Read by QxMD icon Read

Forensic biology

Verica Radojicic, Milica Keckarevic Markovic, Feđa Puac, Miljana Kecmanovic, Dusan Keckarevic
Casings represent common evidence in a forensic laboratory, due to high frequency of firearms usage during perpetration of criminal offenses. Possible DNA evidence from casings is compromised by degradation, inhibition, and initial low-quantity deposition of biological material. For that reason, in the last 15 years, scientists have been trying to optimize procedures for recovery and amplification of DNA possibly present on its surface. In this study, we share our 12-year experience done on a total of 698 casework casings, comparing two DNA recovery methods commonly used-soaking and swabbing, as well as efficacy of two commercially available DNA amplification kits (AmpFLSTR® Identifiler® and AmpFLSTR® Identifiler® Plus kits)...
March 13, 2018: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Léonard Fumeaux, Maria Pia Scarpelli, Camilla Tettamanti, Cristian Palmiere
Liver function tests have been investigated in the forensic setting in several biological fluids collected at autopsy. Nevertheless, the results of these investigations have provided diverging information on postmortem stability of liver function markers and postmortem reliability of liver function assessment. The first aim of this study was to determine gamma-glutamyltransferase, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, total bilirubin, total proteins, and albumin in antemortem and postmortem serum samples in a series of cases that underwent forensic investigations and had both samples available...
March 10, 2018: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
J Hiquet, E Christin, F Tovagliaro, J Fougas, O Dubourg, C Chevalier, F Abel, M Ebouat, M-E Ploquin, M Malo, S Gromb-Monnoyeur
BACKGROUND: The Forensic medicine reform in 2011 enabled the development of forensic units specialized in multidisciplinary care of victims of criminal offences. Thanks to an annual budgetary allocation, the Ministry of Justice handles the financing of judicial acts, while the health care facilities assume the medical, psychological and social aspects. The objective of this study was to determine the direct costs of medical care provided to rape victims (such as defined in the article 222-23 of the Penal Code) in order to see how its funding could be reconsidered to prevent any additional cost that could be caused by non-sufficient medical, psychological and social care...
March 9, 2018: Revue D'épidémiologie et de Santé Publique
Alexia Delbreil, Mélanie Voyer, Michel Sapanet, Laurence Leturmy
Only a physician specialized in forensic medicine is allowed to process a autopsy legal. The 2011 reform of forensic medicine aimed to homogenize and enhance thanatological practices over French state territory. According to the law, biological samples withdrawn during an autopsy can't be given back to the families after analysis(art. 230-30 CPP). Respecting the human body and restoring their physical aspect are mandatory by law (art. 230-29 CPP). After a autopsy legal, dead bodies must be given back to their relatives as soon as possible...
March 8, 2018: La Presse Médicale
Patricia P Albani, Rachel Fleming
In forensic investigations, the identification of the cellular or body fluid source of biological evidence can provide crucial probative information for the court. Messenger RNA (mRNA) profiling has become a valuable tool for body fluid and cell type identification due to its high sensitivity and compatibility with DNA analysis. However, using a single marker to determine the somatic origin of a sample can lead to misinterpretation as a result of cross-reactions. While false positives may be avoided through the simultaneous detection of multiple markers per body fluid, this approach is currently limited by the small number of known differentially expressed mRNAs...
March 2018: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
Rebecca S Just, Jodi A Irwin
Some of the expected advantages of next generation sequencing (NGS) for short tandem repeat (STR) typing include enhanced mixture detection and genotype resolution via sequence variation among non-homologous alleles of the same length. However, at the same time that NGS methods for forensic DNA typing have advanced in recent years, many caseworking laboratories have implemented or are transitioning to probabilistic genotyping to assist the interpretation of complex autosomal STR typing results. Current probabilistic software programs are designed for length-based data, and were not intended to accommodate sequence strings as the product input...
February 21, 2018: Forensic Science International. Genetics
Nikhil Bose, Katie Carlberg, George Sensabaugh, Henry Erlich, Cassandra Calloway
DNA from biological forensic samples can be highly fragmented and present in limited quantity. When DNA is highly fragmented, conventional PCR based Short Tandem Repeat (STR) analysis may fail as primer binding sites may not be present on a single template molecule. Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) can serve as an alternative type of genetic marker for analysis of degraded samples because the targeted variation is a single base. However, conventional PCR based SNP analysis methods still require intact primer binding sites for target amplification...
