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Gastrin AND Gastric acid

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115998/effect-of-gastric-acid-suppressive-therapy-and-biological-variation-of-serum-gastrin-concentrations-in-dogs-with-chronic-enteropathies
#1
Romy M Heilmann, Nora Berghoff, Niels Grützner, Nolie K Parnell, Jan S Suchodolski, Jörg M Steiner
BACKGROUND: Serum gastrin concentration can help diagnose gastrinomas in dogs if >3-10× the upper reference limit (URL), but antisecretory therapy and other conditions can also cause hypergastrinemia. Effects of antisecretory therapy (famotidine or ranitidine, omeprazole) on serum gastrin concentration in dogs with chronic enteropathy (CE) and its biological variation (BV) are unknown. Aim of the study was to evaluate serum gastrin in acid-suppressant-treated or -naïve CE dogs; test the association between serum gastrin and histopathologic findings in acid-suppressant-naïve CE dogs; and evaluate the BV of serum gastrin in dogs not receiving any gastric acid suppressive therapy...
November 7, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29073245/abomasal-dysfunction-and-cellular-and-mucin-changes-during-infection-of-sheep-with-larval-or-adult-teladorsagia-circumcincta
#2
Ian Scott, Saleh Umair, Matthew S Savoian, Heather V Simpson
This is the first integrated study of the effects on gastric secretion, inflammation and fundic mucins after infection with L3 T. circumcincta and in the very early period following transplantation of adult worms. At 3 months-of-age, 20 Coopworth lambs were infected intraruminally with 35,000 L3; infected animals were killed on Days 5, 10, 15, 20 and 30 post-infection and 6 controls on either Day 0 or 30 post-infection. Another 15 Romney cross lambs received 10,000 adult worms at 4-5 months-of-age though surgically-implanted abomasal cannulae and were killed after 6, 12, 24 and 72 hours; uninfected controls were also killed at 72 hours...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038353/cell-cycle-dependent-expression-of-the-cck2-receptor-by-gastrointestinal-myofibroblasts-putative-role-in-determining-cell-migration
#3
Akos Varga, Jothi Dinesh Kumar, Alec W M Simpson, Steven Dodd, Peter Hegyi, Graham J Dockray, Andrea Varro
The well-known action of the gastric hormone gastrin in stimulating gastric acid secretion is mediated by activation of cholecystokinin-2 receptors (CCK2R). The latter are expressed by a variety of cell types suggesting that gastrin is implicated in multiple functions. During wound healing in the stomach CCK2R may be expressed by myofibroblasts. We have now characterized CCK2R expression in cultured myofibroblasts. Immunocytochemistry showed that a relatively small proportion (1-6%) of myofibroblasts expressed the receptor regardless of the region of the gut from which they were derived, or whether from cancer or control tissue...
October 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986609/comparison-of-effect-of-an-increased-dosage-of-vonoprazan-versus-vonoprazan-plus-lafutidine-on-gastric-acid-inhibition-and-serum-gastrin
#4
Takahiro Suzuki, Takuma Kagami, Takahiro Uotani, Mihoko Yamade, Yasushi Hamaya, Moriya Iwaizumi, Satoshi Osawa, Ken Sugimoto, Hiroaki Miyajima, Takahisa Furuta
BACKGROUND: Vonoprazan, a novel potassium-competitive acid blocker, elicits potent acid inhibition and hypergastrinemia at a dose of 20 mg. Its recommended maintenance dose for gastro-esophageal reflux disease is 10 mg, which is sometimes insufficient for preventing nocturnal acid breakthrough (NAB). Concomitant use of a histamine 2 receptor antagonist (H2RA) is effective for NAB. However, further acid inhibition by addition of H2RA has concern of hypergastrinemia again. Lafutidine (H2RA) is known to stimulate somatostatin release...
October 6, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982106/pepsin-and-its-importance-for-functional-dyspepsia-relic-regulator-or-remedy
#5
Karl-Uwe Petersen
BACKGROUND: Functional dyspepsia is a heterogeneous disorder lacking an established therapeutic strategy. Historical treatment attempts with pepsin products were shrugged off, as a simple calculation shows that quantitative substitution is pointless. However, such attempts might have been right for the wrong reason. SUMMARY: Today, the role of pepsins is primarily seen in the provision of signalling amino acids (especially phenylalanine and tryptophan) and peptides, which initiate processes promoting digestion...
