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Fibrinolysis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081351/the-effect-of-methylprednisolone-treatment-on-fibrinolysis-thecoagulation-system-and-blood-loss-in-cardiac-surgery
#1
Leila Ebrahimi, Maryam Kheirandish, Mahnoosh Foroughi
BACKGROUND/AIM: The purpose of this study was to examine steroid pretreatment in order to decrease postoperative coagulopathy disorders and bleeding. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this randomized double-blinded study, the efficacy of low versus high doses of methylprednisolone on the coagulation system and postoperative bleeding was compared in patients who were undergoing cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). The platelet response to agonists, D-dimer concentration, tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1) antigens, and platelet receptors CD42b, CD62P, and CD41a were evaluated...
December 20, 2016: Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069606/proteolytic-properties-of-single-chain-factor-xii-a-mechanism-for-triggering-contact-activation
#2
Ivan Ivanov, Anton Matafonov, Mao-Fu Sun, Qiufang Cheng, S Kent Dickeson, Ingrid M Verhamme, Jonas Emsley, David Gailani
When blood is exposed to variety of artificial surfaces and biologic substances, the plasma proteins factor XII (FXII) and prekallikrein undergo reciprocal proteolytic conversion to the proteases αFXIIa and α-kallikrein by a process called contact activation. These enzymes contribute to host-defense responses including coagulation, inflammation, and fibrinolysis. The initiating event in contact activation is debated. To test the hypothesis that single-chain FXII expresses activity that could initiate contact activation, we prepared human FXII variants lacking the Arg353 cleavage site required for conversion to αFXIIa (FXII-R353A), or lacking the three known cleavage sites at Arg334, Arg343, and Arg353 (FXII-T, for "triple" mutant), and compared their properties to wild type αFXIIa...
January 9, 2017: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062504/prothrombotic-fibrin-clot-phenotype-is-associated-with-recurrent-pulmonary-embolism-after-discontinuation-of-anticoagulant-therapy
#3
Michal Zabczyk, Krzysztof Plens, Wioletta Wojtowicz, Anetta Undas
OBJECTIVE: Pulmonary embolism (PE) is a life-threatening manifestation of venous thromboembolism with a high recurrence rate after anticoagulation cessation. Recently, we have reported that prothrombotic clot phenotype in venous thromboembolism patients is associated with an increased risk of recurrent deep-vein thrombosis. APPROACH AND RESULTS: We tested whether abnormal clot properties are predictive of recurrent PE. We investigated 156 consecutive white patients aged 18 to 65 years after the first-ever provoked or unprovoked PE (n=89), with or without deep-vein thrombosis...
December 29, 2016: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062136/p2y12-receptor-inhibition-with-prasugrel-and-ticagrelor-in-stemi-patients-after-fibrinolytic-therapy-analysis-from-the-sampa-randomized-trial
#4
Leonardo de F C Guimarães, Philippe Généreux, Diego Silveira, Antonio Eduardo Pesaro, Felipe Falcão, Bruno Robalinho C Barbosa, Cristiano Freitas de Souza, Francisco A H Fonseca, Cláudia Maria Rodrigues Alves, Antônio Carlos de Camargo Carvalho, Gregg W Stone, Adriano Caixeta
BACKGROUND: A pharmacodynamic comparison between ticagrelor and prasugrel after fibrinolytic therapy has not yet been performed. METHODS: In the single-center SAMPA trial, 50 consecutive STEMI patients previously treated with clopidogrel and undergoing a pharmacoinvasive strategy were randomized to either a ticagrelor (n=25) 180mg loading dose followed by 90mg bid, or a prasugrel (n=25) 60mg loading dose followed by 10mg/day, initiated after fibrinolytic therapy but before angiography...
