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Gastrin AND Gastric acid

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474257/a-cumulative-effect-involving-malfunction-of-the-pth1r-and-atp4a-genes-explains-a-familial-gastric-neuroendocrine-tumor-with-hypothyroidism-and-arthritis
#1
Oriol Calvete, Maite Herraiz, Jose Reyes, Ana Patiño, Javier Benitez
BACKGROUND: Type I gastric neuroendocrine tumors (gNETs) classically arise because of hypergastrinemia and involve destruction of parietal cells, which are responsible for gastric acid secretion through the ATP4A proton pump and for intrinsic factor production. METHODS: By whole exome sequencing, we studied a family with three members with gNETs plus hypothyroidism and rheumatoid arthritis to uncover their genetic origin. RESULTS: A heterozygous missense mutation in the ATP4A gene was identified...
May 4, 2017: Gastric Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430608/adrenalectomy-abolishes-hypergravity-induced-gastric-acid-hyposecretion
#2
Kiyong Na, Hyun-Soo Kim
Jet fighter pilots experience high gravitational acceleration forces in the cephalocaudal direction (+Gz), causing severe stress. Stress affects different physiological functions of the gastrointestinal tract. Although the effects of exposure to hypergravity on cardiovascular and cerebral functions have been the subject of numerous studies, crucial information regarding potential pathophysiological alterations following hypergravity exposure in the gastrointestinal tract is lacking. We recently documented a significant decrease in gastric secretory activity in rats after acute exposure to hypergravity...
May 9, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408643/gastrin-induces-parathyroid-hormone-like-hormone-expression-in-gastric-parietal-cells
#3
Asma Al Menhali, Theresa M Keeley, Elise S Demitrack, Linda C Samuelson
Parietal cells play a fundamental role in stomach maintenance, not only by creating a pathogen-free environment through the production of gastric acid, but also by secreting growth factors important for homeostasis of the gastric epithelium. The gastrointestinal hormone gastrin is known to be a central regulator of both parietal cell function and gastric epithelial cell proliferation and differentiation. Our previous gene expression profiling studies of mouse stomach identified parathyroid hormone-like hormone (PTHLH) as a potential gastrin-regulated gastric growth factor...
April 13, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397104/omeprazole-absorption-and-fasting-gastrinemia-after-roux-en-y-gastric-bypass
#4
Renata V A Collares-Pelizaro, José S Santos, Carla B Nonino, Cristiane M Gaitani, Wilson Salgado
PURPOSE: Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) is one of the bariatric surgeries most frequently performed worldwide. Since this operation may predispose to the formation of peptic ulcer of the gastrojejunal anastomosis, the use of proton pump inhibitors (PPI) is recommended during the first postoperative year. However, so far, there is no detailed knowledge about the absorption of this medication during the immediate postoperative period and consequently about its effectiveness in blocking acid secretion...
April 10, 2017: Obesity Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395823/gastric-toxicity-involving-alterations-of-gastritis-related-protein-expression-in-mice-following-long-term-exposure-to-nano-tio2
#5
Fashui Hong, Nan Wu, Yingjun Zhou, Li Ji, Ting Chen, Ling Wang
Nano TiO2 has been widely used in food industry as a coloring agent, whether the application has adverse effects on stomach for humans and animals is rarely concerned. This study determined whether intragastric administration with nano TiO2 every day for nine months cause gastric damages and dysfunction, and is associated with changes of stomach damage-related protein expression in mice. Our results suggested that nano TiO2 exposure resulted in significant titanium accumulation in the stomach, reductions in daily food intake and water intake, stomach weight, and stomach indices...