October 5, 2017: Digestive Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28949124/diagnosis-and-management-of-zollinger-ellison-syndrome-in-2017
#6
Claudio DE Angelis, Pablo Cortegoso Valdivia, Ludovica Venezia, Mauro Bruno, Rinaldo Pellicano
Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome (ZES) is a clinical syndrome characterized by gastric acid hypersecretion due to the ectopic secretion of gastrin by a gastrinoma, a neuroendocrine tumor (NET) which mostly develops in the duodenum and in the pancreas. This syndrome was first described by Zollinger and Ellison in 1964; if left untreated, ZES can lead to multiple complications mainly due to gastric hypersecretion and some patients can suffer from the complications of an advanced metastatic disease. Although its clinical features are considered typical, the diagnosis of ZES is often challenging for the clinician...
September 25, 2017: Minerva Endocrinologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924374/no-association-of-proton-pump-inhibitor-use-with-fasting-or-postload-glycaemia-in-patients-with-cardiovascular-disease-a-cross-sectional-retrospective-study
#7
Olga Kruszelnicka, Marcin Kuźma, Iwona Z Pena, Ian B Perera, Bernadeta Chyrchel, Ewa Wieczorek-Surdacka, Andrzej Surdacki
Background: Proton pump inhibitor (PPI) use was reportedly associated with an excess of adverse cardiovascular (CV) events, thus making their systemic effects relevant to public health. PPIs reduce gastric acid secretion, causing increased gastrin release. Gastrin stimulates β-cell neogenesis and enhances insulin release, exerting an incretin-like effect. Our aim was to assess, if PPI usage is associated with altered glycaemia in patients with CV disease. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed medical records of 102 subjects (80 with ischemic heart disease) who underwent a routine oral glucose tolerance test while hospitalized in a cardiology department...
2017: International Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902909/the-cytoprotective-protein-clusterin-is-overexpressed-in-hypergastrinemic-rodent-models-of-oxyntic-preneoplasia-and-promotes-gastric-cancer-cell-survival
#8
Pål Vange, Torunn Bruland, Berit Doseth, Reidar Fossmark, Mirta M L Sousa, Vidar Beisvag, Øystein Sørdal, Gunnar Qvigstad, Helge L Waldum, Arne K Sandvik, Ingunn Bakke
The cytoprotective protein clusterin is often dysregulated during tumorigenesis, and in the stomach, upregulation of clusterin marks emergence of the oxyntic atrophy (loss of acid-producing parietal cells)-associated spasmolytic polypeptide-expressing metaplasia (SPEM). The hormone gastrin is important for normal function and maturation of the gastric oxyntic mucosa and hypergastrinemia might be involved in gastric carcinogenesis. Gastrin induces expression of clusterin in adenocarcinoma cells. In the present study, we examined the expression patterns and gastrin-mediated regulation of clusterin in gastric tissue from: humans; rats treated with proton pump (H+/K+-ATPase) inhibitors and/or a gastrin receptor (CCK2R) antagonist; H+/K+-ATPase β-subunit knockout (H/K-β KO) mice; and Mongolian gerbils infected with Helicobacter pylori and given a CCK2R antagonist...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859856/gastrin-induces-nuclear-export-and-proteasome-degradation-of-menin-in-enteric-glial-cells
#9
Sinju Sundaresan, Cameron A Meininger, Anthony J Kang, Amanda L Photenhauer, Michael M Hayes, Nirakar Sahoo, Jolanta Grembecka, Tomasz Cierpicki, Lin Ding, Thomas J Giordano, Tobias Else, David J Madrigal, Malcolm J Low, Fiona Campbell, Ann-Marie Baker, Haoxing Xu, Nicholas A Wright, Juanita L Merchant
BACKGROUND & AIMS: The multiple endocrine neoplasia, type 1 (MEN1) locus encodes the nuclear protein and tumor suppressor menin. MEN1 mutations frequently cause neuroendocrine tumors such as gastrinomas, characterized by their predominant duodenal location and local metastasis at time of diagnosis. Diffuse gastrin cell hyperplasia precedes the appearance of MEN1 gastrinomas, which develop within submucosal Brunner's glands. We investigated how menin regulates expression of the gastrin gene and induces generation of submucosal gastrin-expressing cell hyperplasia...