December 27, 2016: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057902/are-pulmonary-haemostasis-and-fibrinolysis-out-of-balance-in-equine-chronic-pneumopathies
#5
Ann Kristin Barton, Caroline Wirth, Angelika Bondzio, Ralf Einspanier, Heidrun Gehlen
Results of clinical examination, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) cytology, acute phase proteins and markers of pulmonary haemostasisand fibrinolysis (fibrinogen, serum amyloid A, D-dimers) were compared between controls and horses affected by respiratory disease. Using a clinical scoring system, 58 horses were classified as free of respiratory disease (controls, n=15), recurrent airway obstruction (RAO, n=18), inflammatory airway disease (IAD, n=14) or chronic interstitial pneumopathy (CIP, n=11). No significant differences were found in fibrinogen concentration, but descriptive data analysis showed a trend towards lower values for controls (median 0...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053193/promyelocytic-extracellular-chromatin-exacerbates-coagulation-and-fibrinolysis-in-acute-promyelocytic-leukemia
#6
Muhua Cao, Tao Li, Zhangxiu He, Lixiu Wang, Xiaoyan Yang, Yan Kou, Lili Zou, Xue Dong, Valerie A Novakovic, Yayan Bi, Junjie Kou, Bo Yu, Shaohong Fang, Jinghua Wang, Jin Zhou, Jialan Shi
Despite routine treatment of unselected acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) with all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA), early death due to hemorrhage remains unacceptably common and the mechanism underlying this complication remains elusive. We have recently demonstrated that APL cells undergo a novel cell death program, termed ETosis, which involves release of extracellular chromatin. However, the role of promyelocytic extracellular chromatin in APL-associated coagulation remains unclear. Our objectives were to identify the novel role of ATRA-promoted extracellular chromatin in inducing a hypercoagulable and hyperfibrinolytic state in APL and to evaluate its interaction with fibrin and endothelial cells (ECs)...
January 4, 2017: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052305/plasmin-ogen-at-the-nexus-of-fibrinolysis-inflammation-and-complement
#7
Jonathan H Foley
The diverse mechanisms by which the plasmin(ogen) system is involved in human physiology and pathology are constantly being delineated. For many years, the plasmin(ogen) system was chiefly known as the system responsible for vascular fibrinolysis. Although this is an important function of the plasmin(ogen) system, we now recognize that plasmin(ogen) is critically important as a mediator of inflammation and the innate immune system, which impacts upon a diverse set of mechanisms underlying the pathologies of many diseases...
January 4, 2017: Seminars in Thrombosis and Hemostasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051346/a-conjugate-of-two-tpa-binding-rna-aptamers-efficiently-inhibits-fibrinolysis
#8
Nils Bjerregaard, Daniel M Dupont, Peter A Andreasen
Uncontrolled bleeding is a major cause of mortality. Lysine analogues are routinely used in the management of bleeding, but several studies indicate a risk of serious detrimental effects upon their administration. In this study, we report a bivalent conjugate "3218" of two RNA aptamers selected for binding to the serine protease tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA), the principal initiator of fibrinolysis in mammals. The constituent monomeric aptamers, K32v2 and K18v2, were previously demonstrated to weakly inhibit fibrinolysis...
January 4, 2017: Nucleic Acid Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045672/catheter-directed-fibrinolysis-of-submassive-pulmonary-embolism-after-ivc-filter-migration-to-renal-veins
#9
Kershaw V Patel, Jeffrey A Leef, John E Blair, Atman P Shah, Sandeep Nathan, Jonathan D Paul
A 76-year-old male presented with a submassive pulmonary embolism despite having an inferior vena cava (IVC) filter. Imaging demonstrated pulmonary artery emboli and a deep vein thrombosis in the left common femoral vein. Venography revealed the IVC filter with struts extending into the left and right renal veins. A new IVC filter was deployed below the prior filter. This case demonstrates IVC filter migration complicated by a submassive pulmonary embolism.
January 2017: Journal of Invasive Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040384/circulatory-collapse-right-ventricular-dilatation-and-alveolar-dead-space-a-triad-for-the-rapid-diagnosis-of-massive-pulmonary-embolism
#10
Raúl J Gazmuri, Dimple J Patel, Rom Stevens, Shani Smith
A triad of circulatory collapse, right ventricular dilatation, and large alveolar dead space is proposed for the rapid diagnosis and treatment of massive pulmonary embolism. A 17year-old female on oral contraceptives collapsed at home becoming incoherent with shallow breathing. Paramedics initiated mechanical chest compression and transported the patient to our emergency department, arriving minimally responsive with undetectable blood pressure but having positive corneal reflexes and bradycardia with wide QRS...