February 4, 2018: Forensic Science International. Genetics
Thijs Devriendt, Davit Chokoshvili, Maddalena Favaretto, Pascal Borry
The Athlete's Biological Passport (ABP) refers to the collection of data related to an individual athlete. The ABP contains the Haematological Module and the Steroidal Module, which are used for the longitudinal monitoring of variables in blood and urine respectively. Based on changes in these variables, a statistical model detects outliers which indicate doping use and guide further targeted testing of the athlete. Presently, athletes can access their data of the Haematological Module in ADAMS. However, granting athletes access to this data has been a matter of debate within the anti-doping community...
March 10, 2018: Drug Testing and Analysis
K R Goethals
Personalised medicine promises to provide us with a diagnostic predictive system of stratification that is based on a wide variety of tests; these can include biological, cognitive, demographic, psychopathological tests and other clearly defined tests. The purpose of forensic psychiatry is not only to take care of and treat mentally impaired patients but also to engage in risk assessment and risk management.<br/> AIM: To explain risk assessment in forensic psychiatry as a nomothetic approach to personalised medicine, and also to demonstrate the link with offence paralleling behaviour, which is an illustration of the ideographic approach...
2018: Tijdschrift Voor Psychiatrie
Agnieszka Kamińska, Tomasz Szymborski, Tomasz Jaroch, Adam Zmysłowski, Arkadiusz Szterk
Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) has been widely used in a variety of biomedical, analytical, forensic and environmental investigations due to its chemical specificity, label-free nature combined with high sensitivity. Here, we report a simple method for the fabrication of reproducible and reliable, well-defined, stable SERS substrates with uniform and giant Raman enhancement suitable for routine trace chemical analysis and detection of biological compounds in complex biological fluids. We prepared porous silicone (PS) surface by a galvanostatic anodic etch of crystalline silicon wafers...
March 1, 2018: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
Jack Morrison, Giles Watts, Glyn Hobbs, Nick Dawnay
Field based forensic tests commonly provide information on the presence and identity of biological stains and can also support the identification of species. Such information can support downstream processing of forensic samples and generate rapid intelligence. These approaches have traditionally used chemical and immunological techniques to elicit the result but some are known to suffer from a lack of specificity and sensitivity. The last 10 years has seen the development of field-based genetic profiling systems, with specific focus on moving the mainstay of forensic genetic analysis, namely STR profiling, out of the laboratory and into the hands of the non-laboratory user...
February 21, 2018: Forensic Science International
Francesca Accioni, Diego García-Gómez, Eloy Girela, Soledad Rubio
Monitoring of amphetamine-type stimulant (ATS) confronts clinical labs with a high number of samples involving a variety of biological matrices. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), routinely used for confirmation of ATS abuse, requires of laborious and matrix-dependent sample treatment methods, this increasing analysis time and cost. In this work, a universal and single-step sample treatment, based on supramolecular solvents (SUPRAS), was proposed for simplifying ATS confirmation in seven biological matrices...
