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Forensic biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520764/rib-biomechanical-properties-exhibit-diagnostic-potential-for-accurate-ageing-in-forensic-investigations
#1
Andrea Bonicelli, Bledar Xhemali, Elena F Kranioti, Peter Zioupos
Age estimation remains one of the most challenging tasks in forensic practice when establishing a biological profile of unknown skeletonised remains. Morphological methods based on developmental markers of bones can provide accurate age estimates at a young age, but become highly unreliable for ages over 35 when all developmental markers disappear. This study explores the changes in the biomechanical properties of bone tissue and matrix, which continue to change with age even after skeletal maturity, and their potential value for age estimation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511094/isolation-and-genetic-analysis-of-pure-cells-from-forensic-biological-mixtures-the-precision-of-a-digital-approach
#2
F Fontana, C Rapone, G Bregola, R Aversa, A de Meo, G Signorini, M Sergio, A Ferrarini, R Lanzellotto, G Medoro, G Giorgini, N Manaresi, A Berti
Latest genotyping technologies allow to achieve a reliable genetic profile for the offender identification even from extremely minute biological evidence. The ultimate challenge occurs when genetic profiles need to be retrieved from a mixture, which is composed of biological material from two or more individuals. In this case, DNA profiling will often result in a complex genetic profile, which is then subject matter for statistical analysis. In principle, when more individuals contribute to a mixture with different biological fluids, their single genetic profiles can be obtained by separating the distinct cell types (e...
May 1, 2017: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504203/internal-validation-of-strmix%C3%A2-for-the-interpretation-of-single-source-and-mixed-dna-profiles
#3
Tamyra R Moretti, Rebecca S Just, Susannah C Kehl, Leah E Willis, John S Buckleton, Jo-Anne Bright, Duncan A Taylor, Anthony J Onorato
The interpretation of DNA evidence can entail analysis of challenging STR typing results. Genotypes inferred from low quality or quantity specimens, or mixed DNA samples originating from multiple contributors, can result in weak or inconclusive match probabilities when a binary interpretation method and necessary thresholds (such as a stochastic threshold) are employed. Probabilistic genotyping approaches, such as fully continuous methods that incorporate empirically determined biological parameter models, enable usage of more of the profile information and reduce subjectivity in interpretation...
April 5, 2017: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501160/bioaffinity-based-assay-for-the-sensitive-detection-and-discrimination-of-sweat-aimed-at-forensic-applications
#4
Crystal Huynh, Erica Brunelle, Juliana Agudelo, Jan Halámek
Sweat is a well-known piece of biological evidence that is actually used much less than expected. Biological samples are important because their components can often provide some type of information about a person-of-interest. Sweat, in particular, is important because of its DNA content which can be extracted and analyzed to provide information that can be imperative to a criminal investigation. While it is a very important source of forensic information, the methods for detection and discrimination of sweat are limited, causing it to be overlooked during evidence collection...
August 1, 2017: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488000/58-cases-of-sexual-violence-bearing-forensic-interest-congruence-between-the-victim-s-report-and-the-data-from-laboratory-analyses
#5
Sarah Gino, Antonella Canavese, Beatrice Pattarino, Carlo Robino, Monica Omedei, Erica Albanese, Paola Castagna
The assistance provided by specialised healthcare personnel to victims of a sexual violence cannot focus just on the clinical intervention appropriate for the lesions suffered by the patient, but must also take legal and forensic needs into account. Anamnestic data represents a crucial step towards the finding of forensic evidence. Our retrospective study aims to analyse the congruence between verbal reports from abused women and the laboratory data to the end of identifying ways for enhancing the gathering of anamnestic data...
May 9, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486970/wing-morphometrics-as-a-tool-in-species-identification-of-forensically-important-blow-flies-of-thailand
#6
Narin Sontigun, Kabkaew L Sukontason, Barbara K Zajac, Richard Zehner, Kom Sukontason, Anchalee Wannasan, Jens Amendt
BACKGROUND: Correct species identification of blow flies is a crucial step for understanding their biology, which can be used not only for designing fly control programs, but also to determine the minimum time since death. Identification techniques are usually based on morphological and molecular characters. However, the use of classical morphology requires experienced entomologists for correct identification; while molecular techniques rely on a sound laboratory expertise and remain ambiguous for certain taxa...
