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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417172/simultaneous-determination-of-multiclass-pesticide-residues-in-human-plasma-using-a-mini-quechers-method
#1
Anshuman Srivastava, Satyajeet Rai, Ashish Kumar Sonker, Kajal Karsauliya, Chandra Prabha Pandey, Sheelendra Pratap Singh
Blood is one of the most assessable matrices for the determination of pesticide residue exposure in humans. Effective sample preparation/cleanup of biological samples is very important in the development of a sensitive, reproducible, and robust method. In the present study, a simple, cost-effective, and rapid gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method has been developed and validated for simultaneous analysis of 31 multiclass (organophosphates, organochlorines, and synthetic pyrethroids) pesticide residues in human plasma by means of a mini QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe) method...
April 17, 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391756/problems-in-mitochondrial-dna-forensics-while-interpreting-length-heteroplasmy-conundrum-of-various-sindhi-and-baluchi-ethnic-groups-of-pakistan
#2
Shahzad Bhatti, Muhammad Aslam Khan, Sana Abbas, Marcella Attimonelli, Gerardo Rodriguez Gonzalez, Hikmet Hakan Aydin, Erica Martinha Silva de Souza
The insight heterodox genetics of mtDNA infer new perspectives at the level of human mitochondrial control region heteroplasmy, which is substantial in evolutionary as well as forensic interpretation. The main goal of this study is to interrogate the recurrence and resolve the ambiguity of blurry spectrum of heteroplasmy in the human mtDNA control region of 50 Baluchi and 116 Sindhi unrelated individuals. Sanger sequencing was employed classically, that was further investigated by minisequencing. Only 20% Baluchi and 25...
April 9, 2017: Mitochondrial DNA. Part A. DNA Mapping, Sequencing, and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391141/development-and-validation-of-a-novel-multiplexed-dna-analysis-system-innotyper-%C3%A2-21
#3
Hiromi Brown, Robyn Thompson, Gina Murphy, Dixie Peters, Bobby La Rue, Jonathan King, Anne H Montgomery, Marion Carroll, James Baus, Sid Sinha, Frank R Wendt, Bing Song, Ranajit Chakraborty, Bruce Budowle, Sudhir K Sinha
We report here a novel multiplexed DNA analysis system consisting of 20 Alu markers and Amelogenin for analysis of highly degraded forensic biological samples. The key to the success of the system in obtaining results from degraded samples is the primer design yielding small amplicon size (60-125bp) for all 20 markers. The markers included in the InnoTyper(®) 21 system are bi-allelic, having two possible allelic states (insertion or null) and thus termed INNULs. The markers are short interspersed nuclear elements (SINEs), a category of retrotransposable elements (REs) which are non-coding genomic DNA repeat sequences, or "mobile insertion elements," comprising approximately 40% of the human genome...
March 18, 2017: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390021/pharmaceuticals-and-illicit-drugs-in-wastewater-samples-in-north-eastern-tunisia
#4
Bilel Moslah, Evroula Hapeshi, Amel Jrad, Despo Fatta-Kassinos, Abderrazek Hedhili
Pharmaceutically active substances (PhACs) and drugs of abuse (DAs) are two classes of contaminants of emerging concern that have attracted great concern and interest by the scientific community during the last two decades. Numerous studies have revealed their presence in treated urban wastewaters. This is mainly due to the fact that some compounds are not efficiently removed during wastewater treatment processes, and are thus able to reach the aquatic environment through wastewater discharge and reuse practices...
April 7, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385349/forensic-engineering-of-advanced-polymeric-materials-part-iv-case-study-of-oxo-biodegradable-polyethylene-commercial-bag-aging-in-biotic-and-abiotic-environment
#5
Marta Musioł, Joanna Rydz, Henryk Janeczek, Iza Radecka, Guozhan Jiang, Marek Kowalczuk
The public awareness of the quality of environment stimulates the endeavor to safe polymeric materials and their degradation products. The aim of the forensic engineering case study presented in this paper is to evaluate the aging process of commercial oxo-degradable polyethylene bag under real industrial composting conditions and in distilled water at 70°C, for comparison. Partial degradation of the investigated material was monitored by changes in molecular weight, thermal properties and Keto Carbonyl Bond Index and Vinyl Bond Index, which were calculated from the FTIR spectra...
April 3, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384982/amelogenin-gene-the-pioneer-in-gender-determination-from-forensic-dental-samples
#6
Priyanjali Dutta, Satish Bhosale, Rajeshwar Singh, Priyanka Gubrellay, Jitendra Patil, Bhumika Sehdev, Sachin Bhagat, Tajinder Bansal
INTRODUCTION: In the event of any mass fatality incident, DNA analysis plays a vital role in disaster victim identification. Teeth are one of the most resistant structures in the human body that resist decomposition hence making them prime choice for extracting DNA for identification of individuals. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) analysis that target regions of Amelogenin gene have become the method of choice for sex determination of biological samples. AIM: Determining the sex of a given DNA sample from either dental pulp or dentin of tooth and help in identification of missing persons and disaster victims...
