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Forensic biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900075/-circulating-micrornas-in-the-identification-of-biological-fluids-a-new-approach-to-standardization-of-expression-based-diagnostics
#1
A S Bavykin
Molecular profiling of normal tissues is a regular and necessary step when developing systems for expression analyses in biological samples, including diagnostic panels for various diseases and conditions. Yet there are still no rigorous criteria to allow precise typing of normal tissues. A main problem is that the methods employed in diagnostic expression testing are difficult to standardize. While various technologies, instruments, and reagents are available, universal protocols of handling biological material are lacking, thus impairing the reproducibility of data from independent studies...
July 2017: Molekuliarnaia Biologiia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889862/genetic-dna-profile-in-urine-and-hair-follicles-from-patients-who-have-undergone-allogeneic-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation
#2
Ana Santurtún, José A Riancho, Maite Santurtún, Carlos Richard, M Mercedes Colorado, Mayte García Unzueta, María T Zarrabeitia
Biological samples from patients who have undergone allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) constitute a challenge for individual identification. In this study we analyzed the genetic profiles (by the amplification of 15 autosomic STRs) of HSCT patients found in different types of samples (blood, hair and urine) that may be the source of DNA in civil or criminal forensic cases. Our results show that while in hair follicles the donor component was not detected in any patient, thus being a reliable source of biological material for forensic identification, mixed chimerism was detected in urine samples from all patient, and no correlation was found between the time elapsed from the transplant and the percentage of chimerism...
September 2017: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886207/the-biological-effects-of-kambo-is-there-a-relationship-between-its-administration-and-sudden-death
#3
Isabella Aquila, Santo Gratteri, Matteo A Sacco, Vittorio Fineschi, Simona Magi, Pasqualina Castaldo, Graziella Viscomi, Salvatore Amoroso, Pietrantonio Ricci
Kambo is a substance obtained from the skin secretions of a frog, Phyllomedusa bicolor, popular in the Amazon region, which is administered via the transdermal route. We report a case of 42-year-old man found dead in his house. Near the corpse, a plastic box labeled as "Kambo sticks" was found. The man was a chronic consumer of Kambo and no previous pathology or genetic disease emerged in clinical history from the declaration of his general practitioner. Autopsy investigations and toxicological analysis were performed...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885775/in-vitro-metabolism-of-the-synthetic-cannabinoids-cumyl-pinaca-5f-cumyl-pinaca-cumyl-4cn-binaca-5f-cumyl-p7aica-and-cumyl-4cn-b7aica
#4
Sandra N Staeheli, Michael Poetzsch, Veronica P Veloso, Michael Bovens, Christian Bissig, Andrea E Steuer, Thomas Kraemer
Synthetic cannabinoid consumption trends underlie fast changes and provide several challenges to clinical and forensic toxicologists. Due to extensive metabolism parent compounds are hardly detectable in urine. Therefore, knowledge on the metabolism of synthetic cannabinoids is essential to allow their detection in biological matrices. The aim of the present study was the elucidation of the metabolism of CUMYL-PINACA, 5F-CUMYL-PINACA, CUMYL-4CN-BINACA, 5F-CUMYL-P7AICA, CUMYL-4CN-B7AICA with focus on the analytical and interpretational differentiation of the compounds...
September 8, 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884076/effects-of-storage-temperature-on-the-quantity-and-integrity-of-genomic-dna-extracted-from-mice-tissues-a-comparison-of-recovery-methods
#5
Huda H Al-Griw, Zena A Zraba, Salsabiel K Al-Muntaser, Marwan M Draid, Aisha M Zaidi, Refaat M Tabagh, Mohamed A Al-Griw
Efficient extraction of genomic DNA (gDNA) from biological materials found in harsh environments is the first step for successful forensic DNA profiling. This study aimed to evaluate two methods for DNA recovery from animal tissues (livers, muscles), focusing on the best storage temperature for DNA yield in term of quality, quantity, and integrity for use in several downstream molecular techniques. Six male Swiss albino mice were sacrificed, liver and muscle tissues (n=32) were then harvested and stored for one week in different temperatures, -20°C, 4°C, 25°C and 40°C...
