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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29929085/schizotypal-traits-and-their-relation-to-rejection-sensitivity-in-the-general-population-their-mediation-by-quality-of-life-agreeableness-and-neuroticism
#1
Preethi Premkumar, Juliana Onwumere, Lucy Betts, Fränze Kibowski, Elizabeth Kuipers
Schizotypal traits are a cluster of personality styles suggesting a potential liability for schizophrenia-spectrum disorders. Interpersonal schizotypal traits include cognitive disorganisation which consists of social anxiety, and introvertive anhedonia which consists of a lack of pleasure in social activities. Rejection sensitivity is evident all along this continuum. This study aimed to determine whether psychosocial quality of life (QOL), neuroticism and agreeableness mediates the relation between schizotypy and rejection sensitivity...
June 5, 2018: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29929054/the-attention-training-technique-causally-reduces-self-focus-following-worry-provocation-and-reduces-cognitive-anxiety-among-self-focused-individuals
#2
Thomas A Fergus, Nancy E Wheless
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The attention training technique (ATT) is a component of metacognitive therapy developed to interrupt self-focused, threat-based processing underlying anxiety disorders. Whereas extant research supports the benefits of ATT, including in relation to anxiety reduction, study findings lead to equivocal conclusions as to whether ATT causally interrupts self-focused attention (SFA) as intended. An additional gap in the literature relates to investigating if ATT is especially effective for reducing anxiety among individuals experiencing a heightened self-focused state...
June 12, 2018: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29928008/understanding-willingness-to-use-oral-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-for-hiv-prevention-among-men-who-have-sex-with-men-in-china
#3
Xia Wang, Adam Bourne, Pulin Liu, Jiangli Sun, Thomas Cai, Gitau Mburu, Matteo Cassolato, Bangyuan Wang, Wang Zhou
BACKGROUND: Oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is recommended as an additional prevention choice for men who have sex with men (MSM) at substantial risk of HIV. The aim of this study was to evaluate the extent, and reasons, for MSM's willingness to use oral PrEP in Wuhan and Shanghai, China. METHODS: Between May and December 2015, a cross-sectional survey was conducted among 487 MSM recruited through snowball sampling in physical locations frequented by MSM and through social media applications...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29927043/hospitalised-patients-experiences-during-negative-pressure-wound-therapy-due-to-surgical-site-infection-after-vascular-and-cardiac-surgery
#4
Charlotte B Thorup, Mette Hougaard, Pernille F Blindum, Erik E Sørensen
Surgical site infections that develop after vascular and cardiac surgery are often treated with Negative Pressure Wound Therapy (NPWT). Due to the severity of the infection and risk of bleeding, this NPWT often requires hospitalisation. Fourteen patients were selected for qualitative interviews to investigate their experiences and the meaning of patient participation during hospitalisation with NPWT. Results show that hospitalisation induces tension between an intrusion of privacy and being part of a community...
June 21, 2018: International Wound Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29924167/stress-of-nursing-students-in-clinical-simulation-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#5
Radamés Boostel, Jorge Vinícius Cestari Felix, Carina Bortolato-Major, Edivane Pedrolo, Stela Adami Vayego, Maria de Fátima Mantovani
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate and compare the perception of stressors by nursing students before and after a high-fidelity clinical simulation or conventional laboratory practice class. METHOD: This is a randomized clinical trial conducted with 52 nursing students. Both groups had theoretical classes about cardiothoracic physical examination, followed by practice class in skill laboratory. In addition, the experimental group took part in a high-fidelity simulation scenario...
May 2018: Revista Brasileira de Enfermagem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29923478/group-based-worry-intervention-for-persecutory-delusions-an-initial-feasibility-study
#6
Louise Isham, Heidemarie Grafahrend, Alecia Nickless, Katherine Pugh, Steve Pleasants, Nicola Smedley, Daniel Freeman, Alison Mulligan
BACKGROUND: A one-to-one cognitive behavioural therapy intervention targeting worry significantly reduces both worry and persecutory delusions (Freeman et al., 2015). AIM: To adapt this intervention for group delivery and conduct a feasibility trial within routine clinical practice. METHOD: Thirteen participants were randomized to a weekly 8-session worry intervention group (n = 7) or wait-list control (n = 6). RESULTS: All but one participant completed measures at all time points...
June 20, 2018: Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29920703/informed-consent-and-nudging
#7
William Simkulet
In order to avoid patient abuse, under normal situations before performing a medical intervention on a patient, a physician must obtain informed consent from that patient, where to give genuine informed consent a patient must be competent, understand her condition, her options and their expected risks and benefits, and must expressly consent to one of those options. However, many patients refrain from the option that their physician believes to be best, and many physicians worry that their patients make irrational healthcare decisions, hindering their ability to provide efficient healthcare for their patients...
