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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214332/comparison-of-several-white-matter-tracts-in-feline-and-canine-brain-by-using-magnetic-resonance-diffusion-tensor-imaging
#1
Olivier Jacqmot, Bert Van Thielen, Alex Michotte, Inneke Willekens, Filip Verhelle, Peter Goossens, Filip De Ridder, Jan Pieter Clarys, Anne Vanbinst, Cindy Peleman, Johan de Mey
Recently, we published a first anatomical Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) atlas regarding white matter tracts in the canine brain. The purpose of this study was to show the significance of DTI in the revelation of the white matter fibres in the feline brain (i.e. to obtain an anatomical DTI atlas of images) and to descriptively compare these to previously obtained white matter fibre images of the canine brain. DTI MR Images of 4 cats euthanised for reasons other than neurological disorders were obtained with a 3 T system...
February 18, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214318/clinical-course-treatment-modalities-and-quality-of-life-in-patients-with-congenital-melanocytic-nevi-data-from-the-german-cmn-registry
#2
Maria Elisabeth Wramp, Anna Langenbruch, Matthias Augustin, Detlef Zillikens, Sven Krengel
BACKGROUND: Congenital melanocytic nevi (CMN) are associated with mental stress as well as medical risks for those affected. The German CMN registry was initiated in 2005. Herein, we present results from an interim analysis focusing on disease course, treatment modalities, and quality of life. PATIENTS AND METHODS: One hundred patients enrolled in the registry between 2005 and 2012 were included in this prospective cohort study, and asked to participate in a follow-up survey...
February 2017: Journal der Deutschen Dermatologischen Gesellschaft, Journal of the German Society of Dermatology: JDDG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214290/evaluate-the-efficacy-and-safety-of-anti-epileptic-medications-for-partial-seizures-of-epilepsy-a-network-meta-analysis
#3
Teng Zhao, Xuemin Feng, Jingyao Liu, Jiguo Gao, Chunkui Zhou
Epilepsy is a brain and neurological disorder with high prevalence. It was reported that more than 70% of epileptic seizures were controlled by anti-epileptic medications, whereas the lack of evidence with respect to head-to-head comparisons motivated researchers to seek alternative approaches that are able to provide deep insights into the profile of anti-epileptic medications. In this study, we performed a network meta-analysis (NMA) to evaluate the efficacy and safety of anti-epileptic medications for partial seizures of epilepsy...
February 18, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214165/agenesis-of-the-corpus-callosum-and-aicardi-syndrome-a%C3%A2-neuroimaging-and-clinical-comparison
#4
T Govil-Dalela, A Kumar, R Agarwal, H T Chugani
BACKGROUND: Agenesis of the corpus callosum can occur in individuals with epilepsy, either in isolation or as part of various neurological conditions, such as Aicardi syndrome. In this study, we evaluated the clinical and neuroradiological differences between children with nonsyndromic agenesis of the corpus callosum and those with Aicardi syndrome. METHODS: We evaluated 31 children with epilepsy and agenesis of the corpus callosum (11 males, 20 females), 14 of whom had Aicardi syndrome (all females)...
January 4, 2017: Pediatric Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214074/subspecialty-training-and-certification-in-geriatric-psychiatry-a-25-year-overview
#5
Dorthea Juul, Christopher C Colenda, Jeffrey M Lyness, Laura B Dunn, Rita Hargrave, Larry R Faulkner
: The Institute of Medicine estimated that by 2030, from 10.1 to 14.4 million Americans aged 65 years or older will have mental health or substance use disorders. This article reviews the history and current status of training, certification, and practice in geriatric psychiatry against the backdrop of this "silver tsunami." The American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology (ABPN) administered the first subspecialty examination in geriatric psychiatry in 1991, and through 2015 3,329 certificates were awarded...
