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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906512/expertise-and-individual-differences-the-search-for-the-structure-and-acquisition-of-experts-superior-performance
#1
REVIEW
K Anders Ericsson
What is expertise and where does it come from? Modern research techniques have made it possible to objectively measure performance in new ways, revealing that expertise derives neither from basic cognitive ability nor from the sheer amount of experience. Rather, it develops-particular forms of training and practice induce cognitive, perceptual, physiological, neurological, and anatomical changes necessary for the acquisition of complex domain-specific skills. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website...
December 1, 2016: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906439/in-vitro-neural-differentiation-of-bone-marrow-stromal-cells-induced-by-hepatocyte-growth-factor-and-glial-cell-derived-neurotrophic-factor
#2
Q Ma, M Cai, J-W Shang, J Yang, X-Y Gu, W-B Liu, Q Yang
OBJECTIVE: Bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) have great potential for cell-based transplantation therapy in treating neurological disease. However, the best combination of various trophic factors to produce full neural differentiation of BMSCs was still unclear. In our study, we aimed to investigate the neural differentiation capacity of rat BMSCs induced by growth factors including hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF). MATERIALS AND METHODS:   Cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) assay, BrdU cell proliferation assay and flow cytometry were implemented to evaluate whether GDNF and HGF had positive effects on the proliferation of BMSCs...
November 2016: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906438/cholinesterase-inhibitors-and-non-steroidal-anti-inflammatory-drugs-as-alzheimer-s-disease-therapies-an-updated-umbrella-review-of-systematic-reviews-and-meta-analyses
#3
C-H Wang, L-S Wang, N Zhu
OBJECTIVE: Alzheimer's Disease (AD) is a major neurological disorder marked by an amyloid-beta plaque and neurofibrillary tau-tangle depositions in the brain. Cognitive dysfunction is the key manifestation of AD. In this study, we conducted an umbrella review of meta-analyses on the risk factors and therapeutics targeting cognitive impairment and AD. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We searched PubMed from January 2000-August, 2016, and screened systematic reviews and meta-analyses of studies that examined the effects of cholinesterase inhibitors in AD patients...
November 2016: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906395/regioselective-plasmonic-nano-assemblies-for-bimodal-sub-femtomolar-dopamine-detection
#4
Fengli Gao, Liqiang Liu, Gang Cui, Liguang Xu, Xiaoling Wu, Hua Kuang, Chuanlai Xu
Reliable and ultrasensitive quantification of dopamine (DA) is essential in the precise diagnotherapy of neurological diseases. In this study, dual mode counterpropagating-responsive gold@silver nanoparticle-gold nanorod (Au@AgNP-AuNR) nano-assemblies were fabricated for the precise quantification of DA. The plasmonic Au@AgNP-AuNR assemblies possessed high surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) activity and strong fluorescence quenching, due to the prominent electromagnetic enhancement between the hotspots of the assemblies...
December 1, 2016: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906144/positive-regulation-of-biochemical-parameters-by-tea-polyphenol-encapsulated-solid-lipid-nanoparticles-at-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-conditions
#5
Karikalan Kulandaivelu, Abul Kalam Azad Mandal
Tea polyphenols (TPPs) comprise preventive and therapeutic potentials against cancer, cardiovascular and neurological disorders. Chemical instability of TPP which leads to low bioavailability is the major constrain to its use as therapeutic agent. The authors prepared TPP encapsulated solid lipid nanoparticles (TPP-SLNs) to increase its stability and bioefficacy. Comparison of Fourier transformed infrared spectra of unloaded SLN, free TPP and TPP-SLN indicated encapsulation of TPP. Sustained release of TPP from TP-SLN was observed...