August 30, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833548/evaluation-of-gastric-ph-and-serum-gastrin-concentrations-in-cats-with-chronic-kidney-disease
#10
M K Tolbert, S Olin, S MacLane, E Gould, J M Steiner, S Vaden, J Price
BACKGROUND: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a highly prevalent condition in cats. Advanced CKD is associated with hyporexia and vomiting, which typically are attributed to uremic toxins and gastric hyperacidity. However, gastric pH studies have not been performed in cats with CKD. HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVES: To determine if cats with CKD have decreased gastric pH compared to age-matched, healthy cats. Based on previous work demonstrating an association of hypergastrinemia and CKD, we hypothesized that cats with CKD would have decreased gastric pH compared to healthy, age-matched control cats...
September 2017: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781948/curcumin-suppresses-gastric-cancer-by-inhibiting-gastrin-mediated-acid-secretion
#11
Shufen Zhou, Dongjie Yao, Ling Guo, Ling Teng
Hyperacidity in the stomach is known to promote the progression of gastric cancer. The plant-derived chemotherapeutic curcumin is used to treat gastric cancer. The objective of this study was to investigate whether curcumin regulates gastrin-mediated acid secretion in suppressing gastric cancer. Gastric cancer cells were treated with 25 μm curcumin, followed by Annexin V/propidium iodide double-staining assay to evaluate cell apoptosis. Western blot analysis was used to analyze caspase-3 expression in response to curcumin treatment...
August 2017: FEBS Open Bio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748627/genetic-ablation-of-carbonic-anhydrase-ix-disrupts-gastric-barrier-function-via-claudin-18-downregulation-and-acid-backflux
#12
T Li, X Liu, B Riederer, K Nikolovska, A K Singh, K A Mäkelä, A Seidler, Y Liu, G Gros, H Bartels, K H Herzig, U Seidler
AIM: This study aimed to explore the molecular mechanisms for the parietal cell loss and fundic hyperplasia observed in gastric mucosa of mice lacking the carbonic anhydrase 9 (CAIX). METHODS: We assessed the ability of CAIX-knockout and WT gastric surface epithelial cells to withstand a luminal acid load by measuring the pHi of exteriorized gastric mucosa in vivo using two-photon confocal laser scanning microscopy. Cytokines and claudin-18A2 expression was analysed by RT-PCR...
July 27, 2017: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702751/complexes-of-gastrin-with-in-3-ru-3-or-ga-3-ions-are-not-recognised-by-the-cholecystokinin-2-receptor
#13
Marie Laval, Kathryn M Marshall, John Sachinidis, Andrew Scott, Mal Eutick, Graham S Baldwin
The peptide hormone gastrin (Gamide) binds trivalent metal ions, including indium (In), ruthenium (Ru) and gallium (Ga), with high affinity. Complexes of gastrin with chelated isotopes of In and Ga have previously been used for the location of tumours expressing the cholecystokinin 2 receptor (CCK2R). The aim of the present study was to purify the complexes of Gamide with radioactive isotopes of In, Ru or Ga and to investigate their ability to bind to the CCK2R. The radioactive Gamide complexes were purified on Sep-Pak C18 cartridges or by anion exchange HPLC...
October 2017: Journal of Biological Inorganic Chemistry: JBIC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673591/male-predominance-in-meckel-s-diverticulum-a-hyperacidity-hypotheses
#14
Süleyman Çelebi
The symptomatic presentation of Meckel's diverticulum (MD) depends on a person's age, sex, and presence or absence of ectopic gastric tissue. There are no differences in the prevalence of asymptomatic MD between males and females; however, symptomatic MD has a distinct male predominance with a male-to-female ratio ranging from 2:1 to 5:1 in children. Furthermore, if the ectopic tissue contains gastric mucosa, MD has a greater chance of becoming symptomatic. Studies have shown that acid secretion is more likely to occur in male infants compared to female infants...