June 19, 2018: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29916723/barriers-and-facilitators-to-participation-in-a-health-check-for-cardiometabolic-diseases-in-primary-care-a-systematic-review
#8
Anne-Karien M de Waard, Per E Wändell, Martin J Holzmann, Joke C Korevaar, Monika Hollander, Carl Gornitzki, Niek J de Wit, François G Schellevis, Christos Lionis, Jens Søndergaard, Bohumil Seifert, Axel C Carlsson
Background Health checks for cardiometabolic diseases could play a role in the identification of persons at high risk for disease. To improve the uptake of these health checks in primary care, we need to know what barriers and facilitators determine participation. Methods We used an iterative search strategy consisting of three steps: (a) identification of key-articles; (b) systematic literature search in PubMed, Medline and Embase based on keywords; (c) screening of titles and abstracts and subsequently full-text screening...
January 1, 2018: European Journal of Preventive Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29916407/the-body-of-cognitive-and-metacognitive-variables-in-eating-disorders-need-of-control-negative-beliefs-about-worry-uncontrollability-and-danger-perfectionism-self-esteem-and-worry
#9
Walter Sapuppo, Giovanni M Ruggiero, Gabriele Caselli, Sandra Sassaroli
BACKGROUND: Many studies have described perfectionism and low self-esteem as traits associated with eating disorders (ED). More recently, research has shown the role played by worry, rumination, control and metacognitive beliefs. This paper investigates the role played by cognitive and metacognitive variables in the psychopathological mechanism of eating disorders, assuming that not only perfectionism and low selfesteem but also metacognitive beliefs and processes can discriminate between controls and EDs...
2018: Israel Journal of Psychiatry and related Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29914481/avian-influenza-a-h5n1-outbreaks-in-different-poultry-farm-types-in-egypt-the-effect-of-vaccination-closing-status-and-farm-size
#10
Jean Artois, Carla Ippoliti, Annamaria Conte, Madhur S Dhingra, Pastor Alfonso, Abdelgawad El Tahawy, Ahmed Elbestawy, Hany F Ellakany, Marius Gilbert
BACKGROUND: The Avian Influenza A (H5N1) virus is endemic in poultry in Egypt. The winter of 2014/2015 was particularly worrying as new clusters of HPAI A (H5N1) virus emerged, leading to an important number of AI A (H5N1) outbreaks in poultry farms and sporadic human cases. To date, few studies have investigated the distribution of HPAI A (H5N1) outbreaks in Egypt in relation to protective / risk factors at the farm level, a gap we intend to fill. The aim of the study was to analyse passive surveillance data that were based on observation of sudden and high mortality of poultry or drop in duck or chicken egg production, as a basis to better understand and discuss the risk of HPAI A (H5N1) presence at the farm level in large parts of the Nile Delta...
June 18, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29914086/exploring-shyness-among-veterinary-medical-students-implications-for-mental-and-social-wellness
#11
Kenneth Royal, Mari-Wells Hedgpeth, Keven Flammer
BACKGROUND: Shyness is defined as "the tendency to feel awkward, worried or tense during social encounters, especially with unfamiliar people." While shyness is not necessarily a social disorder, extreme cases of shyness may classify as a social phobia and require medical treatment. Extant research has noted shyness may be correlated with social problems that could be detrimental to one's health, career, and social relationships. This exploratory study examined the prevalence, source, and nature of shyness among incoming Doctor of Veterinary Medicine (DVM) program students at one veterinary medical school...
June 15, 2018: Veterinary Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913918/pain-treatment-in-rural-ghana-a-qualitative-study
#12
Desmond Ayim-Aboagye, Torsten Gordh
Aims We investigated how treatment of pain was functioning among a rural population in African context. Methods The investigation employed the observation approach and in-depth interview approach in a rural population of about 5000 inhabitants. However, at the zenith of the study 10 patients were selected for the in-depth interview, having serious conditions, which had rendered them immobile, received a major focus in the study. With qualitative methods, we were capable of procuring rich information through narratives...
December 29, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913734/understanding-the-link-between-depression-and-pain
#13
Steven J Linton, Sofia Bergbom
Background and aims Patients seeking care for a pain problem very often also report symptoms of depression.In fact, depression is associated with the development of chronic pain as well as poor treatment results. Yet, the mechanisms by which depression and pain impact upon one another are not clear. This paper provides a critical review of the literature with the aim of shedding light on the relationship between pain and depression. Further, we introduce the Örebro Behavioral Emotion Regulation Model which may stimulate understanding in addition to research...
