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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822920/are-frailty-components-associated-with-disability-in-specific-activities-of-daily-living-in-community-dwelling-older-adults-a-multicenter-canadian-study
#1
Véronique Provencher, François Béland, Louise Demers, Johanne Desrosiers, Nathalie Bier, José Alberto Ávila-Funes, Claude Galand, Dominic Julien, John D Fletcher, Lise Trottier, Benyahia Hami
Current studies show the relevance of geriatric prevention and rehabilitation programs to slow down the development of disability in community-dwelling older adults who are becoming frail. This evidence reveals the importance of improving knowledge on how individual components of frailty and specific disability in basic and instrumental activities of daily living (ADL) are related, to offer early, targeted, and tailored interventions. The objective was to examine the association between each of the five frailty phenotype components (weakness, slowness, exhaustion, low physical activity, weight loss) and disability in specific ADL pertaining to physical aspects (bathing, dressing, cutting toe nails, transportation, shopping, housekeeping, food purchasing, food preparation) and cognitive aspects (finances, telephone, medication)...
August 2, 2017: Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817373/cabozantinib-as-salvage-therapy-for-patients-with-tyrosine-kinase-inhibitor-refractory-differentiated-thyroid-cancer-results-of-a-multicenter-phase-ii-international-thyroid-oncology-group-trial
#2
Maria E Cabanillas, Jonas A de Souza, Susan Geyer, Lori J Wirth, Michael E Menefee, Stephen V Liu, Komal Shah, John Wright, Manisha H Shah
Purpose Sorafenib and lenvatinib are oral multikinase inhibitors targeting vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) and approved for radioiodine (RAI)-refractory differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). However, there are no approved second- or third-line therapies. MET is implicated in resistance to VEGFR inhibitors. Cabozantinib is an oral multikinase inhibitor targeting MET in addition to VEGFR and is approved for medullary thyroid cancer. In a phase I study of cabozantinib, five of eight patients with DTC previously treated with a VEGFR-targeted therapy had an objective response to cabozantinib...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809814/yerba-mat%C3%A3-ilex-paraguariensis-metabolic-satiety-and-mood-state-effects-at-rest-and-during-prolonged-exercise
#3
Ahmad Alkhatib, Roisin Atcheson
Yerba Maté (YM), has become a popular herb ingested for enhancing metabolic health and weight-loss outcomes. No studies have tested the combined metabolic, satiety, and psychomotor effects of YM during exercise. We tested whether YM ingestion affects fatty acid oxidation (FAO), profile of mood state score (POMS), and subjective appetite scale (VAS), during prolonged moderate exercise. Twelve healthy active females were randomized to ingest either 2 g of YM or placebo (PLC) in a repeated-measures design. Participants rested for 120 min before performing a 30-min cycling exercise corresponding to individuals' crossover point intensity (COP)...
August 15, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806197/frailty-is-strongly-associated-with-increased-risk-of-recurrent-falls-among-older-hiv-infected-adults-a-prospective-cohort-study
#4
Katherine Tassiopoulos, Mona Abdo, Kunling Wu, Susan L Koletar, Frank J Palella, Robert Kalayjian, Babafemi Taiwo, Kristine M Erlandson
OBJECTIVE: Both frailty and falls occur at earlier than expected ages among HIV-infected individuals, but the contribution of frailty to fall risk in this population is not well understood. We examined this association among participants enrolled in AIDS Clinical Trials Group (ACTG) A5322. DESIGN: A prospective, multi-center cohort study of HIV-infected men and women ≥40 years. METHODS: Frailty assessment included a 4-meter walk, grip strength, and self-reported weight loss, exhaustion, and low physical activity...