May 15, 2018: Talanta
Jay M Poupko, William Lee Hearn, Federico Rossano
Several studies have reported on wide-spread contamination of U.S. paper currency with cocaine and to a lesser extent other illicit drugs. Canines are trained and employed to search for and alert to drugs. Canine alert to currency has been used as evidence that currency has been directly involved in illicit drug trafficking to justify currency seizure and forfeiture. This assertion, particularly when the only evidence is based upon canine alert, has been challenged in the courts considering that most currency in circulation is contaminated with cocaine...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Forensic Sciences
Olivier Mortelé, Philippe Vervliet, Celine Gys, Maarten Degreef, Matthias Cuykx, Kristof Maudens, Adrian Covaci, Alexander L N van Nuijs, Foon Yin Lai
Designer benzodiazepines have recently emerged as a class of new psychoactive substances. These substances are used in recreational settings and as alternatives to prescription benzodiazepines as self-medication for patients suffering from anxiety or other mental disorders. Due to the limited information available on the metabolic fate of these new substances, it is challenging to reliably detect their usage in bioanalytical (e.g. clinical and forensic) settings. The objective of this study was to investigate the in vitro Phase I and Phase II metabolism of the new designer benzodiazepine cloniprazepam and identify potential biomarkers for its detection in human biological fluids...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Odile Loreille, Shashikala Ratnayake, Adam L Bazinet, Timothy B Stockwell, Daniel D Sommer, Nadin Rohland, Swapan Mallick, Philip L F Johnson, Pontus Skoglund, Anthony J Onorato, Nicholas H Bergman, David Reich, Jodi A Irwin
High throughput sequencing (HTS) has been used for a number of years in the field of paleogenomics to facilitate the recovery of small DNA fragments from ancient specimens. Recently, these techniques have also been applied in forensics, where they have been used for the recovery of mitochondrial DNA sequences from samples where traditional PCR-based assays fail because of the very short length of endogenous DNA molecules. Here, we describe the biological sexing of a ~4000-year-old Egyptian mummy using shotgun sequencing and two established methods of biological sex determination (RX and RY ), by way of mitochondrial genome analysis as a means of sequence data authentication...
March 1, 2018: Genes
Hyun-Chul Park, Eu-Ree Ahn, Ju Yeon Jung, Ji-Hye Park, Jee Won Lee, Si-Keun Lim, Won Kim
DNA methylation has important biological roles, such as gene expression regulation, as well as practical applications in forensics, such as in body fluid identification and age estimation. DNA methylation often occurs in the CpG site, and methylation within the CpG islands affects various cellular functions and is related to tissue-specific identification. Several programs have been developed to identify CpG islands; however, the size, location, and number of predicted CpG islands are not identical due to different search algorithms...
February 17, 2018: Forensic Science International. Genetics
M Albéric, A Gourrier, W Wagermaier, P Fratzl, I Reiche
Elephant tusks are composed of dentin or ivory, a hierarchical and composite biological material made of mineralized collagen fibers (MCF). The specific arrangement of the MCF is believed to be responsible for the optical and mechanical properties of the tusks. Especially the MCF organization likely contributes to the formation of the bright and dark checkerboard pattern observed on polished sections of tusks (Schreger pattern). Yet, the precise structural origin of this optical motif is still controversial...
February 22, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
Monique Sieber, Jan Dreßler, Heike Franke, Dirk Pohlers, Benjamin Ondruschka
PURPOSE: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a very common entity that leads to numerous fatalities all over the world. Therefore, forensic pathologists are in desperate need of supplemental methodological tools for the diagnosis of TBI in everyday practice besides the standard autopsy. The present study determined post-mortem neuron specific enolase (NSE) and S100 calcium-binding protein B (S100B) levels as biological markers of an underlying TBI in autopsy cases. METHODS: Paired serum and CSF samples of 92 fatalities were collected throughout routine autopsies...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
Benedita Ferreira-Silva, Margarida Fonseca-Cardoso, Maria João Porto, Teresa Magalhães, Laura Cainé
Biological evidence of sexual assault is one of the most difficult sample types to analyze in forensic laboratories. Y-STR markers are thus a valuable tool for analyzing these samples. The aim of this project was to compare three Y-STR commercial kits by analyzing their amplification performance on casework samples. Overall, 247 trace samples were analyzed with a Yfiler® Plus PCR Amplification Kit (Applied Biosystems), PowerPlex® Y23 (Promega® ) System and AmpFLSTR® Yfiler™ PCR Amplification Kit (Applied Biosystems)...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Forensic Sciences
Robin Yong, Sarbin Ranjitkar, Dimitra Lekkas, Demetrios Halazonetis, Alistair Evans, Alan Brook, Grant Townsend
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to investigate size and shape variation of human premolars between Indigenous Australians and Australians of European ancestry, and to assess whether sex and ancestry could be differentiated between these groups using 3D geometric morphometrics. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seventy dental casts from each group, equally subdivided by sex, were scanned using a structured-light scanner. The 3D meshes of upper and lower premolars were processed using geometric morphometric methods...
February 15, 2018: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"