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Gastrin AND Gastric acid

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891632/randomised-clinical-trial-efficacy-and-safety-of-vonoprazan-vs-lansoprazole-in-patients-with-gastric-or-duodenal-ulcers-results-from-two-phase-3-non-inferiority-randomised-controlled-trials
#1
H Miwa, N Uedo, J Watari, Y Mori, Y Sakurai, Y Takanami, A Nishimura, T Tatsumi, N Sakaki
BACKGROUND: Vonoprazan is a new potassium-competitive acid blocker for treatment of acid-related diseases. AIM: To conduct two randomised-controlled trials, to evaluate the non-inferiority of vonoprazan vs. lansoprazole, a proton pump inhibitor, for treatment of gastric ulcer (GU) or duodenal ulcer (DU). METHODS: Patients aged ≥20 years with ≥1 endoscopically-confirmed GU or DU (≥5 mm white coating) were randomised 1:1 using double-dummy blinding to receive lansoprazole (30 mg) or vonoprazan (20 mg) for 8 (GU study) or 6 (DU study) weeks...
November 27, 2016: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872404/unique-cellular-lineage-composition-of-the-first-gland-of-the-mouse-gastric-corpus
#2
Andrew O'Neil, Christine P Petersen, Eunyoung Choi, Amy C Engevik, James R Goldenring
The glandular stomach has two major zones: the acid secreting corpus and the gastrin cell-containing antrum. Nevertheless, a single gland lies at the transition between the forestomach and corpus in the mouse stomach. We have sought to define the lineages that make up this gland unit at the squamocolumnar junction. The first gland in mice showed a notable absence of characteristic corpus lineages, including parietal cells and chief cells. In contrast, the gland showed strong staining of Griffonia simplicifolia-II (GSII)-lectin-positive mucous cells at the bases of glands, which were also positive for CD44 variant 9 and Clusterin...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry: Official Journal of the Histochemistry Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825384/inhibiting-the-proton-pump-mechanisms-benefits-harms-and-questions
#3
Jeffrey K Aronson
Inhibition of the H(+)/K(+)-adenosine triphosphatase (the proton pump) is the final common mechanistic pathway in reducing gastric acid secretion pharmacologically. Proton pump inhibitors are widely used in upper gastrointestinal diseases, including gastric and duodenal ulcers, eradication of Helicobacter pylori in combination with antibiotics, gastroesophageal reflux disease, Zollinger-Ellison syndrome, eosinophilic esophagitis, and prevention of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug-induced peptic ulceration...
November 9, 2016: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27808040/endobarrier-gastrointestinal-liner-delineation-of-underlying-mechanisms-and-clinical-effects
#4
Ulrich Rohde
Bariatric surgery (e.g. Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB)) has proven the most effective way of achieving sustainable weight losses and remission of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Studies indicate that the effectiveness of RYGB is mediated by an altered gastrointestinal tract anatomy, which in particular favours release of the gut incretin hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). The EndoBarrier gastrointestinal liner or duodenal-jejunal bypass sleeve (DJBS) is an endoscopic deployable minimally invasive and fully reversible technique designed to mimic the bypass component of the RYGB...
November 2016: Danish Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806647/slow-release-l-cysteine-capsule-prevents-gastric-mucosa-exposure-to-carcinogenic-acetaldehyde-results-of-a-randomised-single-blinded-cross-over-study-of-helicobacter-associated-atrophic-gastritis
#5
Per M Hellström, Panu Hendolin, Pertti Kaihovaara, Leif Kronberg, Axel Meierjohann, Anders Millerhovf, Lea Paloheimo, Heidi Sundelin, Kari Syrjänen, Dominic-Luc Webb, Mikko Salaspuro
INTRODUCTION: Helicobacter-induced atrophic gastritis with a hypochlorhydric milieu is a risk factor for gastric cancer. Microbes colonising acid-free stomach oxidise ethanol to acetaldehyde, a recognised group 1 carcinogen. OBJECTIVE: To assess gastric production of acetaldehyde and its inert condensation product, non-toxic 2-methyl-1,3-thiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid (MTCA), after alcohol intake under treatment with slow-release L-cysteine or placebo. METHODS: Seven patients with biopsy-confirmed atrophic gastritis, low serum pepsinogen and high gastrin-17 were studied in a cross-over single-blinded design...