May 2017: Food Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369403/serum-gastrin-and-cholecystokinin-are-associated-with-subsequent-development-of-gastric-cancer-in-a-prospective-cohort-of-finnish-smokers
#6
Gwen Murphy, Christian C Abnet, Hyoyoung Choo-Wosoba, Emily Vogtmann, Stephanie J Weinstein, Philip R Taylor, Satu Männistö, Demetrius Albanes, Sanford M Dawsey, Jens F Rehfeld, Neal D Freedman
Background: Gastrin, which induces gastric acid secretion, and a structurally similar hormone, cholecystokinin (CCK)-a potent acid inhibitor, may each play a role in gastric cancer. However, few studies have investigated this hypothesis in humans. We therefore investigated whether serum gastrin or CCK concentrations at baseline were associated with the incidence of gastric non-cardia adenocarcinomas (GNCA), oesophagogastric junctional adenocarcinomas (EGJA) or gastric carcinoid tumours over 24 years of follow-up in a study nested within the all-male Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention (ATBC) Study of Finnish smokers...
March 27, 2017: International Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321346/a-perplexing-case-of-abdominal-pain-that-led-to-the-diagnosis-of-zollinger-ellison-syndrome
#7
Adrienne Lenhart, Mona Hassan, Alireza Meighani, Omar Sadiq, Yousuf Siddiqui
Zollinger-Ellison syndrome (ZES) is a rare clinical disorder, characterized by hypersecretion of gastric acid and multiple ulcers distal to the duodenal bulb. This occurs via the release of gastrin by neuroendocrine tumors known as gastrinomas. Patients with ZES present with nonspecific GI symptoms, which often leads to a delay in diagnosis. Our patient is a 55-year-old female with chronic abdominal pain, nausea, and diarrhea. She underwent EGD, EUS, MRCP, CT scans, and cholecystectomy, which did not reveal the cause of her symptoms...
2017: Case Reports in Gastrointestinal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275110/acute-effects-of-n-terminal-progastrin-fragments-on-gastric-acid-secretion-in-man
#8
Jens P Goetze, Carsten P Hansen, Jens F Rehfeld
We previously identified an N-terminal fragment of progastrin in human antrum and plasma, where it circulates in high concentrations. In this study, we examined the effects of N-terminal progastrin fragments on gastric acid secretion by infusion in healthy individuals. Increasing doses of progastrin fragment 1-35 were infused intravenously during constant gastric acid stimulation by gastrin-17. In addition, the effects of progastrin fragment 1-35, fragment 6-35, and fragment 1-19 on gastrin-17 stimulated acid secretion were tested...
March 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28144230/gastrin-and-gastric-cancer
#9
REVIEW
Helge L Waldum, Liv Sagatun, Patricia Mjønes
Gastric cancer although occurring in reduced frequency is still an important disease, partly because of the bad prognosis when occurring in western countries. This decline in occurrence may mainly be due to the reduced prevalence of Helicobacter pylori (Hp) infection, which is the most important cause of gastric cancer. There exist many different pathological classifications of gastric carcinomas, but the most useful seems to be the one by Lauren into intestinal and diffuse types since these types seldom transform into the other and also have different epidemiology...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28124156/helicobacter-pylori-induced-changes-in-gastric-acid-secretion-and-upper-gastrointestinal-disease
#10
Adam J Smolka, Mitchell L Schubert
Appropriate management of Helicobacter pylori infection of the human stomach is evolving and remains a significant clinical challenge. Acute infection results in hypochlorhydria, whereas chronic infection results in either hypo- or hyperchlorhydria, depending upon the anatomic site of infection. Acute hypochlorhydria facilitates survival of the bacterium and its infection of the stomach. Interestingly, most patients chronically infected with H. pylori manifest a pangastritis with reduced acid secretion due to bacterial virulence factors, inflammatory cytokines, and various degrees of gastric atrophy...
2017: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105483/gastric-acid-secretion-and-gastrin-release-during-continuous-vagal-neuromonitoring-in-thyroid-surgery
#11
Liu Xiaoli, Che-Wei Wu, Hoon Yub Kim, Wen Tian, Feng-Yu Chiang, Renbin Liu, Angkoon Anuwong, Gregory W Randolph, Gianlorenzo Dionigi, Matteo Lavazza
PURPOSE: The vagus nerve (VN) has essential regulatory roles in the gastric acid secretion and gastrin release. Continuous intraoperative neuromonitoring (CIONM) via VN stimulation is a promising technique in thyroid surgery because it potentially avoids injury to the recurrent laryngeal nerve. However, no studies have investigated changes in gastric acid secretion and gastrin release during CIONM. METHOD: This prospective study of 58 thyroid surgery patients compared gastric acid and serum gastrin at five time points: (1) before skin incision, (2) after baseline calibration of CIONM probe, (3) +20 min from baseline, (4) before probe removal, and (5) after extubation...