December 2016: IET Nanobiotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906103/progressive-impairment-of-cav1-1-function-in-the-skeletal-muscle-of-mice-expressing-a-mutant-type-1-cu-zn-superoxide-dismutase-g93a-linked-to-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#6
Donald Beqollari, Christin F Romberg, Gabriella Dobrowolny, Martina Martini, Andrew A Voss, Antonio Musarò, Roger A Bannister
BACKGROUND: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is an adult-onset neurodegenerative disorder that is typically fatal within 3-5 years of diagnosis. While motoneuron death is the defining characteristic of ALS, the events that underlie its pathology are not restricted to the nervous system. In this regard, ALS muscle atrophies and weakens significantly before presentation of neurological symptoms. Since the skeletal muscle L-type Ca(2+) channel (CaV1.1) is a key regulator of both mass and force, we investigated whether CaV1...
June 23, 2016: Skeletal Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906083/neonatal-diffusion-tensor-brain-imaging-predicts-later-motor-outcome-in-preterm-neonates-with-white-matter-abnormalities
#7
Do-Yeon Kim, Hyun-Kyung Park, Nam-Su Kim, Se-Jin Hwang, Hyun Ju Lee
BACKGROUND: White matter (WM) abnormalities associated with prematurity are one of the most important causes of neurological disability that involves spastic motor deficits in preterm newborns. This study aimed to evaluate regional microstructural changes in diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) associated with WM abnormalities. METHODS: We prospectively studied extremely low birth weight (ELBW; <1000 g) preterm infants who were admitted to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of Hanyang University Hospital between February 2011 and February 2014...
December 1, 2016: Italian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906038/craniopagus-parasiticus-a-parasitic-head-protruding-from-temporal-area-of-cranium-a-case-report
#8
Wassihun Nega, Meku Damte, Yonas Girma, Getachew Desta, Mengistu Hailemariam
BACKGROUND: Craniopagus parasiticus is rare with an incidence of approximately four to six cases in 10,000,000 births. In our case, the head of the parasitic twin protruded from the temporal area of the normal twin's cranium. The parasitic twin had two deformed lower limbs, of which one was rudimentary, and long bones of the bilateral lower limbs and some pelvic bone. Dissection of the mass of the parasitic twin's body revealed the intestine but no chest organs or abdominal organs. There was a rudimentary labium but no vaginal opening...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906023/surface-area-dependence-of-gas-particle-interactions-influences-pulmonary-and-neuroinflammatory-outcomes
#9
Christina R Tyler, Katherine E Zychowski, Bethany N Sanchez, Valeria Rivero, Selita Lucas, Guy Herbert, June Liu, Hammad Irshad, Jacob D McDonald, Barry E Bleske, Matthew J Campen
BACKGROUND: Deleterious consequences of exposure to traffic emissions may derive from interactions between carbonaceous particulate matter (PM) and gaseous components in a manner that is dependent on the surface area or complexity of the particles. To determine the validity of this hypothesis, we examined pulmonary and neurological inflammatory outcomes in C57BL/6 and apolipoprotein E knockout (ApoE(-/-)) male mice after acute and chronic exposure to vehicle engine-derived particulate matter, generated as ultrafine (UFP) and fine (FP) sizes, with additional exposures using UFP or FP combined with gaseous copollutants derived from fresh gasoline and diesel emissions, labeled as UFP + G and FP + G...
December 1, 2016: Particle and Fibre Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905996/type-2-diabetes-detection-and-management-among-insured-adults
#10
Timothy M Dall, Weyna Yang, Pragna Halder, Jerry Franz, Erin Byrne, April P Semilla, Ritashree Chakrabarti, Bruce Stuart
BACKGROUND: The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimates that 28.9 million adults had diabetes in 2012 in the US, though many patients are undiagnosed or not managing their condition. This study provides US national and state estimates of insured adults with type 2 diabetes who are diagnosed, receiving exams and medication, managing glycemic levels, with diabetes complications, and their health expenditures. Such information can be used for benchmarking and to identify gaps in diabetes detection and management...