November 3, 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803738/helicobacter-pylori-and-gastric-acid-an-intimate-and-reciprocal-relationship
#6
REVIEW
Helge L Waldum, Per M Kleveland, Øystein F Sørdal
Helicobacter pylori (Hp) is the main cause of gastritis, peptic ulcer disease and gastric cancer. There are still unanswered questions related to the interaction between Hp and man, like what determines the susceptibility for the initial infection and the mechanisms for the carcinogenic effect. The initial infection seems to require a temporal gastric hypoacidity. For Hp to survive in the gastric mucous layer, some acidity is necessary. Hp itself is probably not directly carcinogenic. Only when inducing oxyntic mucosal inflammation and atrophy with hypoacidity, Hp predisposes for gastric cancer...
November 2016: Therapeutic Advances in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797597/zinc-ions-mediate-gastrin-expression-proliferation-and-migration-downstream-of-the-cholecystokinin-2-receptor
#7
Mike Chang, Lin Xiao, Arthur Shulkes, Graham S Baldwin, Oneel Patel
Gastrin, acting via the cholecystokinin-2 receptor (CCK2R), activates its own promoter in a positive-feed-forward loop that may result in hypergastrinemia. Activity of the gastrin promoter is also stimulated by exogenous Zn(2+) ions. Here, the role of intracellular zinc and calcium signaling in the gastrin positive-feed-forward loop was investigated. Gastrin promoter activity was measured in the human gastric carcinoma cell line AGS-CCK2R and in Jurkat cells transfected with various gastrin promoter-luciferase constructs after treatment with gastrin in the presence and absence of zinc- and calcium-chelating agents...
December 2016: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796466/randomised-trial-of-the-effect-of-a-gastrin-cck2-receptor-antagonist-on-esomeprazole-induced-hypergastrinaemia-evidence-against-rebound-hyperacidity
#8
Malcolm Boyce, Frans van den Berg, Toni Mitchell, Kate Darwin, Steve Warrington
PURPOSE: Hypergastrinaemia induced by proton pump inhibitor (PPI) therapy may cause ECL-cell and parietal-cell hyperplasia and rebound hyperacidity and dyspepsia after PPI withdrawal. The aim of the study was to assess the effect of different dosage-regimens of netazepide, a gastrin/CCK2 receptor antagonist, on PPI-induced hypergastrinaemia and elevated chromogranin A (CgA). METHODS: Six groups of eight healthy subjects participated in a randomised, double-blind study of esomeprazole 40 mg daily for 28 days, in combination with netazepide 1, 5 or 25 mg or placebo, daily, during the last 14 days of esomeprazole or during 14 days after treatment withdrawal...
October 29, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27779491/the-effect-of-omeprazole-usage-on-the-viability-of-random-pattern-skin-flaps-in-rats
#9
Hilmi Şen, Melike Oruç, Veysel Murat Işik, Murat Sadiç, Hamide Sayar, Rana Çitil, Meliha Korkmaz, Uğur Koçer
BACKGROUND: Necrosis of random pattern flaps caused by inadequate blood flow, especially in the distal part of the flap is one of the biggest challenges in reconstructive surgery. Various agents have been used to prevent flap ischemia. In this study, we used omeprazole, which is a potent inhibitor of gastric acidity to increase flap viability. METHODS: In this study, 35 Wistar-Albino type rats which were divided into 5 equal groups were used. Random-pattern dorsal skin flaps were raised in all groups at seventh day of the study...
October 24, 2016: Annals of Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27710813/potential-clinical-indications-for-a-cck2-receptor-antagonist
#10
Malcolm Boyce, Katie A Lloyd, D Mark Pritchard
Gastrin controls gastric acid secretion and mucosal cell growth, especially of enterochromaffin-like cells, via gastrin/cholecystokinin-2 receptor (CCK2R) binding and downstream signalling. Studies in animal models, healthy subjects and patients with gastric neuroendocrine tumours provide compelling evidence to justify developing a CCK2R antagonist (CCK2RA) for preventing or treating the trophic effects of hypergastrinaemia or conditions expressing CCK2R, and with or without a proton pump inhibitor, for treating gastric acid-related conditions...