March 2017: Langenbeck's Archives of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059052/gastrin-enhances-autophagy-and-promotes-gastric-carcinoma-proliferation-via-inducing-ampk%C3%AE
#12
Zhuang Kun, Guo Hanqing, Tang Hailing, Yan Yuan, Zhang Jun, Zhang Lingxia, Han Kun, Zhang Xin
Gastric cancer (GC) is one of the most frequent epithelial malignancies worldwide. The gastrointestinal (GI) peptide gastrin is an important regulator of the secretion and release of gastric acid from stomach parietal cells and it also plays a vital role in the development and progression of gastric cancer. The aim of the current study was to investigate the role and underlying mechanism of gastrin and autophagy in regulating gastric cancer tumorigenesis. Gastrin-17 amide (G-17) was applied in the gastric cancer cell lines SGC7901 and MGC-803...
January 5, 2017: Oncology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992379/gastric-acid-response-to-acute-exposure-to-hypergravity
#13
Gun Yoon, Hyun-Soo Kim
The influence of environmental stressors on the pathogenesis of gastrointestinal disease has received increased awareness. Stress affects different physiological functions of the gastrointestinal tract, including gastric acid secretion and mucosal blood flow. Repeated exposures of rapid-onset, highly-sustained hypergravity cause severe physical stress in the pilot. Although the effects of exposure to hypergravity on cardiovascular and cerebral functions have been the subjects of numerous studies, crucial information regarding pathophysiological changes in the gastrointestinal tract following hypergravity exposure is lacking...
January 3, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891632/randomised-clinical-trial-efficacy-and-safety-of-vonoprazan-vs-lansoprazole-in-patients-with-gastric-or-duodenal-ulcers-results-from-two-phase-3-non-inferiority-randomised-controlled-trials
#14
H Miwa, N Uedo, J Watari, Y Mori, Y Sakurai, Y Takanami, A Nishimura, T Tatsumi, N Sakaki
BACKGROUND: Vonoprazan is a new potassium-competitive acid blocker for treatment of acid-related diseases. AIM: To conduct two randomised-controlled trials, to evaluate the non-inferiority of vonoprazan vs. lansoprazole, a proton pump inhibitor, for treatment of gastric ulcer (GU) or duodenal ulcer (DU). METHODS: Patients aged ≥20 years with ≥1 endoscopically-confirmed GU or DU (≥5 mm white coating) were randomised 1:1 using double-dummy blinding to receive lansoprazole (30 mg) or vonoprazan (20 mg) for 8 (GU study) or 6 (DU study) weeks...
January 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872404/unique-cellular-lineage-composition-of-the-first-gland-of-the-mouse-gastric-corpus
#15
Andrew O'Neil, Christine P Petersen, Eunyoung Choi, Amy C Engevik, James R Goldenring
The glandular stomach has two major zones: the acid secreting corpus and the gastrin cell-containing antrum. Nevertheless, a single gland lies at the transition between the forestomach and corpus in the mouse stomach. We have sought to define the lineages that make up this gland unit at the squamocolumnar junction. The first gland in mice showed a notable absence of characteristic corpus lineages, including parietal cells and chief cells. In contrast, the gland showed strong staining of Griffonia simplicifolia-II (GSII)-lectin-positive mucous cells at the bases of glands, which were also positive for CD44 variant 9 and Clusterin...