January 9, 2017: American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214048/psychosocial-and-behavioral-functioning-and-their-relationship-to-seizure-timing-in-children-with-benign-epilepsy-with-centrotemporal-spikes
#6
Gonca Bektaş, Uğur Tekin, Edibe Pembegül Yıldız, Tuğçe Aksu Uzunhan, Burak Tatlı, Nur Aydınlı, Mine Çalışkan, Meral Özmen
BACKGROUND: Psychosocial and behavioral problems have been reported in children with benign epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes (BECTS). Distinctive features of typical BECTS associated with cognitive and behavioral problems have not clearly been defined. PURPOSE: We aimed to identify psychosocial and behavioral functioning and their relationship to seizure timing in BECTS. METHODS: Consecutive patients with BECTS were recruited from the pediatric neurology outpatient clinic between May 2015 and May 2016...
February 14, 2017: Brain & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213989/the-post-mortem-examination-in-ruminants-and-its-possible-benefit-to-ruminant-clinical-medicine
#7
K Wäsle, A Pospischil, M Hässig, C Gerspach, M Hilbe
To highlight the important role of post-mortem examination of ruminants and to identify possible benefits for modern ruminant medicine, a comparison of clinical and pathological diagnoses was conducted and influencing factors were identified. For this purpose, results from 2,000 ruminants that had undergone necropsy examination at the University of Zurich, Switzerland, were analysed retrospectively. Both clinical and pathological diagnoses were available for 81.40% of cattle, 80.22% of sheep and 66.66% of goats; no diagnoses were available for 3...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Comparative Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213969/highly-efficient-neural-conversion-of-human-pluripotent-stem-cells-in-adherent-and-animal-free-conditions
#8
Dunja Lukovic, Andrea Diez Lloret, Petra Stojkovic, Daniel Rodríguez-Martínez, Maria Amparo Perez Arago, Francisco Javier Rodriguez-Jimenez, Patricia González-Rodríguez, José López-Barneo, Eva Sykova, Pavla Jendelova, Jelena Kostic, Victoria Moreno-Manzano, Miodrag Stojkovic, Shomi S Bhattacharya, Slaven Erceg
Neural differentiation of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) can produce a valuable and robust source of human neural cell subtypes, holding great promise for the study of neurogenesis and development, and for treating neurological diseases. However, current hESCs and hiPSCs neural differentiation protocols require either animal factors or embryoid body formation, which decreases efficiency and yield, and strongly limits medical applications. Here we develop a simple, animal-free protocol for neural conversion of both hESCs and hiPSCs in adherent culture conditions...
February 18, 2017: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213665/neurologic-manifestations-of-vitamin-b-deficiency-after-bariatric-surgery
#9
Suriya Punchai, Zubaidah Nor Hanipah, Katherine M Meister, Philip R Schauer, Stacy A Brethauer, Ali Aminian
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to assess the incidence, clinical presentation, and outcomes of neurologic disorders secondary to vitamin B deficiencies following bariatric surgery. METHODS: Patients at a single academic institution who underwent bariatric surgery and developed neurologic complications secondary to low levels of vitamins B1, B2, B6, and B12 between the years 2004 and 2015 were studied. RESULTS: In total, 47 (0.7%) bariatric surgical patients (Roux-en-Y gastric bypass n = 36, sleeve gastrectomy n = 9, and duodenal switch n = 2) developed neurologic manifestations secondary to vitamin B deficiencies...
February 17, 2017: Obesity Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213587/emergency-extracorporeal-life-support-and-ongoing-resuscitation-a-retrospective-comparison-for-refractory-out-of-hospital-cardiac-arrest
#10
A Schober, F Sterz, H Herkner, C Wallmueller, C Weiser, P Hubner, C Testori
BACKGROUND: In refractory cardiac arrest, with cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) for more than 30 min, chances of survival are small. Extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (ECPR) is an option for certain patients with cardiac arrest. The aim of this study was to evaluate characteristics of patients selected for ECPR. METHODS: Anonymised data of adult patients suffering refractory cardiac arrest, transported with ongoing CPR to an ED of a tertiary care centre between 2002 and 2012 were analysed...