October 3, 2016: Current Opinion in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27607343/gastric-acid-secretion
#11
Mitchell L Schubert
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The present review summarizes the past year's literature, both clinical and basic science, regarding neuroendocrine and intracellular regulation of gastric acid secretion and proper use of antisecretory medications. RECENT FINDINGS: Gastric acid kills microorganisms, modulates the gut microbiome, assists in digestion of protein, and facilitates absorption of iron, calcium, and vitamin B12. The main stimulants of acid secretion are gastrin, released from antral G cells; histamine, released from oxyntic enterochromaffin-like cells; and acetylcholine, released from antral and oxyntic intramural neurons...
November 2016: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27591354/gastrin-and-upper-gi-cancers
#12
Yoku Hayakawa, Wenju Chang, Guangchun Jin, Timothy C Wang
Gastrin was initially identified as the hormone primarily responsible for gastric acid secretion, but was subsequently shown to be a growth factor for the proximal stomach, acting through the gastrin receptor CCK2R. Studies in the past several decades have explored the role of gastrin, along with its incompletely processed precursors, in cancer development. The growth in long-term PPI use has frequently led to elevations in serum gastrin levels in patients with upper GI disease, including GERD, peptic ulcers, and chronic gastritis...
August 31, 2016: Current Opinion in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27576578/vagal-blocking-for-obesity-control-a-possible-mechanism-of-action
#13
Helene Johannessen, David Revesz, Yosuke Kodama, Nikki Cassie, Karolina Skibicka, Perry Barrett, Suzanne Dickson, Jens Holst, Jens Rehfeld, Geoffrey van der Plasse, Roger Adan, Bård Kulseng, Elinor Ben-Menachem, Chun-Mei Zhao, Duan Chen
BACKGROUND: Recently, the US FDA has approved "vagal blocking therapy or vBLoc® therapy" as a new treatment for obesity. The aim of the present study was to study the mechanism-of-action of "VBLOC" in rat models. METHODS: Rats were implanted with VBLOC, an intra-abdominal electrical device with leads placed around gastric vagal trunks through an abdominal incision and controlled by wireless device. Body weight, food intake, hunger/satiety, and metabolic parameters were monitored by a comprehensive laboratory animal monitoring system...
August 30, 2016: Obesity Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27538411/pathophysiology-and-laboratory-diagnosis-of-pernicious-anemia
#14
Ban-Hock Toh
Pernicious anemia is the hematologic manifestation of chronic atrophic gastritis affecting the corpus of the stomach that denudes the gastric mucosa of gastric parietal cells. Asymptomatic autoimmune gastritis, a chronic inflammatory disease of the gastric mucosa, precedes the onset of corpus atrophy by 10-20 years. The gastritis arises from activation of pathologic Th1 CD4 T cells to gastric H/K ATPase that is normally resident on gastric mucosal secretory membranes. The onset of autoimmune gastritis is marked by circulating parietal cell antibody to gastric H/K ATPase...
August 18, 2016: Immunologic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27440759/a-chronological-increase-in-gastric-acid-secretion-from-1995-to-2014-in-young-japanese-healthy-volunteers-under-the-age-of-40-years-old
#15
Katsunori Iijima, Tomoyuki Koike, Yasuhiko Abe, Shuichi Ohara, Tooru Shimosegawa
Gastric acid secretion levels are an important determinant of the manifestation of acid-related upper GI diseases such as gastroesophageal reflux disease. We recently reported that gastric acid secretion levels did not change from the 1990s to 2010s in H. pylori-negative asymptomatic Japanese outpatients with a mean age of 63 years old. However, because young people have a quite different lifestyle, including dietary pattern, from elderly people in Japan, it is worth investigating any chronologic changes in gastric acid secretion in younger generations...