May 10, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484716/anatomic-variation-in-morphometry-of-human-coracoid-process-among-asian-population
#7
Manal Fathi, Pike-See Cheah, Umar Ahmad, M Nizlan Nasir, Aye Aye San, Ezamin Abdul Rahim, Paisal Hussin, Rozi Mahmud, Fauziah Othman
Ethnic origin plays an important role in bone morphometry. Studies examining the influence of coracoid process have focused primarily on adults and have not included people from diverse Asian ethnic backgrounds. Our goal was to explore ethnic differences in morphometry of coracoid among Asian population. We performed morphometric measurements of coracoid process on cadaveric shoulders and shoulder CT scans from 118 specimens. The cadaveric sample included Indian (46%), Chinese (27%), and Myanmarese (27%) subjects, while the CT scans sample included Chinese (67%) and Malay (33%) subjects...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473853/3d-evaluation-of-maxillary-sinus-using-computed-tomography-a-sexual-dimorphic-study
#8
Balaji Babu Bangi, Uday Ginjupally, Lakshmi Kavitha Nadendla, Bhavana Vadla
Purpose. Gender determination is considered to be an important step in the reconstruction of the biological profile in forensic medicine. Maxillary sinus can be used for identification of sex when other methods are indecisive. Computed tomography (CT) provides an excellent method for examining maxillary sinuses. Hence the aim of the study was to determine the accuracy of gender determination using maxillary sinus with CT. Materials and Methods. CT images were used to measure the mediolateral, superoinferior, and anteroposterior dimensions and the volume of the maxillary sinuses in 100 patients (50 males and 50 females) to determine the gender of an individual for forensic identification...
2017: International Journal of Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472756/development-and-validation-of-innoquant-%C3%A2-hy-a-system-for-quantitation-and-quality-assessment-of-total-human-and-male-dna-using-high-copy-targets
#9
Andrew Loftus, Gina Murphy, Hiromi Brown, Anne Montgomery, Jonathan Tabak, James Baus, Marion Carroll, André Green, Suresh Sikka, Sudhir Sinha
The development and validation of InnoQuant(®) HY, a real-time PCR system containing four DNA targets-two RE autosomal targets of different sizes, male specific targets, and an internal positive control target-are described herein. The ratio of the two autosomal targets provides a Degradation Index, or a quantitative value of a sample's degradation state. The male specific targets are multi-copy targets located on the Y chromosome, which provides information about a sample's male DNA composition. The experimental results demonstrate InnoQuant HY as a robust qPCR method producing accurate DNA quantitation results even at low dynamic ranges, with reproducibility among population groups...
April 17, 2017: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28457508/an-experimental-study-of-postmortem-decomposition-of-methomyl-in-blood
#10
Yuka Kawakami, Chiaki Fuke, Maki Fukasawa, Kenji Ninomiya, Yoko Ihama, Tetsuji Miyazaki
Methomyl (S-methyl-1-N-[(methylcarbamoyl)oxy]thioacetimidate) is a carbamate pesticide. It has been noted that in some cases of methomyl poisoning, methomyl is either not detected or detected only in low concentrations in the blood of the victims. However, in such cases, methomyl is detected at higher concentrations in the vitreous humor than in the blood. This indicates that methomyl in the blood is possibly decomposed after death. However, the reasons for this phenomenon have been unclear. We have previously reported that methomyl is decomposed to dimethyl disulfide (DMDS) in the livers and kidneys of pigs but not in their blood...
March 2017: Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452296/forensic-approaches-to-detect-possible-agents-of-bioterror
#11
Alfredo A González, Jessica I Rivera-Pérez, Gary A Toranzos
Many biological agents have been strategic pathogenic agents throughout history. Some have even changed history as a consequence of early discoveries of their use as weapons of war. Many of these bioagents can be easily isolated from the environment, and some have recently been genetically manipulated to become more pathogenic for biowarfare. However, it is difficult to determine accidental outbreaks of disease from intentional exposures. In this review, we examine how molecular tools have been used in combination with forensic research to resolve cases of unusual outbreaks and trace the source of the biocrime...
April 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28451818/a-mass-spectrometry-based-forensic-toolbox-for-imaging-and-detecting-biological-fluid-evidence-in-finger-marks-and-fingernail-scrapings
#12
Sathisha Kamanna, Julianne Henry, Nicolas H Voelcker, Adrian Linacre, K Paul Kirkbride
During a crime, biological material such as blood or vaginal fluid may become smeared on the fingers of the victim or suspect or trapped under their fingernails. The type of trapped fluid is extremely valuable forensic information. Furthermore, if either person touches an object at the crime scene with their 'contaminated' finger then a 'contaminated' finger mark may be deposited. Such marks have great value as they could identify not only who deposited the mark but also who they touched and which part of the body they touched...
April 27, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446961/a-biopsychosocial-model-of-violence-when-sleepwalking-review-and-reconceptualisation
#13
REVIEW
Helen M Stallman, Andrea Bari
SUMMARY: Violence towards others during sleepwalking is relatively uncommon, but can result in serious injury or even death. Much of the research in this field has focused on the forensic consequences of violence during sleepwalking without sufficient attention to an understanding of the risk factors for violence during sleepwalking and the development of prevention and interventions based on these risk factors. This paper reviews the characteristics of impulsive violence in general and reconceptualises violence during sleepwalking as an extension of this prior vulnerability...
March 2017: BJPsych Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439695/usefulness-of-telomere-length-in-dna-from-human-teeth-for-age-estimation
#14
Ana Belén Márquez-Ruiz, Lucas González-Herrera, Aurora Valenzuela
Age estimation is widely used to identify individuals in forensic medicine. However, the accuracy of the most commonly used procedures is markedly reduced in adulthood, and these methods cannot be applied in practice when morphological information is limited. Molecular methods for age estimation have been extensively developed in the last few years. The fact that telomeres shorten at each round of cell division has led to the hypothesis that telomere length can be used as a tool to predict age. The present study thus aimed to assess the correlation between telomere length measured in dental DNA and age, and the effect of sex and tooth type on telomere length; a further aim was to propose a statistical regression model to estimate the biological age based on telomere length...