December 16, 2016: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28038785/reduced-thrombin-activatable-fibrinolysis-inhibitor-and-enhanced-proinflammatory-cytokines-in-acute-coronary-syndrome
#11
H Pang, C Zhang, F Liu, X Gong, X Jin, C Su
OBJECTIVE: A study was made of the changes in the serum levels of thrombin activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor (TAFI), proinflammatory cytokines and acute phase proteins in the acute stage of acute coronary syndrome (ACS), in order to explore the possibility of using TAFI as a biomarker for ACS risk assessment. METHODS: A total of 211 patients with ACS were enrolled, and healthy subjects were used as controls. Blood samples were taken within 24h after admission. Serum TAFI levels were determined by immunoturbidimetry...
December 27, 2016: Medicina Intensiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28036119/impact-of-physical-activity-on-cardiovascular-status-in-obesity
#12
Lars Lin, Axel C Carlsson, Agneta Siegbahn, Johan Sundström, Johan Ärnlöv
BACKGROUND: We have recently shown that being physically active (PA) counteracts, but not eliminates the increased risk of future cardiovascular disease in over-weight and obese subjects. To investigate this further, we studied the impact of being normal weight, overweight and obese on multiple markers of subclinical cardiovascular disease in relation to physical activity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: At age 70, 1016 subjects were investigated in the Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS) study...
December 30, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034472/hemostatic-disorders-associated-with-hepatobiliary-disease
#13
REVIEW
Cynthia R L Webster
The liver plays a crucial role in all aspects of coagulation because most factors that regulate procoagulation, anticoagulation, and fibrinolysis are produced, cleared, and/or activated in the liver. Establishing the coagulation status of an individual patient with hepatobiliary disease can therefore be challenging. Although, classically, patients with hepatobiliary disease were thought of as potentially hypocoagulable, hypercoagulability also occurs. The article summarizes the breadth of coagulation abnormalities that have been reported in dogs and cats with hepatobiliary disease and provides strategies to respond to bleeding and thrombotic risk...
December 26, 2016: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028005/releasing-the-brakes-on-the-fibrinolytic-system-in-pulmonary-emboli-unique-effects-of-plasminogen-activation-and-%C3%AE-2-antiplasmin-inactivation
#14
Satish Singh, Aiilyan K Houng, Guy L Reed
BACKGROUND: -In patients with hemodynamically significant pulmonary embolism, physiologic fibrinolysis fails to dissolve thrombi acutely and recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (r-tPA) therapy may be required, despite its bleeding risk. To examine potential mechanisms, we analyzed the expression of key fibrinolytic molecules in experimental pulmonary emboli, assessed the contribution of α2-antiplasmin to fibrinolytic failure and compared the effects of plasminogen activation and α2-antiplasmin-inactivation on experimental thrombus dissolution and bleeding...
December 27, 2016: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018998/fibrinolysis-in-patients-with-a-mild-to-moderate-bleeding-tendency-of-unknown-cause
#15
Johanna Gebhart, Sylvia Kepa, Stefanie Hofer, Silvia Koder, Alexandra Kaider, Alisa S Wolberg, Helmuth Haslacher, Peter Quehenberger, Ernst Eigenbauer, Simon Panzer, Christine Mannhalter, Ingrid Pabinger
In more than 50% of patients with a mild-to-moderate bleeding tendency, no underlying cause can be identified (bleeding of unknown cause, BUC). Data on parameters of fibrinolysis in BUC are scarce in the literature and reveal discrepant results. It was the aim of this study to investigate increased fibrinolysis as a possible mechanism of BUC. We included 270 patients (227 females, median age 44 years, 25-75(th) percentile 32-58) with BUC and 98 healthy controls (65 females, median age 47 years, 25-75(th)percentile 39-55)...