July 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595197/high-serum-pepsinogen-i-and-beta-helicobacter-pylori-infection-are-risk-factors-for-aspirin-induced-gastroduodenal-injury
#15
Jing Shan, Hongjun Lei, Wei Shi, Xiaobin Sun, Yu Tang, Chunrong Ren
BACKGROUND: Whether gastric hyperchlorhydria and Helicobacter pylori infection contribute to aspirin-induced gastroduodenal injury still lacks evidence. Because serum pepsinogens (PGs) and gastrin-17 (G17) can reflect gastric acid secretion, this study intended to elucidate whether serum PGs, serum G17, and H. pylori infection are associated with aspirin-induced gastrointestinal injury. SUMMARY: A total of 60 patients taking low-dose aspirin for more than 1 month were enrolled in this study...
2018: Digestive Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28560291/gastrin-and-gastric-cancer
#16
REVIEW
Jill P Smith, Sandeep Nadella, Nick Osborne
Gastric cancer is the third leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Despite progress in understanding its development, challenges with treatment remain. Gastrin, a peptide hormone, is trophic for normal gastrointestinal epithelium. Gastrin also has been shown to play an important role in the stimulation of growth of several gastrointestinal cancers including gastric cancer. We sought to review the role of gastrin and its pathway in gastric cancer and its potential as a therapeutic target in the management of gastric cancer...
July 2017: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474257/a-cumulative-effect-involving-malfunction-of-the-pth1r-and-atp4a-genes-explains-a-familial-gastric-neuroendocrine-tumor-with-hypothyroidism-and-arthritis
#17
Oriol Calvete, Maite Herraiz, Jose Reyes, Ana Patiño, Javier Benitez
BACKGROUND: Type I gastric neuroendocrine tumors (gNETs) classically arise because of hypergastrinemia and involve destruction of parietal cells, which are responsible for gastric acid secretion through the ATP4A proton pump and for intrinsic factor production. METHODS: By whole exome sequencing, we studied a family with three members with gNETs plus hypothyroidism and rheumatoid arthritis to uncover their genetic origin. RESULTS: A heterozygous missense mutation in the ATP4A gene was identified...
November 2017: Gastric Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430608/adrenalectomy-abolishes-hypergravity-induced-gastric-acid-hyposecretion
#18
Kiyong Na, Hyun-Soo Kim
Jet fighter pilots experience high gravitational acceleration forces in the cephalocaudal direction (+Gz), causing severe stress. Stress affects different physiological functions of the gastrointestinal tract. Although the effects of exposure to hypergravity on cardiovascular and cerebral functions have been the subject of numerous studies, crucial information regarding potential pathophysiological alterations following hypergravity exposure in the gastrointestinal tract is lacking. We recently documented a significant decrease in gastric secretory activity in rats after acute exposure to hypergravity...
May 9, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408643/gastrin-induces-parathyroid-hormone-like-hormone-expression-in-gastric-parietal-cells
#19
Asma Al Menhali, Theresa M Keeley, Elise S Demitrack, Linda C Samuelson
Parietal cells play a fundamental role in stomach maintenance, not only by creating a pathogen-free environment through the production of gastric acid, but also by secreting growth factors important for homeostasis of the gastric epithelium. The gastrointestinal hormone gastrin is known to be a central regulator of both parietal cell function and gastric epithelial cell proliferation and differentiation. Our previous gene expression profiling studies of mouse stomach identified parathyroid hormone-like hormone (PTHLH) as a potential gastrin-regulated gastric growth factor...
June 1, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397104/omeprazole-absorption-and-fasting-gastrinemia-after-roux-en-y-gastric-bypass
#20
Renata V A Collares-Pelizaro, José S Santos, Carla B Nonino, Cristiane M Gaitani, Wilson Salgado
PURPOSE: Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) is one of the bariatric surgeries most frequently performed worldwide. Since this operation may predispose to the formation of peptic ulcer of the gastrojejunal anastomosis, the use of proton pump inhibitors (PPI) is recommended during the first postoperative year. However, so far, there is no detailed knowledge about the absorption of this medication during the immediate postoperative period and consequently about its effectiveness in blocking acid secretion...
September 2017: Obesity Surgery
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