February 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374614/evaluation-of-optical-depths-and-self-absorption-of-strontium-and-aluminum-emission-lines-in-laser-induced-breakdown-spectroscopy-libs
#7
Bader A Alfarraj, Chet R Bhatt, Fang Yu Yueh, Jagdish P Singh
Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is a widely used laser spectroscopic technique in various fields, such as material science, forensic science, biological science, and the chemical and pharmaceutical industries. In most LIBS work, the analysis is performed using radiative transitions from atomic emissions. In this study, the plasma temperature and the product [Formula: see text] (the number density N and the absorption path length [Formula: see text]) were determined to evaluate the optical depths and the self-absorption of Sr and Al lines...
April 2017: Applied Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369974/forensic-facial-reconstruction-relationship-between-the-alar-cartilage-and-piriform-aperture
#8
Raíssa Ananda Paim Strapasson, Lara Maria Herrera, Rodolfo Francisco Haltenhoff Melani
During forensic facial reconstruction, facial features may be predicted based on the parameters of the skull. This study evaluated the relationships between alar cartilage and piriform aperture and nose morphology and facial typology. Ninety-six cone beam computed tomography images of Brazilian subjects (49 males and 47 females) were used in this study. OsiriX software was used to perform the following measurements: nasal width, distance between alar base insertion points, lower width of the piriform aperture, and upper width of the piriform aperture...
March 29, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361336/setting-the-light-conditions-for-measuring-root-transparency-for-age-at-death-estimation-methods
#9
Joe Adserias-Garriga, Laia Nogué-Navarro, Sara C Zapico, Douglas H Ubelaker
Age-at-death estimation is one of the main goals in forensic identification, being an essential parameter to determine the biological profile, narrowing the possibility of identification in cases involving missing persons and unidentified bodies. The study of dental tissues has been long considered as a proper tool for age estimation with several age estimation methods based on them. Dental age estimation methods can be divided into three categories: tooth formation and development, post-formation changes, and histological changes...
March 30, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28359903/first-derivative-spectrofluorimetric-determination-of-zopiclone-and-its-degradation-product-2-amino-5-chloropyridine-in-pharmaceutical-formulations-with-preliminary-tool-in-biological-fluids-for-clinical-evidence-of-zopiclone-intake
#10
Amirah S Al-Attas, Jenny Jeehan Nasr, Shereen Shalan, Fathalla Belal
A simple, fast, sensitive and stability-indicating derivative spectrofluorimetric method is presented for the assay of zopiclone (ZOP), a drug with hypnotic effect, and its main degradation product and major contaminant, 2-amino-5-chloropyridine (ACP). The method is based on measuring the inherent fluorescence intensity of both drugs at λex=300nm in methanol, then differentiation using D1 (first derivative technique). The developed method was found to be rectilinear over a range of 0.2-4μg/mL of ZOP and 4-100ng/mL of ACP...
March 18, 2017: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337600/technical-note-envision%C3%A2-flex-improves-the-detectability-of-depletions-of-myoglobin-and-troponin-t-in-forensic-cases-of-myocardial-ischemia-infarction
#11
Sara Sabatasso, Catia Pomponio, Tony Fracasso
Immunohistochemistry is a well-established technique used in many research laboratories as well as in clinical diagnostics. The method allows to visualize the expression of proteins in biological tissues, as well as to evaluate this expression semi-quantitatively. For diagnosis, an optimal staining, based on a straightforward protocol, is crucial. In many sudden cardiac death cases, immunohistochemistry is the only tool enabling the diagnosis of myocardial ischemia/infarction, thus the diagnosis of the cause of death...
March 23, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334817/stability-of-synthetic-cannabinoids-in-biological-specimens-analysis-through-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#12
Chelsea Fort, Thomas Jourdan, Jesse Kemp, Byron Curtis
The focus of this study was to determine the stability of four synthetic cannabinoids, XLR-11, UR-144, AB-Pinaca and AB-Fubinaca in biological specimens for the purpose of casework processing prioritization. The study used human whole blood spiked with the compounds of interest to mimic real forensic laboratory samples submitted for synthetic cannabinoid analysis. The spiked whole blood specimens were incubated under one of three temperature conditions: room or ambient (22°C), refrigerated (4°C) and frozen (-20°C) for a period of 12 weeks...
February 18, 2017: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315050/forensic-use-of-y-chromosome-dna-a-general-overview
#13
REVIEW
Manfred Kayser
The male-specific part of the human Y chromosome is widely used in forensic DNA analysis, particularly in cases where standard autosomal DNA profiling is not informative. A Y-chromosomal gene fragment is applied for inferring the biological sex of a crime scene trace donor. Haplotypes composed of Y-chromosomal short tandem repeat polymorphisms (Y-STRs) are used to characterise paternal lineages of unknown male trace donors, especially suitable when males and females have contributed to the same trace, such as in sexual assault cases...