December 26, 2016: Annals of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017804/persistent-fibrinolysis-shutdown-associated-with-increased-mortality-in-severely-injured-trauma-patients
#16
Jonathan P Meizoso, Charles A Karcutskie, Juliet J Ray, Nicholas Namias, Carl I Schulman, Kenneth G Proctor
BACKGROUND: Acute fibrinolysis shutdown is associated with early mortality after trauma, however no prior studies have investigated the incidence of persistent fibrinolysis or its association with mortality. We test the hypothesis that persistent fibrinolysis shutdown is associated with mortality in critically ill trauma patients. STUDY DESIGN: Thromboelastography was performed upon ICU admission in 181 adult trauma patients and at 1-week in a subset of 78 patients...
December 22, 2016: Journal of the American College of Surgeons
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007568/hyaluronic-acid-decreases-the-mechanical-stability-but-increases-the-lytic-resistance-of-fibrin-matrices
#17
Erzsébet Komorowicz, Nóra Balázs, Zoltán Varga, László Szabó, Attila Bóta, Krasimir Kolev
Hyaluronic acid (HA) is a large, non-sulfated glucosaminoglycan abundantly present at sites where fibrin is also formed (during wound healing, in arterial restenotic lesions and eroded atherosclerotic plaques). The aim of the present study was to characterize the structure of composite fibrin-HA clots with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), pressure-driven permeation and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and their viscoelastic properties with an oscillation rheometer. In addition the efficiency of fibrinolysis in these clots was investigated by kinetic turbidimetric and chromogenic assays for dissolution of fibrin and plasminogen activation by tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA)...
December 19, 2016: Matrix Biology: Journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004061/the-role-of-micrornas-in-prethrombotic-status-associated-with-coronary-artery-disease
#18
Jie Gao, Xiaojuan Ma, Ying Zhang, Ming Guo, Dazhuo Shi
The acute cardiovascular events following thrombus formation is a primary cause of morbidity and mortality of patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). Numerous studies have shown that a prethrombotic status, which can be defined as an imbalance between the procoagulant and anticoagulant conditions, would exist for a period of time before thrombogenesis. Therefore, early diagnosis and intervention of prethrombotic status are important for reducing acute cardiovascular events. However, none of prethrombotic indicators have been identified as golden standard for diagnosis of prethrombotic status to date...
December 22, 2016: Thrombosis and Haemostasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999402/a-review-of-the-botany-phytochemistry-pharmacology-and-toxicology-of-rubiae-radix-et-rhizoma
#19
REVIEW
Mingqiu Shan, Sheng Yu, Hui Yan, Peidong Chen, Li Zhang, Anwei Ding
Rubia cordifolia Linn (Rubiaceae) is a climbing perennial herbal plant, which is widely distributed in China and India. Its root and rhizome, Rubiae Radix et Rhizoma (called Qiancao in China and Indian madder in India), is a well known phytomedicine used for hematemesis, epistaxis, flooding, spotting, traumatic bleeding, amenorrhea caused by obstruction, joint impediment pain, swelling and pain caused by injuries from falls. In addition, it is a kind of pigment utilized as a food additive and a dye for wool or fiber...
December 20, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993197/tranexamic-acid-prolongs-survival-after-controlled-hemorrhage-in-rats
#20
Max Roy, Manuel Burggraf, Sven Lendemans, Herbert de Groot, Ricarda Rohrig
BACKGROUND: The plasmin/plasminogen inhibitor tranexamic acid (TXA) is mainly used in elective surgeries with a higher blood loss to avoid uncontrolled bleeding. Recently, TXA has also been shown to reduce mortality in trauma patients. It is assumed that its beneficial effects are principally caused by its antifibrinolytic properties. We hypothesize that TXA also improves survival in a modified Wigger's model of hemorrhagic shock by a mechanism other than antifibrinolysis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Male Wistar rats were intermittently bled until the mean arterial blood pressure was dropped to 25-30 mm Hg (severe shock)...
February 2017: Journal of Surgical Research
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