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. The biological processes above may play an important role in mechanical asphyxia death. This article reviews the regulating function of miRNA under hypoxia condition and the influence of hypoxia to biosynthesis of miRNA, which may provide some new ideas to the research of miRNA on determining the cause of mechanical asphyxia death in the field of forensic medicine...
February 2017: Fa Yi Xue za Zhi
Y C Nie, L J Yu, H Guan, Y Zhao, H B Rong, B W Jiang, T Zhang
As an important part of epigenetic marker, DNA methylation involves in the gene regulation and attracts a wide spread attention in biological auxology, geratology and oncology fields. In forensic science, because of the relative stable, heritable, abundant, and age-related characteristics, DNA methylation is considered to be a useful complement to the classic genetic markers for age-prediction, tissue-identification, and monozygotic twins' discrimination. Various methods for DNA methylation detection have been validated based on methylation sensitive restriction endonuclease, bisulfite modification and methylation-CpG binding protein...
June 2017: Fa Yi Xue za Zhi
Y Ye, R B Li, S Y Ma, X T Wei, Q Xu
TAR DNA-binding domain protein 43 (TDP-43) is a highly conserved and widely expressed nuclear protein. Nowadays, the expression of TDP-43 can be found in most neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, which makes it become a neurodegenerative disease associated marker protein. From the current research status at homeland and abroad, and around the relationship between the expression of TDP-43 and brain injury, this article emphatically probes into the specific expression and function of TDP-43 in acute and chronic brain injury based on the knowledge of its biological characteristics, which aims to explore the feasibility for determining the cause of death and the injury and disability situations by TDP-43 in forensic pathology...
June 2017: Fa Yi Xue za Zhi
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