February 17, 2017: Emergency Medicine Journal: EMJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213557/tension-pneumocephalus-induced-by-high-flow-nasal-cannula-ventilation-in-a-neonate
#11
Alicia Iglesias-Deus, Alejandro Pérez-Muñuzuri, Olalla López-Suárez, Pilar Crespo, Maria-Luz Couce
The use of high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) therapy as respiratory support for preterm infants has increased rapidly worldwide. The evidence available for the use of HFNC is as an alternative to nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) and in particular to prevent postextubation failure. We report a case of tension pneumocephalus in a preterm infant as a complication during HFNC ventilation. Significant neurological impairment was detected and support was eventually withdrawn. Few cases of pneumocephalus as a complication of positive airway pressure have been reported in the neonatal period, and they all have been related to CPAP...
March 2017: Archives of Disease in Childhood. Fetal and Neonatal Edition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213522/type-i-interferon-regulated-gene-expression-and-signaling-in-murine-mixed-glial-cells-lacking-signal-transducers-and-activators-of-transcription-1-or-2-or-interferon-regulatory-factor-9
#12
Wen Li, Markus J Hofer, Pattama Songkhunawej, So Ri Jung, Dale Hancock, Gareth Denyer, Iain L Campbell
Type I interferons (IFN-I) are critical in antimicrobial and antitumor defense. Although IFN-I signal via the interferon-stimulated gene factor 3 (ISGF3) complex consisting of STAT1, STAT2 and IRF9, IFN-I can mediate significant biological effects via ISGF3-independent pathways. For example, absence of STAT1, STAT2 or IRF9 exacerbates neurological disease in transgenic mice with CNS-production of IFN-Ι. Here we determined the role of IFN-I-driven, ISGF3-independent signaling in regulating global gene expression in STAT1, STAT2 or IRF9-deficient murine mixed glial cell cultures (MGCs)...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213478/endovascular-mechanical-thrombectomy-for-cerebral-venous-sinus-thrombosis-a-systematic-review
#13
REVIEW
Adeel Ilyas, Ching-Jen Chen, Daniel M Raper, Dale Ding, Thomas Buell, Panogiotis Mastorakos, Kenneth C Liu
BACKGROUND: Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) is an uncommon form of stroke that, when severe, can be a therapeutic challenge. Endovascular mechanical thrombectomy (EMT) techniques have significantly evolved over the past decade, but data regarding the efficacy and safety of EMT for CVST are poorly defined. OBJECTIVE: To summarize the large number of case series on this relatively rare condition and establish trends in the outcomes of EMT for CVST. METHODS: A literature review was performed using PubMed and Medline to identify reports of three or more patients with CVST treated with EMT...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Neurointerventional Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213437/%C3%AE-synuclein-multiple-system-atrophy-prions
#14
Amanda L Woerman, Joel C Watts, Atsushi Aoyagi, Kurt Giles, Lefkos T Middleton, Stanley B Prusiner
Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a rapidly progressive neurodegenerative disease arising from the misfolding and accumulation of the protein α-synuclein in oligodendrocytes, where it forms glial cytoplasmic inclusions (GCIs). Several years of studying synthetic α-synuclein fibrils has provided critical insight into the ability of α-synuclein to template endogenous protein misfolding, giving rise to fibrillar structures capable of propagating from cell to cell. However, more recent studies with MSA-derived α-synuclein aggregates have shown that they have a similar ability to undergo template-directed propagation, like PrP prions...
February 17, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213155/high-frequency-stimulation-of-afferent-fibers-generates-asynchronous-firing-in-the-downstream-neurons-in-hippocampus-through-partial-block-of-axonal-conduction
#15
Zhouyan Feng, Zhaoxiang Wang, Zheshan Guo, Wenjie Zhou, Ziyan Cai, Dominique M Durand
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is effective for treating neurological disorders in clinic. However, the therapeutic mechanisms of high-frequency stimulation (HFS) of DBS have not yet been elucidated. Previous studies have suggested that HFS-induced changes in axon conduction could have important contributions to the DBS effects and desiderate further studies. To investigate the effects of prolonged HFS of afferent axons on the firing of downstream neurons, HFS trains of 100 and 200 Hz were applied on the Schaffer collaterals of the hippocampal CA1 region in anaesthetized rats...