December 29, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913351/shedding-light-on-the-association-between-repetitive-negative-thinking-and-deficits-in-cognitive-control-a-meta-analysis
#14
REVIEW
Ulrike Zetsche, Paul-Christian Bürkner, Lars Schulze
Individuals who experience recurrent negative thoughts are at elevated risk for mood and anxiety disorders. It is thus essential to understand why some individuals get stuck in recurrent negative thinking (RNT), whereas others are able to disengage eventually. Theoretical models propose that individuals high in recurrent negative thinking suffer from deficits in controlling the contents of working memory. Empirical findings, however, are inconclusive. In this meta-analysis, we synthesize findings from 94 studies to examine the proposed association between RNT and deficits in cognitive control...
June 11, 2018: Clinical Psychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913070/the-cancer-may-come-back-experiencing-and-managing-worries-of-relapse-in-a-north-norwegian-village-after-treatment
#15
Magdalena Skowronski, Mette Bech Risør, Rikke Sand Andersen, Nina Foss
Little is known about how people living in the aftermath of cancer treatment experience and manage worries about possible signs of cancer relapse, not as an individual enterprise but as socially embedded management. One-year ethnographic fieldwork was conducted in a coastal village of under 3000 inhabitants in northern Norway. Ten villagers who had undergone cancer treatment from six months to five years earlier were the main informants. During fieldwork, the first author conducted qualitative, semi-structured monthly interviews with them, and participated in their everyday activities and relationships, including families, friends and co-villagers...
June 18, 2018: Anthropology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912906/high-acceptability-of-a-contraceptive-vaginal-ring-among-women-in-kigali-rwanda
#16
Evelyne Kestelyn, Jennifer Ilo Van Nuil, Marie Michelle Umulisa, Grace Umutoni, Alice Uwingabire, Lambert Mwambarangwe, Mireille Uwineza, Stephen Agaba, Tania Crucitti, Janneke van de Wijgert, Thérèse Delvaux
BACKGROUND: Introduction of contraceptive vaginal rings (CVRs) could expand the contraceptive method mix reducing the unmet need for family planning in Rwanda, but data on acceptability of CVRs from low and middle-income countries are lacking. METHODS: This study explores acceptability of contraceptive vaginal ring (NuvaRing) use in Kigali, Rwanda using a mixed methods approach. We collected quantitative and qualitative data before, during and after conducting a clinical trial, using Case Report Forms, Interviewer Administered Questionnaires, In Depth Interviews and Focus Group Discussions...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29911607/practitioners-perspective-on-pain-disabilities-in-ghanaian-women-a-qualitative-study
#17
D Ayim-Aboagye, T Gordh
Aims Women show higher frequency of most painful disorders. This is usually explained that endogenous pain modulation pathways, which affect incoming nociceptive signals, act differently in women and men, but psycho-social factors are likelytoinfluence as well. Ghanaian women suffer different disabilities that may lead to severe pain. The hard climatic conditions and the hard physical toil in work exert untold injuries. How do women in Ghana cope with painful disorders, and do they show certain behavioural pattern during diagnosis and treatments? Methods The study used in-depth interviews with health care providers to accomplish its aim...
December 29, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29910759/a-pilot-study-of-the-effects-of-mindfulness-based-cognitive-therapy-on-positive-affect-and-social-anxiety-symptoms
#18
Marlene V Strege, Deanna Swain, Lauren Bochicchio, Andrew Valdespino, John A Richey
Randomized controlled trials have demonstrated that mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) is efficacious in reducing residual depressive symptoms and preventing future depressive episodes (Kuyken et al., 2016). One potential treatment effect of MBCT may be improvement of positive affect (PA), due to improved awareness of daily positive events (Geschwind et al., 2011). Considering social anxiety disorder (SAD) is characterized by diminished PA (Brown et al., 1998; Kashdan, 2007), we sought to determine whether MBCT would reduce social anxiety symptoms, and whether this reduction would be associated with improvement of PA deficits...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909250/the-influence-of-uncertainty-and-intolerance-of-uncertainty-on-anxiety
#19
Siqi Chen, Nisha Yao, Mingyi Qian
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Although the influence of uncertainty and intolerance of uncertainty (IU) on anxiety pathologies has been well-established, only a few studies examined the interaction between uncertainty and IU in producing anxiety. Meanwhile, there is a lack of research utilizing experimental methods to manipulate the situational uncertainty. Therefore, the current study aimed to more systematically investigate whether and how trait IU interacted with uncertainty in the production of anxiety...
June 12, 2018: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908388/rumination-and-the-mood-as-input-hypothesis-does-congruence-matter
#20
Brian Fisak, Alicia Kissinger-Knox, Enrique Cibrian
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The mood-as-input hypothesis (MAIH), which emphasizes the role of mood and stop rules on perseverative thinking, has been extensively studied in relation to worry (Meeten & Davey, 2011). However, relatively few studies have focused on the applicability of the MAIH to depressive rumination. Consequently, two studies were conducted to further examine the potential relevance of the MAIH to depressive rumination. METHODS: In the first study, a sample of undergraduate students completed a rumination interview under one of four conditions, including mood (positive vs...
June 8, 2018: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
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