January 2017: Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry: Official Journal of the Histochemistry Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825384/inhibiting-the-proton-pump-mechanisms-benefits-harms-and-questions
#16
Jeffrey K Aronson
Inhibition of the H(+)/K(+)-adenosine triphosphatase (the proton pump) is the final common mechanistic pathway in reducing gastric acid secretion pharmacologically. Proton pump inhibitors are widely used in upper gastrointestinal diseases, including gastric and duodenal ulcers, eradication of Helicobacter pylori in combination with antibiotics, gastroesophageal reflux disease, Zollinger-Ellison syndrome, eosinophilic esophagitis, and prevention of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug-induced peptic ulceration...
November 9, 2016: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27808040/endobarrier-gastrointestinal-liner-delineation-of-underlying-mechanisms-and-clinical-effects
#17
REVIEW
Ulrich Rohde
Bariatric surgery (e.g. Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB)) has proven the most effective way of achieving sustainable weight losses and remission of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Studies indicate that the effectiveness of RYGB is mediated by an altered gastrointestinal tract anatomy, which in particular favours release of the gut incretin hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). The EndoBarrier gastrointestinal liner or duodenal-jejunal bypass sleeve (DJBS) is an endoscopic deployable minimally invasive and fully reversible technique designed to mimic the bypass component of the RYGB...
November 2016: Danish Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806647/slow-release-l-cysteine-capsule-prevents-gastric-mucosa-exposure-to-carcinogenic-acetaldehyde-results-of-a-randomised-single-blinded-cross-over-study-of-helicobacter-associated-atrophic-gastritis
#18
Per M Hellström, Panu Hendolin, Pertti Kaihovaara, Leif Kronberg, Axel Meierjohann, Anders Millerhovf, Lea Paloheimo, Heidi Sundelin, Kari Syrjänen, Dominic-Luc Webb, Mikko Salaspuro
INTRODUCTION: Helicobacter-induced atrophic gastritis with a hypochlorhydric milieu is a risk factor for gastric cancer. Microbes colonising acid-free stomach oxidise ethanol to acetaldehyde, a recognised group 1 carcinogen. OBJECTIVE: To assess gastric production of acetaldehyde and its inert condensation product, non-toxic 2-methyl-1,3-thiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid (MTCA), after alcohol intake under treatment with slow-release L-cysteine or placebo. METHODS: Seven patients with biopsy-confirmed atrophic gastritis, low serum pepsinogen and high gastrin-17 were studied in a cross-over single-blinded design...
February 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803738/helicobacter-pylori-and-gastric-acid-an-intimate-and-reciprocal-relationship
#19
REVIEW
Helge L Waldum, Per M Kleveland, Øystein F Sørdal
Helicobacter pylori (Hp) is the main cause of gastritis, peptic ulcer disease and gastric cancer. There are still unanswered questions related to the interaction between Hp and man, like what determines the susceptibility for the initial infection and the mechanisms for the carcinogenic effect. The initial infection seems to require a temporal gastric hypoacidity. For Hp to survive in the gastric mucous layer, some acidity is necessary. Hp itself is probably not directly carcinogenic. Only when inducing oxyntic mucosal inflammation and atrophy with hypoacidity, Hp predisposes for gastric cancer...
November 2016: Therapeutic Advances in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797597/zinc-ions-mediate-gastrin-expression-proliferation-and-migration-downstream-of-the-cholecystokinin-2-receptor
#20
Mike Chang, Lin Xiao, Arthur Shulkes, Graham S Baldwin, Oneel Patel
Gastrin, acting via the cholecystokinin-2 receptor (CCK2R), activates its own promoter in a positive-feed-forward loop that may result in hypergastrinemia. Activity of the gastrin promoter is also stimulated by exogenous Zn(2+) ions. Here, the role of intracellular zinc and calcium signaling in the gastrin positive-feed-forward loop was investigated. Gastrin promoter activity was measured in the human gastric carcinoma cell line AGS-CCK2R and in Jurkat cells transfected with various gastrin promoter-luciferase constructs after treatment with gastrin in the presence and absence of zinc- and calcium-chelating agents...
December 2016: Endocrinology
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