August 12, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800398/a-13-week-randomized-pilot-trial-of-a-low-glycemic-load-diet-and-lifestyle-modification-program-combining-low-glycemic-load-protein-shakes-and-targeted-nutraceuticals-improved-weight-loss-and-cardio-metabolic-risk-factors-over-a-low-glycemic-load-diet-alone
#5
Clinton J Dahlberg, Joseph J Ou, John G Babish, Joseph J Lamb, Sarah Eliason, Holly Brabazon, Wei Gao, Mohan R Kaadige, Matthew L Tripp
An open label, randomized, exploratory study comprising 44 healthy, overweight subjects with cardio-metabolic syndrome (CMS) risk factors was conducted to assess the safety, tolerability and efficacy of a proprietary lifestyle modification program without (DIET) and with (PROG) targeted nutraceutical supplementation including soy, pea and whey proteins, phytosterols, antioxidants, probiotics, fish oil and berberine over 13-weeks. Key metrics were recorded at baseline, weeks 9 and 13. For DIET and PROG compliance was 85% and 86%, respectively, with no adverse events related to the diet or supplements...
August 11, 2017: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798136/adipose-tissue-metabolic-and-inflammatory-responses-to-stroke-are-altered-in-obese-mice
#6
Michael J Haley, Graham Mullard, Katherine A Hollywood, Garth J Cooper, Warwick B Dunn, Catherine B Lawrence
Obesity is an independent risk factor for stroke, though several clinical studies have reported that obesity improves stroke outcome. Obesity is hypothesised to aid recovery by protecting against post-stroke catabolism. We therefore assessed whether obese mice had an altered metabolic and inflammatory response to stroke. Obese ob/ob mice underwent 20 min middle cerebral artery occlusion and 24 h reperfusion. Lipid metabolism and expression of inflammatory cytokines were assessed in the plasma, liver and adipose tissue...
August 10, 2017: Disease Models & Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797248/the-role-of-bariatric-surgery-to-treat-diabetes-current-challenges-and-perspectives
#7
REVIEW
Chrysi Koliaki, Stavros Liatis, Carel W le Roux, Alexander Kokkinos
Bariatric surgery is emerging as a powerful weapon against severe obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Given its role in metabolic regulation, the gastrointestinal tract constitutes a meaningful target to treat T2DM, especially in light of accumulating evidence that surgery with gastrointestinal manipulations may result in T2DM remission (metabolic surgery). The major mechanisms mediating the weight loss-independent effects of bariatric surgery comprise effects on tissue-specific insulin sensitivity, β-cell function and incretin responses, changes in bile acid composition and flow, modifications of gut microbiota, intestinal glucose metabolism and increased brown adipose tissue metabolic activity...
August 10, 2017: BMC Endocrine Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796194/a-murine-model-of-persistent-inflammation-immune-suppression-and-catabolism-syndrome
#8
Amanda M Pugh, Nicholas J Auteri, Holly S Goetzman, Charles C Caldwell, Vanessa Nomellini
Critically ill patients that survive sepsis can develop a Persistent Inflammation, Immunosuppression, and Catabolism Syndrome (PICS), which often leads to extended recovery periods and multiple complications. Here, we utilized a cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) method in mice with the goal of creating a model that concurrently displays all the characteristics of PICS. We observed that, after eight days, mice that survive the CLP develop persistent inflammation with significant myelopoiesis in the bone marrow and spleen...
August 10, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794211/dietary-whole-egg-consumption-attenuates-body-weight-gain-and-is-more-effective-than-supplemental-cholecalciferol-in-maintaining-vitamin-d-balance-in-type-2-diabetic-rats
#9
Cassondra J Saande, Samantha K Jones, Kaylee E Hahn, Carter H Reed, Matthew J Rowling, Kevin L Schalinske
Background: Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is characterized by vitamin D insufficiency owing to excessive urinary loss of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol [25(OH)D]. We previously reported that a diet containing dried whole egg, a rich source of vitamin D, was effective at maintaining circulating 25(OH)D concentrations in rats with T2D. Furthermore, whole egg consumption reduced body weight gain in rats with T2D.Objective: This study was conducted to compare whole egg consumption with supplemental cholecalciferol with respect to vitamin D balance, weight gain, and body composition in rats with T2D...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793923/concurrent-antitumor-and-bone-protective-effects-of-everolimus-in-osteotropic-breast-cancer
#10
Andrew J Browne, Marie L Kubasch, Andy Göbel, Peyman Hadji, David Chen, Martina Rauner, Friedrich Stölzel, Lorenz C Hofbauer, Tilman D Rachner
BACKGROUND: The mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor everolimus is approved as an antitumor agent in advanced estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer. Surrogate bone marker data from clinical trials suggest effects on bone metabolism, but the mode of action of everolimus in bone biology remains unclear. In this study, we assessed potential bone-protective effects of everolimus in the context of osteotropic tumors. METHODS: The effects of everolimus on cancer cell viability in vitro and on tumor growth in vivo were assessed...