2017: Open veterinary journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28868577/x-chromosomal-str-based-genetic-structure-of-sichuan-tibetan-minority-ethnicity-group-and-its-relationships-to-various-groups
#6
Guanglin He, Ye Li, Xing Zou, Ying Zhang, Hepei Li, Mengge Wang, Jin Wu
The X-chromosomal short tandem repeats (STRs) with more informative than autosomal STRs in some complicated biological relationships identification due to its specific mode of genetic transmission can be used as a complementary tool in forensic case practices. In this study, we presented the population genetic data of 19 X-STRs, consisting of DXS10174, DXS10075, DXS10079, DXS101, DXS10101, DXS10103, DXS10134, DXS10135, DXS10148, DXS10159, DXS10162, DXS10164, DXS6789, DXS6809, DXS7132, DXS7423, DXS7424, DXS8378, and HPRTB loci, in a sample of 235 individuals of Tibetan nationality from Sichuan province, Southwest China...
September 3, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28858675/an-inter-laboratory-comparison-study-on-transfer-persistence-and-recovery-of-dna-from-cable-ties
#7
Kristy Steensma, Ricky Ansell, Lindy Clarisse, Edward Connolly, Ate D Kloosterman, Louise G McKenna, Roland A H van Oorschot, Bianca Szkuta, Bas Kokshoorn
To address questions on the activity that led to the deposition of biological traces in a particular case, general information on the probabilities of transfer, persistence and recovery of cellular material in relevant scenarios is necessary. These figures may be derived from experimental data described in forensic literature when conditions relevant to the case were included. The experimental methodology regarding sampling, DNA extraction, DNA typing and profile interpretation that were used to generate these published data may differ from those applied in the case and thus the applicability of the literature data may be questioned...
August 19, 2017: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28834382/application-of-a-screening-method-for-fentanyl-and-its-analogues-using-uhplc-qtof-ms-with-data-independent-acquisition-dia-in-ms-e-mode-and-retrospective-analysis-of-authentic-forensic-blood-samples
#8
Carolina Noble, Petur Weihe Dalsgaard, Sys Stybe Johansen, Kristian Linnet
The steady appearance of new fentanyl analogues and the associated overdose deaths require the development of sensitive screening approaches to detect these compounds in biological samples and seizures. We developed a targeted screening method to detect 50 4-anilidopiperidine-related fentanyl analogues in whole blood using ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry in data-independent acquisition mode. Sample preparation was performed using protein precipitation on a fully automated robotic setup...
August 19, 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833114/estimating-biological-characteristics-with-virtual-laser-data
#9
Ryan A Mullins, John Albanese
Laser scanning technology is increasingly being used in forensic anthropological research to obtain virtual data for archival purposes and post hoc measurement collection. This research compared the measurement accuracy of two laser scanners-the FARO Focus(3D) 330X and the FARO Freestyle(3D) -against traditionally obtained (i.e., by hand) control data (N = 454). Skeletal data were collected to address a novel question: the ability of laser scanning technology to produce measurements useful for biological characteristic estimation, such as sex and stature...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807464/sex-estimation-using-dimensions-around-the-nutrient-foramen-of-the-long-bones-of-the-arm-and-forearm-in-south-africans
#10
Palesa Mokoena, Brendon K Billings, Mubarak A Bidmos, Pedzisai Mazengenya
South Africa has had an increase in rates of crime, interpersonal violence and homicide since the introduction of democracy in 1994. Forensic osteological standards was lacking for South Africans of different population groups necessitating the generation of new standards for forensic identification of individuals from skeletal remains. For these reasons, there is a concerted demand for methods of identifying skeletal remains with sex being amongst the most important of the biological characteristics required...