February 14, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212985/nonsteroidal-anti-inflammatory-drugs-in-clinical-and-experimental-epilepsy
#16
REVIEW
Beatrice Mihaela Radu, Florin Bogdan Epureanu, Mihai Radu, Paolo Francesco Fabene, Giuseppe Bertini
Current antiepileptic drugs have limited efficacy and provide little or no benefits in 30% of the patients. Given that a role for brain inflammation in epilepsy has been repeatedly reported in recent years, the potential of anti-inflammatory drugs should be explored in depth, as they may provide new therapeutical approaches in preventing or reducing epileptogenesis. Here, we review preclinical (both in vivo and in vitro) and clinical epilepsy studies in which nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), i...
February 9, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212920/neonatal-lupus-follow-up-in-infants-with-anti-ssa-ro-antibodies-and-review-of-the-literature
#17
REVIEW
Antonio Alberto Zuppa, Riccardo Riccardi, Simonetta Frezza, Francesca Gallini, Rita Maria Paola Luciano, Giovanni Alighieri, Costantino Romagnoli, Sara De Carolis
Neonatal Lupus Syndrome (NLS) is a distinct clinical entity caused by transplacental passage of maternal anti-SSA/Ro antibodies (Ab). Mothers may have systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjögren syndrome, or other connective tissue disease, or may be completely healthy at the time of giving birth. NLS includes several clinical manifestations: complete congenital heart block (CCHB) and cutaneous lupus are the most common, while hepatobiliary disease, hematological manifestations and central nervous system involvement may occur...
February 14, 2017: Autoimmunity Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212850/human-astrocytes-in-the-diseased-brain
#18
Elena Dossi, Flora Vasile, Nathalie Rouach
Astrocytes are key active elements of the brain that contribute to information processing. They not only provide neurons with metabolic and structural support, but also regulate neurogenesis and brain wiring. Furthermore, astrocytes modulate synaptic activity and plasticity in part by controlling the extracellular space volume, as well as ion and neurotransmitter homeostasis. These findings, together with the discovery that human astrocytes display contrasting characteristics with their rodent counterparts, point to a role for astrocytes in higher cognitive functions...
February 13, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212736/tap73-upregulates-il-1%C3%AE-in-cancer-cells-potential-biomarker-in-lung-and-breast-cancer
#19
Polina Vikhreva, Varvara Petrova, Tarik Gokbulut, Ilias Pestlikis, Mara Mancini, Nicola Di Daniele, Richard A Knight, Gerry Melino, Ivano Amelio
p73 is a transcription factor belonging to the p53 tumour suppressor family. p73(-/-) mice exhibit a range of phenotypes including neurological, reproductive and inflammatory defects. Although the role of p73 in the control of genomic stability explains part of these phenotypes, a clear mechanism of how p73 participates in the inflammatory response is still elusive. Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) has a crucial role in mediating the inflammatory response. Because of its high potency to induce inflammation, the activation and secretion of IL-1β is tightly regulated by large protein complexes, named inflammasomes...
January 15, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212689/sleep-complaints-and-sleep-architecture-in-children-with-idiopathic-central-sleep-apnea
#20
Neepa Gurbani, Stijn L Verhulst, Chee Tan, Narong Simakajornboon
STUDY OBJECTIVES: Idiopathic central sleep apnea (ICSA) is categorized as a type of nonhypercapnic central sleep apnea (CSA). Recurrent cessation and resumption of respiration leads to sleep fragmentation, which causes excessive daytime sleepiness, frequent nocturnal awakenings, or both. ICSA has been described in the adult population but there is limited information in children. The purpose of this study was to describe clinical manifestations and polysomnographic findings in children with ICSA...
April 14, 2017: Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine: JCSM: Official Publication of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine
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