November 21, 2016: Population Health Metrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905967/alzheimer-s-and-other-dementias-in-canada-2011-to-2031-a-microsimulation-population-health-modeling-pohem-study-of-projected-prevalence-health-burden-health-services-and-caregiving-use
#11
Douglas G Manuel, Rochelle Garner, Philippe Finès, Christina Bancej, William Flanagan, Karen Tu, Kim Reimer, Larry W Chambers, Julie Bernier
BACKGROUND: Worldwide, there is concern that increases in the prevalence of dementia will result in large demands for caregivers and supportive services that will be challenging to address. Previous dementia projections have either been simple extrapolations of prevalence or macrosimulations based on dementia incidence. METHODS: A population-based microsimulation model of Alzheimer's and related dementias (POHEM:Neurological) was created using Canadian demographic data, estimates of dementia incidence, health status (health-related quality of life and mortality risk), health care costs and informal caregiving use...
November 3, 2016: Population Health Metrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905840/combining-cell-and-gene-therapy-in-an-effort-to-eradicate-hiv
#12
Thor A Wagner
More than 30 million people are infected with HIV, and HIV remains the fifth leading cause of disability-adjusted life years worldwide. Antiretroviral therapy (ART) dramatically decreases mortality rate, but there are side effects, long-term toxicities, expenses, stigmas, and inconveniences associated with chronic treatment, and HIV-infected individuals on ART have an increased risk of malignancies, cardiovascular disease, neurologic disease, and shortened life expectancy. Therefore, a cure for HIV remains an important goal...
December 2016: AIDS Patient Care and STDs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905561/anti-hu-antibodies-activate-enteric-and-sensory-neurons
#13
Qin Li, Klaus Michel, Anita Annahazi, Ihsan E Demir, Güralp O Ceyhan, Florian Zeller, Lars Komorowski, Winfried Stöcker, Michael J Beyak, David Grundy, Gianrico Farrugia, Roberto De Giorgio, Michael Schemann
IgG of type 1 anti-neuronal nuclear antibody (ANNA-1, anti-Hu) specificity is a serological marker of paraneoplastic neurological autoimmunity (including enteric/autonomic) usually related to small-cell lung carcinoma. We show here that IgG isolated from such sera and also affinity-purified anti-HuD label enteric neurons and cause an immediate spike discharge in enteric and visceral sensory neurons. Both labelling and activation of enteric neurons was prevented by preincubation with the HuD antigen. Activation of enteric neurons was inhibited by the nicotinic receptor antagonists hexamethonium and dihydro-β-erythroidine and reduced by the P2X antagonist pyridoxal phosphate-6-azo (benzene-2,4-disulfonic acid (PPADS) but not by the 5-HT3 antagonist tropisetron or the N-type Ca-channel blocker ω-Conotoxin GVIA...
December 1, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905517/g4ipdb-a-database-for-g-quadruplex-structure-forming-nucleic-acid-interacting-proteins
#14
Subodh Kumar Mishra, Arpita Tawani, Amit Mishra, Amit Kumar
Nucleic acid G-quadruplex structure (G4) Interacting Proteins DataBase (G4IPDB) is an important database that contains detailed information about proteins interacting with nucleic acids that forms G-quadruplex structures. G4IPDB is the first database that provides comprehensive information about this interaction at a single platform. This database contains more than 200 entries with details of interaction such as interacting protein name and their synonyms, their UniProt-ID, source organism, target name and its sequences, ∆Tm, binding/dissociation constants, protein gene name, protein FASTA sequence, interacting residue in protein, related PDB entries, interaction ID, graphical view, PMID, author's name and techniques that were used to detect their interactions...
December 1, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905440/organization-and-functions-of-mglu-and-gabab-receptor-complexes
#15
Jean-Philippe Pin, Bernhard Bettler
The neurotransmitters glutamate and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) transmit synaptic signals by activating fast-acting ligand-gated ion channels and more slowly acting G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). The GPCRs for these neurotransmitters, metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) and GABAB receptors, are atypical GPCRs with a large extracellular domain and a mandatory dimeric structure. Recent studies have revealed how these receptors are activated through multiple allosteric interactions between subunit domains. It emerges that the molecular complexity of these receptors is further increased through association with trafficking, effector and regulatory proteins...