August 9, 2017: Breast Cancer Research: BCR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791668/obesity-related-glomerulopathy-pathogenesis-pathologic-clinical-characteristics-and-treatment
#11
REVIEW
Tianhua Xu, Zitong Sheng, Li Yao
In light of the rapid increase in the number of obesity incidences worldwide, obesity has become an independent risk factor for chronic kidney disease. Obesity-related glomerulopathy (ORG) is characterized by glomerulomegaly in the presence or absence of focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis lesions. IgM and complement 3 (C3) nonspecifically deposit in lesions without immune-complex-type deposits during ORG immunofluorescence. ORG-associated glomerulomegaly and focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis can superimpose on other renal pathologies...
August 8, 2017: Frontiers of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790180/pseudomonas-aeruginosa-lasb-protease-impairs-innate-immunity-in-mice-and-humans-by-targeting-a-lung-epithelial-cystic-fibrosis-transmembrane-regulator-il-6-antimicrobial-repair-pathway
#12
Vinciane Saint-Criq, Bérengère Villeret, Fabien Bastaert, Saadé Kheir, Aurélie Hatton, Aurélie Cazes, Zhou Xing, Isabelle Sermet-Gaudelus, Ignacio Garcia-Verdugo, Aleksander Edelman, Jean-Michel Sallenave
BACKGROUND: Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infections are a huge problem in ventilator-associated pneumonia, cystic fibrosis (CF) and in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbations. This bacterium secretes virulence factors that may subvert host innate immunity. OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the effect of P. aeruginosa elastase LasB, an important virulence factor secreted by the type II secretion system, on ion transport, innate immune responses and epithelial repair, both in vitro and in vivo...
August 8, 2017: Thorax
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783736/glutamate-alleviates-muscle-protein-loss-by-modulating-tlr4-nods-akt-foxo-and-mtor-signaling-pathways-in-lps-challenged-piglets
#13
Ping Kang, Xiuying Wang, Huanting Wu, Huiling Zhu, Yongqing Hou, Longmei Wang, Yulan Liu
The experiment was conducted to study the effect of the glutamate (Glu) on muscle protein loss through toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain proteins (NODs), Akt/Forkhead Box O (Akt/FOXO) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathways in LPS-challenged piglets. Twenty-four weaned piglets were assigned into four treatments: (1) Control; (2) LPS+0% Glu; (3) LPS + 1.0% Glu; (4) LPS + 2.0% Glu. The experiment was lasted for 28 days. On d 28, the piglets in the LPS challenged groups were injected with LPS on 100 μg/kg body weight (BW), and the piglets in the control group were injected with the same volume of 0...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28779824/nutritional-problems-affecting-older-adults
#14
REVIEW
Neva L Crogan
Nutritional problems, such as malnutrition, dehydration, and electrolyte imbalance, are multifaceted and complex issues for older adults. This article describes these potential nutritional problems and then discusses evidence-based assessment strategies and treatment modalities that target these problems. Micronutrient deficiency is explored and evidence-based supplementation discussed. Many factors contribute to weight loss and malnutrition in older adults. These factors are classified as social, psychological, and/or biological...
September 2017: Nursing Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776639/postpartum-obstetric-red-cell-transfusion-practice-a-retrospective-study-in-a-tertiary-obstetric-centre
#15
Benjamin Stephens, Farah Sethna, Philip Crispin
BACKGROUND: Traditional management of anaemia due to postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) has relied upon salvage therapy with red cell transfusion. Recently published guidance recommends a change in approach toward holistic patient blood management. AIMS: To determine whether postpartum red cell transfusion practices are consistent with best practice and to identify opportunities for improvement. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective audit of postpartum red cell transfusions was conducted at a tertiary level obstetrics unit...