September 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803722/advantages-of-analyzing-postmortem-brain-samples-in-routine-forensic-drug-screening-case-series-of-three-non-natural-deaths-tested-positive-for-lysergic-acid-diethylamide-lsd
#11
Marie Mardal, Sys Stybe Johansen, Ragnar Thomsen, Kristian Linnet
Three case reports are presented, including autopsy findings and toxicological screening results, which were tested positive for the potent hallucinogenic drug lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD). LSD and its main metabolites were quantified in brain tissue and femoral blood, and furthermore hematoma and urine when available. LSD, its main metabolite 2-oxo-3-hydroxy-LSD (oxo-HO-LSD), and iso-LSD were quantified in biological samples according to a previously published procedure involving liquid-liquid extraction and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS)...
September 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803416/rapid-screening-method-for-male-dna-by-using-the-loop-mediated-isothermal-amplification-assay
#12
Masashi Kitamura, Seiji Kubo, Jin Tanaka, Tatsushi Adachi
Screening for male-derived biological material from collected samples plays an important role in criminal investigations, especially those involving sexual assaults. We have developed a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay targeting multi-repeat sequences of the Y chromosome for detecting male DNA. Successful amplification occurred with 0.5 ng of male DNA under isothermal conditions of 61 to 67 °C, but no amplification occurred with up to 10 ng of female DNA. Under the optimized conditions, the LAMP reaction initiated amplification within 10 min and amplified for 20 min...
August 12, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780758/investigation-of-metabolites-for-estimating-blood-deposition-time
#13
Karolina Lech, Fan Liu, Sarah K Davies, Katrin Ackermann, Joo Ern Ang, Benita Middleton, Victoria L Revell, Florence J Raynaud, Igor Hoveijn, Roelof A Hut, Debra J Skene, Manfred Kayser
Trace deposition timing reflects a novel concept in forensic molecular biology involving the use of rhythmic biomarkers for estimating the time within a 24-h day/night cycle a human biological sample was left at the crime scene, which in principle allows verifying a sample donor's alibi. Previously, we introduced two circadian hormones for trace deposition timing and recently demonstrated that messenger RNA (mRNA) biomarkers significantly improve time prediction accuracy. Here, we investigate the suitability of metabolites measured using a targeted metabolomics approach, for trace deposition timing...
August 5, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766529/-the-coroner-s-autopsies-in-the-great-britain-the-problems-related-to-the-quality-of-the-studies-standardization-auditing-financial-support-and-the-approaches-to-their-solution-part-2
#14
I Ju Makarov, T A Kuprina, A A Gusarov, V A Fetisov
This article extends the previous publication of the authors based on the analysis of the detailed report of the experts of the National Confidential Enquiry into Patient Outcome and Death program (NCEPOD) issued in the Great Britain in 2006. The analysis has demonstrated that all autopsy studies should invariably involve measurement of the corpse length and weight (including body mass index) as well as the detailed description of all injuries to the body (or references to their absence). All autopsy studies should be carried out only by a medical professional (e...
2017: Sudebno-meditsinskaia Ekspertiza
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766523/-the-morphological-diagnostics-of-the-toxic-effects-of-the-smoking-blends-in-the-cases-of-fatal-intoxication-with-pyrrolidinovalerophenone
#15
P G Dzhuvalyakov, Yu V Zbrueva, S S Kabakova, D V Bogomolov, M R Bekeshov
The objective of the present study was the development of the morphological criteria for the diagnostics of fatal intoxication with the herbal smoking blends (spices) using the samples of the biological materials obtained from the victims of pyrrolidinovalerophenone poisoning. The samples were taken from 13 autopsied cadavers of 11 men and 2 women at the age from 26 to 39 years based at the Astrakhan Regional Bureau of Forensic Medical Expertise during the period from 21011 to 2015. The diagnosis of pyrrolidinvalerpphenon poisoning was verified to the letter...