April 24, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436665/intra-and-interskeletal-proteome-variations-in-fresh-and-buried-bones
#15
Noemi Procopio, Andrew T Chamberlain, Michael Buckley
Proteomic methods are acquiring greater importance in archaeology and palaeontology due to the longevity of proteins in skeletal remains. There are also developing interests in forensic applications, offering the potential to shed light on post-mortem intervals and age at death estimation. However, our understanding of intra- and interskeletal proteome variations is currently severely limited. Here, we evaluated the proteomes obtained from five distinct subsamples of different skeletal elements from buried pig carcasses to ascertain the extent of variation within and between individuals...
May 5, 2017: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432993/chemical-biological-and-dna-markers-for-tracing-slaughterhouse-effluent
#16
P J Harvey, M P Taylor, H K Handley, S Foster, M R Gillings, A J Asher
Agricultural practices, if not managed correctly, can have a negative impact on receiving environments via waste disposal and discharge. In this study, a chicken slaughter facility on the rural outskirts of Sydney, Australia, has been identified as a possible source of persistent effluent discharge into a peri-urban catchment. Questions surrounding the facility's environmental management practices go back more than four decades. Despite there having never been a definitive determination of the facility's impact on local stream water quality, the New South Wales Environment Protection Authority (NSW EPA) has implemented numerous pollution reduction requirements to manage noise and water pollution at the slaughter facility...
April 19, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417172/simultaneous-determination-of-multiclass-pesticide-residues-in-human-plasma-using-a-mini-quechers-method
#17
Anshuman Srivastava, Satyajeet Rai, Ashish Kumar Sonker, Kajal Karsauliya, Chandra Prabha Pandey, Sheelendra Pratap Singh
Blood is one of the most assessable matrices for the determination of pesticide residue exposure in humans. Effective sample preparation/cleanup of biological samples is very important in the development of a sensitive, reproducible, and robust method. In the present study, a simple, cost-effective, and rapid gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method has been developed and validated for simultaneous analysis of 31 multiclass (organophosphates, organochlorines, and synthetic pyrethroids) pesticide residues in human plasma by means of a mini QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe) method...
April 17, 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391756/problems-in-mitochondrial-dna-forensics-while-interpreting-length-heteroplasmy-conundrum-of-various-sindhi-and-baluchi-ethnic-groups-of-pakistan
#18
Shahzad Bhatti, Muhammad Aslam Khan, Sana Abbas, Marcella Attimonelli, Gerardo Rodriguez Gonzalez, Hikmet Hakan Aydin, Erica Martinha Silva de Souza
The insight heterodox genetics of mtDNA infer new perspectives at the level of human mitochondrial control region heteroplasmy, which is substantial in evolutionary as well as forensic interpretation. The main goal of this study is to interrogate the recurrence and resolve the ambiguity of blurry spectrum of heteroplasmy in the human mtDNA control region of 50 Baluchi and 116 Sindhi unrelated individuals. Sanger sequencing was employed classically, that was further investigated by minisequencing. Only 20% Baluchi and 25...
April 9, 2017: Mitochondrial DNA. Part A. DNA Mapping, Sequencing, and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391141/development-and-validation-of-a-novel-multiplexed-dna-analysis-system-innotyper-%C3%A2-21
#19
Hiromi Brown, Robyn Thompson, Gina Murphy, Dixie Peters, Bobby La Rue, Jonathan King, Anne H Montgomery, Marion Carroll, James Baus, Sid Sinha, Frank R Wendt, Bing Song, Ranajit Chakraborty, Bruce Budowle, Sudhir K Sinha
We report here a novel multiplexed DNA analysis system consisting of 20 Alu markers and Amelogenin for analysis of highly degraded forensic biological samples. The key to the success of the system in obtaining results from degraded samples is the primer design yielding small amplicon size (60-125bp) for all 20 markers. The markers included in the InnoTyper(®) 21 system are bi-allelic, having two possible allelic states (insertion or null) and thus termed INNULs. The markers are short interspersed nuclear elements (SINEs), a category of retrotransposable elements (REs) which are non-coding genomic DNA repeat sequences, or "mobile insertion elements," comprising approximately 40% of the human genome...
March 18, 2017: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390021/pharmaceuticals-and-illicit-drugs-in-wastewater-samples-in-north-eastern-tunisia
#20
Bilel Moslah, Evroula Hapeshi, Amel Jrad, Despo Fatta-Kassinos, Abderrazek Hedhili
Pharmaceutically active substances (PhACs) and drugs of abuse (DAs) are two classes of contaminants of emerging concern that have attracted great concern and interest by the scientific community during the last two decades. Numerous studies have revealed their presence in treated urban wastewaters. This is mainly due to the fact that some compounds are not efficiently removed during wastewater treatment processes, and are thus able to reach the aquatic environment through wastewater discharge and reuse practices...
April 7, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
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