August 4, 2017: Australian & New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776570/non-canonical-regulation-of-spl-transcription-factors-by-a-human-otub1-like-deubiquitinase-defines-a-new-plant-type-rice-associated-with-higher-grain-yield
#16
Shuansuo Wang, Kun Wu, Qian Qian, Qian Liu, Qi Li, Yajun Pan, Yafeng Ye, Xueying Liu, Jing Wang, Jianqing Zhang, Shan Li, Yuejin Wu, Xiangdong Fu
Achieving increased grain productivity has long been the overriding focus of cereal breeding programs. The ideotype approach has been used to improve rice yield potential at the International Rice Research Institute and in China. However, the genetic basis of yield-related traits in rice remains unclear. Here, we show that a major quantitative trait locus, qNPT1, acts through the determination of a 'new plant type' (NPT) architecture characterized by fewer tillers, sturdier culms and larger panicles, and it encodes a deubiquitinating enzyme with homology to human OTUB1...
August 4, 2017: Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771087/when-comprehension-elicits-incomprehension-deterioration-of-semantic-categorisation-in-the-absence-of-stimulus-repetition
#17
Upasana Nathaniel, Hannah E Thompson, Emma Davies, Dominic Arnold, Glyn Hallam, Sara Stampacchia, Jonathan Smallwood, Elizabeth Jefferies
Repetition improves retrieval from memory; however, under some circumstances, it can also impair performance. Separate literatures have investigated this phenomenon, including studies showing subjective loss of meaning following "semantic satiation", slowed naming and categorisation when semantically-related items are repeated, and semantic "access deficits" in aphasia. Such effects have been variously explained in terms of habituation of repeatedly-accessed representations, increased interference from strongly activated competitors, and longer-term weight changes reflecting the suppression of non-targets on earlier trials (i...
August 3, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770423/perceived-social-support-for-exercise-and-weight-loss-in-adolescents-undergoing-sleeve-gastrectomy
#18
Eleanor Race Mackey, Alexandra Olson, Stephanie Merwin, Jichuan Wang, Evan P Nadler
OBJECTIVES: Bariatric surgery is an effective treatment for youth with severe obesity. However, outcomes are variable and there remains sparse understanding of predictors of weight loss following surgery. The current study examines the role of adolescent-reported pre-operative social support around exercise, binge eating, and exercise to predict excess body mass index (EBMI) loss from 3 to 12 months post-surgery. METHOD: Participants were 101 adolescents ages 12-21 (M age = 16...
August 2, 2017: Obesity Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769122/modulation-of-gr1-low-monocytes-subset-impacts-insulin-sensitivity-and-weight-gain-upon-high-fat-diet-in-female-mice
#19
S Béliard, W Le Goff, F Saint-Charles, L Poupel, V Deaswerte, L Boucharechas, T Huby, P Lesnik
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Blood monocytes are expanded during obesity. However, the differential contribution of monocytes subsets in obesity-related metabolic disorders remains unknown. The aim of the study was to define the role of the Gr1(low) monocytes subset upon high-fat-diet (HFD). METHODS: We used transgenic female mouse models allowing the modulation of circulating Gr1(low) monocytes number (decreased number in CX3CR1(-/-) mice, increased number in CD11c-hBcl2 mice) and studied obesity upon HFD...
August 3, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767077/gut-liver-axis-derangement-in-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#20
REVIEW
Marco Poeta, Luca Pierri, Pietro Vajro
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most frequent type of chronic liver disease in the pediatric age group, paralleling an obesity pandemic. A "multiple-hit" hypothesis has been invoked to explain its pathogenesis. The "first hit" is liver lipid accumulation in obese children with insulin resistance. In the absence of significant lifestyle modifications leading to weight loss and increased physical activity, other factors may act as "second hits" implicated in liver damage progression leading to more severe forms of inflammation and hepatic fibrosis...
August 2, 2017: Children
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