March 17, 2017: Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301022/use-of-an-alternate-light-source-to-detect-tooth-and-bone
#14
Geraldo Elias Miranda, Rodolfo Francisco Haltenhoff Melani, Luiz Francisquini, Eduardo Daruge
The aim of this study was to identify the combination of wavelength and filter that best detects tooth and bone, and to determine which biological materials (enamel, dental root or bone) have highest fluorescence intensity when exposed to an alternate light source (ALS). Tooth and bone samples were lighted with ALS and photographed. Adobe Photoshop™ and ImageJ™ softwares were used for image analysis. Data obtained by measuring the photograph pixels were subjected to analysis of variance. The mean values of significant effects were compared by the Tukey test...
January 2017: Brazilian Dental Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293949/coomassie-brilliant-blue-g-250-dye-new-application-for-forensic-fingerprint-analysis
#15
Erica Brunelle, Anh Minh Le, Crystal Huynh, Kelly Wingfield, Lenka Halámková, Juliana Agudelo, Jan Halámek
The Bradford reagent, comprised of the Coomassie Brilliant Blue G-250 dye, methanol and phosphoric acid, has been traditionally used for quantifying proteins. Use of this reagent in the Bradford assay relies on the binding of the Coomassie Blue G-250 dye to proteins. However, the ability of the dye to react with a small group of amino acids - arginine, histidine, lysine, phenylalanine, tyrosine, and tryptophan - makes it a viable chemical assay for fingerprint analysis in order to identify the biological sex of the fingerprint originator...
March 15, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273508/helping-to-distinguish-primary-from-secondary-transfer-events-for-trace-dna
#16
Duncan Taylor, Alex Biedermann, Lydie Samie, Ka-Man Pun, Tacha Hicks, Christophe Champod
DNA is routinely recovered in criminal investigations. The sensitivity of laboratory equipment and DNA profiling kits means that it is possible to generate DNA profiles from very small amounts of cellular material. As a consequence, it has been shown that DNA we detect may not have arisen from a direct contact with an item, but rather through one or more intermediaries. Naturally the questions arising in court, particularly when considering trace DNA, are of how DNA may have come to be on an item. While scientists cannot directly answer this question, forensic biological results can help in discriminating between alleged activities...
February 20, 2017: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270824/advances-of-community-level-plant-dna-barcoding-in-china
#17
Nancai Pei, Bufeng Chen, W J Kress
DNA barcoding is a commonly used bio-technology in multiple disciplines including biology, environmental science, forensics and inspection, etc. Forest dynamic plots provide a unique opportunity to carry out large-scale, comparative, and multidisciplinary research for plant DNA barcoding. The paper concisely reviewed four previous progresses in China; specifically, species discrimination, community phylogenetic reconstruction, phylogenetic community structure exploration, and biodiversity index evaluation. Further, we demonstrated three major challenges; specifically, building the impetus to generate DNA barcodes using multiple plant DNA markers for all woody species at forest community levels, analyzing massive DNA barcoding sequence data, and promoting theoretical innovation...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28254385/dna-methylation-based-forensic-age-prediction-using-artificial-neural-networks-and-next-generation-sequencing
#18
Athina Vidaki, David Ballard, Anastasia Aliferi, Thomas H Miller, Leon P Barron, Denise Syndercombe Court
The ability to estimate the age of the donor from recovered biological material at a crime scene can be of substantial value in forensic investigations. Aging can be complex and is associated with various molecular modifications in cells that accumulate over a person's lifetime including epigenetic patterns. The aim of this study was to use age-specific DNA methylation patterns to generate an accurate model for the prediction of chronological age using data from whole blood. In total, 45 age-associated CpG sites were selected based on their reported age coefficients in a previous extensive study and investigated using publicly available methylation data obtained from 1156 whole blood samples (aged 2-90 years) analysed with Illumina's genome-wide methylation platforms (27K/450K)...
February 28, 2017: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28252873/glucose-metabolism-in-completed-suicide-a-forensic-pathological-pilot-study
#19
Jonas Forsman, Terhi Keltanen, Benny Liberg, Antti Sajantila, Thomas Masterman, Katarina Lindroos
AIM: To determine whether antemortem blood levels of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and glucose predict completed suicide and, by extension, whether markers of glucose metabolism might be associated with a prosuicidal trait or state. METHOD: From consecutively performed autopsies, samples of blood and vitreous humor from 17 suicide victims and 27 non-suicide controls were compared with regard to levels of glucose, lactate, and HbA1c. RESULTS: Mean HbA1c was higher, and mean estimated blood glucose lower, among suicide victims, although tests revealed no significant differences (P=0...
February 28, 2017: Croatian Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28252611/-on-the-problem-of-hiv-infection-in-the-objects-of-forensic-medical-expertise
#20
P L Ivanov, T V Timoshenko, E Yu Zemskova
The authors overview the current state of research in the field of diagnostics and identification of the signs suggesting the presence of HIV in the materials obtained from the human corpses undergoing forensic medical expertise at different stages of their post-mortem changes. Another objective of the present work was to evaluate the risk of HIV infection for the medical personnel involved in the autopsy studies taking into consideration the significance attached in different countries to the problem of anti-infectious protection of the staff of the state institutions of forensic medical expertise...
2017: Sudebno-meditsinskaia Ekspertiza
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