December 1, 2016: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905392/-clinical-and-stabilometric-restructuring-of-patients-stability-during-balance-therapy-from-the-first-days-of-ischemic-stroke
#16
E A Plishkina, B N Bein
AIM: To study the process of recovery of postural function during stabilometric training with biofeedback (BFB) in patients with ischemic carotid stroke. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Forty-two patients underwent 10-day stabilometric training from the onset of stroke. Clinical and stabilometric parameters were assessed at 4 points: at baseline, after 5 sessions, after 10 sessions and after 3-4 months in the early recovery stage after discharge from the hospital. RESULTS: There was no correlation between the positive regress of neurologic symptoms and trends of stabilometry indicators...
2016: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905341/heidenhain-variant-of-creutzfeldt-jakob-disease-in-a-patient-who-had-bovine-bioprosthetic-valve-implantation
#17
Jehard Hashoul, Waleed Saliba, Irina Bloch, Haneen Jabaly-Habib
Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) is a rare neurodegenerative disorder characterized by rapidly progressing dementia, general neurologic deterioration, and death. When the leading symptoms are visual disturbances, it is termed as the Heidenhain variant of CJD (HvCJD). CJD was reported following prion-contaminated pericardium transplants but never after bovine bioprosthetic cardiac valve. In this case report, we describe HvCJD in a patient who had a bovine bioprosthetic cardiac valve implant. An 82-year-old-woman was referred to neuro-ophthalmology clinic for unexplained visual loss that started 1 month previously...
October 2016: Indian Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905308/a-case-of-extreme-hypokalaemia
#18
L M Ten Bos, T C Veenstra, B D Westerhof, F H Bosch
Hypokalaemia is a common clinical problem. It can lead to severe disturbances in cardiac, neurological and muscle function. We present the case of a 45-year-old woman who was transported to our hospital with cardiac arrest following ventricular fibrillation. Blood sampling revealed severe acidosis (pH 7.02) and extreme hypokalaemia (0.9 mmol/l). The low serum potassium level was most likely caused by the combination of a very deficient diet and use of a thiazide diuretic. She never reported any symptoms. An acute intracellular shift of potassium due to epinephrine and perhaps also the cathecholamines in Red Bull may have further decreased the serum potassium concentration...
November 2016: Netherlands Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905264/biotin-thiamine-responsive-basal-ganglia-disease-catastrophic-consequences-of-delay-in-diagnosis-and-treatment
#19
Hussein Algahtani, Saeed Ghamdi, Bader Shirah, Bader Alharbi, Raghad Algahtani, Abdulrahman Bazaid
BACKGROUND: Biotin-thiamine-responsive basal ganglia disease (BTBGD) is an autosomal recessive neurometabolic disorder caused by mutations in the SLC19A3 gene. The disease is characterized by subacute encephalopathy with confusion, dysphagia, dysarthria, and seizures. METHODS: We diagnosed a family affected by BTBGD and studied them including prognosis of cases when diagnosed and treated early in the disease process. We also review the literature comprehensively and summarize all published data about this disorder...
December 1, 2016: Neurological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905001/guidelines-for-diagnosis-and-management-of-the-cobalamin-related-remethylation-disorders-cblc-cbld-cble-cblf-cblg-cblj-and-mthfr-deficiency
#20
Martina Huemer, Daria Diodato, Bernd Schwahn, Manuel Schiff, Anabela Bandeira, Jean-Francois Benoist, Alberto Burlina, Roberto Cerone, Maria L Couce, Angeles Garcia-Cazorla, Giancarlo la Marca, Elisabetta Pasquini, Laura Vilarinho, James D Weisfeld-Adams, Viktor Kožich, Henk Blom, Matthias R Baumgartner, Carlo Dionisi-Vici
BACKGROUND: Remethylation defects are rare inherited disorders in which impaired remethylation of homocysteine to methionine leads to accumulation of homocysteine and perturbation of numerous methylation reactions. OBJECTIVE: To summarise clinical and biochemical characteristics of these severe disorders and to provide guidelines on diagnosis and management. DATA SOURCES: Review, evaluation and discussion of the medical literature (Medline, Cochrane databases) by a panel of experts on these rare diseases following the GRADE approach...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease
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