2016: Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27325243/skeletal-effects-of-a-gastrin-receptor-antagonist-in-h-k-atpase-beta-subunit-ko-mice
#16
Kristin M Aasarød, Masoud Ramezanzadehkoldeh, Maziar Shabestari, Mats P Mosti, Astrid K Stunes, Janne E Reseland, Vidar Beisvag, Erik Fink Eriksen, Arne K Sandvik, Reinhold G Erben, Christiane Schüler, Malcolm Boyce, Bjørn H Skallerud, Unni Syversen, Reidar Fossmark
Epidemiological studies suggest an increased fracture risk in patients taking proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) for long term. The underlying mechanism, however, has been disputed. By binding to the gastric proton pump, PPIs inhibit gastric acid secretion. We have previously shown that proton pump (H(+)/K(+)ATPase beta subunit) KO mice exhibit reduced bone mineral density (BMD) and inferior bone strength compared with WT mice. Patients using PPIs as well as these KO mice exhibit gastric hypoacidity, and subsequently increased serum concentrations of the hormone gastrin...
August 2016: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27226186/role-of-curcumin-in-protection-of-gastric-mucosa-against-stress-induced-gastric-mucosal-damage-involvement-of-hypoacidity-vasoactive-mediators-and-sensory-neuropeptides
#17
R Czekaj, J Majka, A Ptak-Belowska, A Szlachcic, A Targosz, K Magierowska, M Strzalka, M Magierowski, T Brzozowski
The antioxidizing properties of curcumin, a highly pleiotropic substance used for centuries in traditional medicine has been confirmed by numerous experimental and clinical studies. Curcumin exhibits anti-inflammatory, antiproliferative and anti-angiogenic actions inhibiting the development and progression of tumors but the efficacy of this compound to influence gastric acid secretion n in the stomach and to affect the gastric mucosal damage induced by non-topical ulcerogenes such as stress has been little studied...
April 2016: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27207783/significant-obesity-associated-gene-expression-changes-occur-in-the-stomach-but-not-intestines-in-obese-mice
#18
Jing Chen, Lihong Chen, Philippe Sanseau, Johannes M Freudenberg, Deepak K Rajpal
The gastrointestinal (GI) tract can have significant impact on the regulation of the whole-body metabolism and may contribute to the development of obesity and diabetes. To systemically elucidate the role of the GI tract in obesity, we performed a transcriptomic analysis in different parts of the GI tract of two obese mouse models: ob/ob and high-fat diet (HFD) fed mice. Compared to their lean controls, significant changes in the gene expression were observed in both obese mouse groups in the stomach (ob/ob: 959; HFD: 542)...
May 2016: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27159420/study-of-gender-differences-in-proton-pump-inhibitor-dose-requirements-for-gerd-a-double-blind-randomized-trial
#19
Hólmfridur Helgadóttir, David C Metz, Sigrún H Lund, Sveinbjorn Gizurarson, Elin I Jacobsen, Gudrún A Asgeirsdóttir, Yrsa Yngadóttir, Einar S Björnsson
GOALS: To determine the proportion of patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease who are on proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) who could reduce their prior dosage by half, and identify predictors of successful step-down. BACKGROUND: Appropriate hypergastrinemia results from gastric acid inhibition. A gender difference in fasting gastrin with higher levels among women than among men on long-term PPI therapy has been demonstrated. STUDY: Patients with endoscopically verified erosive esophagitis on long-term PPI therapy were randomized double blindly to step down their dose by half or continue with the same dose for 8 weeks...
May 6, 2016: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27062346/a-prospective-placebo-controlled-pilot-evaluation-of-the-effect-of-omeprazole-on-serum-calcium-magnesium-cobalamin-gastrin-concentrations-and-bone-in-cats
#20
E Gould, C Clements, A Reed, L Giori, J M Steiner, J A Lidbury, J S Suchodolski, M Brand, T Moyers, L Emery, M K Tolbert
BACKGROUND: Chronic proton pump inhibitor administration has been associated with electrolyte and cobalamin deficiency, disrupted bone homeostasis, hypergastrinemia, and rebound acid hypersecretion in humans. It is unknown if this occurs in cats. OBJECTIVES: Prolonged oral omeprazole results in altered bone mineral density or content, serum calcium, magnesium, cobalamin, and gastrin concentrations in healthy cats. ANIMALS: Six healthy adult DSH cats...
May 2016: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
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