2017: Sudebno-meditsinskaia Ekspertiza
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765869/use-of-units-of-measurement-error-in-anthropometric-comparisons
#16
Teghan Lucas, Maciej Henneberg
Anthropometrists attempt to minimise measurement errors, however, errors cannot be eliminated entirely. Currently, measurement errors are simply reported. Measurement errors should be included into analyses of anthropometric data. This study proposes a method which incorporates measurement errors into reported values, replacing metric units with 'units of technical error of measurement (TEM)' by applying these to forensics, industrial anthropometry and biological variation. The USA armed forces anthropometric survey (ANSUR) contains 132 anthropometric dimensions of 3982 individuals...
August 1, 2017: Anthropologischer Anzeiger; Bericht über die Biologisch-anthropologische Literatur
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751237/a-large-modern-southeast-asian-human-skeletal-collection-from-thailand
#17
Nawaporn Techataweewan, Panya Tuamsuk, Yanyong Toomsan, Worawut Woraputtaporn, Parichat Prachaney, Nancy Tayles
The Khon Kaen University Human Skeleton Research Centre has a large human collection consisting of 745 modern northeastern Thai (Isan) skeletons derived from bodies bequeathed to the Department of Anatomy during the period 1979-2014. The aim of this paper is to document the collection and address the question of whether the collection may be representative of local Isan people, or populations of the wider region of mainland Southeast Asia. This will determine its value as a reference collection for forensic anthropology in particular but also for all other fields of research about human skeletal biology...
September 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751028/toxic-metals-biomonitoring-based-on-prey-predator-interactions-and-environmental-forensics-techniques-a-study-at-the-romanian-ukraine-cross-border-of-the-black-sea
#18
Stefan-Adrian Strungaru, Mircea Nicoara, Carmen Teodosiu, Dragos Micu, Gabriel Plavan
Marine cross-border areas are ideal for monitoring pollutants so as to increase ecosystems protection. This study was conducted at the Romanian-Ukraine border of the Black Sea to reveal evidence of contamination with toxic metals based on biomonitoring of: cadmium, lead, total chromium, nickel and copper at different water depths and prey-predator interactions, combined with environmental forensics techniques of biological sampling and separation in witnesses size groups. The species used were Mytilus galloprovincialis L...
July 25, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748403/evaluation-of-innotyper%C3%A2-21-in-a-sample-of-rio-de-janeiro-population-as-an-alternative-forensic-panel
#19
R S Moura-Neto, I C T Mello, R Silva, A P C Maette, C G Bottino, A Woerner, J King, F Wendt, B Budowle
The use of bi-allelic markers such as retrotransposable element insertion polymorphisms or Innuls (for insertion/null) can overcome some limitations of short tandem repeat (STR) loci in typing forensic biological evidence. This study investigated the efficiency of the InnoTyper® 21 Innul markers in an urban admixed population sample in Rio de Janeiro (n = 40) and one highly compromised sample collected as evidence by the Rio de Janeiro police. No significant departures from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium were detected after the Bonferroni correction (α' ≈ 0...
July 26, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701052/-they-accused-me-of-strangling-her-epilepsy-and-violence-debate-in-croatia-at-the-end-of-the-nineteenth-and-the-beginning-of-the-twentieth-centuries
#20
Martin Kuhar, Stella Fatović-Ferenčić
Nineteenth-century psychiatry shifted its focus to the brain as the seat of mental disorders. With a new understanding of mental disorders arose the need to consult forensic psychiatrists in cases of criminal acts committed by persons with mental illness. This article focuses on three murders committed by 'epileptics' at the end of the nineteenth and the beginning of the twentieth centuries in Croatia. An analysis of these cases will help to situate forensic psychiatry at the turn of the century within the Austro-Hungarian Empire, and reveal the authority that forensic experts wielded in the courts...
July 1, 2017: History of Psychiatry
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