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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542617/inflammatory-and-apoptotic-remodeling-in-autonomic-nervous-system-following-myocardial-infarction
#1
Chen Gao, Kimberly Howard-Quijano, Christoph Rau, Tatsuo Takamiya, Yang Song, Kalyanam Shivkumar, Yibin Wang, Aman Mahajan
BACKGROUND: Chronic myocardial infarction (MI) triggers pathological remodeling in the heart and cardiac nervous system. Abnormal function of the autonomic nervous system (ANS), including stellate ganglia (SG) and dorsal root ganglia (DRG) contribute to increased sympathoexcitation, cardiac dysfunction and arrythmogenesis. ANS modulation is a therapeutic target for arrhythmia associated with cardiac injury. However, the molecular mechanism involved in the pathological remodeling in ANS following cardiac injury remains to be established...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536139/effects-of-leucine-supplementation-and-resistance-training-on-myopathy-of-diabetic-rats
#2
Carlos Eduardo C Martins, Vanessa B de S Lima, Brad J Schoenfeld, Julio Tirapegui
Leucine supplementation and resistance training positively influence the protein translation process and the cell signaling mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) pathway that regulates muscle protein balance and muscle remodeling, and thus may be therapeutic to diabetic myopathy. However, the effect of a combined intervention has not been well studied. Forty male Wistar rats were divided into five groups, control (C), diabetic control (D), diabetic + trained (DT), diabetic + L-leucine (DL), diabetic + L-leucine + trained (DLT)...
May 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529839/estimating-effects-with-rare-outcomes-and-high-dimensional-covariates-knowledge-is-power
#3
Laura Balzer, Jennifer Ahern, Sandro Galea, Mark van der Laan
Many of the secondary outcomes in observational studies and randomized trials are rare. Methods for estimating causal effects and associations with rare outcomes, however, are limited, and this represents a missed opportunity for investigation. In this article, we construct a new targeted minimum loss-based estimator (TMLE) for the effect or association of an exposure on a rare outcome. We focus on the causal risk difference and statistical models incorporating bounds on the conditional mean of the outcome, given the exposure and measured confounders...
December 2016: Epidemiologic Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527533/global-regional-and-national-burden-of-cardiovascular-diseases-for-10-causes-1990-to-2015
#4
Gregory A Roth, Catherine Johnson, Amanuel Abajobir, Foad Abd-Allah, Semaw Ferede Abera, Gebre Abyu, Muktar Ahmed, Baran Aksut, Tahiya Alam, Khurshid Alam, François Alla, Nelson Alvis-Guzman, Stephen Amrock, Hossein Ansari, Johan Ärnlöv, Hamid Asayesh, Tesfay Mehari Atey, Leticia Avila-Burgos, Ashish Awasthi, Amitava Banerjee, Aleksandra Barac, Till Bärnighausen, Lars Barregard, Neeraj Bedi, Ezra Belay Ketema, Derrick Bennett, Gebremedhin Berhe, Zulfiqar Bhutta, Shimelash Bitew, Jonathan Carapetis, Juan Jesus Carrero, Deborah Carvalho Malta, Carlos Andres Castañeda-Orjuela, Jacqueline Castillo-Rivas, Ferrán Catalá-López, Jee-Young Choi, Hanne Christensen, Massimo Cirillo, Leslie Cooper, Michael Criqui, David Cundiff, Albertino Damasceno, Lalit Dandona, Rakhi Dandona, Kairat Davletov, Samath Dharmaratne, Prabhakaran Dorairaj, Manisha Dubey, Rebecca Ehrenkranz, Maysaa El Sayed Zaki, Emerito Jose A Faraon, Alireza Esteghamati, Talha Farid, Maryam Farvid, Valery Feigin, Eric L Ding, Gerry Fowkes, Tsegaye Gebrehiwot, Richard Gillum, Audra Gold, Philimon Gona, Rajeev Gupta, Tesfa Dejenie Habtewold, Nima Hafezi-Nejad, Tesfaye Hailu, Gessessew Bugssa Hailu, Graeme Hankey, Hamid Yimam Hassen, Kalkidan Hassen Abate, Rasmus Havmoeller, Simon I Hay, Masako Horino, Peter J Hotez, Kathryn Jacobsen, Spencer James, Mehdi Javanbakht, Panniyammakal Jeemon, Denny John, Jost Jonas, Yogeshwar Kalkonde, Chante Karimkhani, Amir Kasaeian, Yousef Khader, Abdur Khan, Young-Ho Khang, Sahil Khera, Abdullah T Khoja, Jagdish Khubchandani, Daniel Kim, Dhaval Kolte, Soewarta Kosen, Kristopher J Krohn, G Anil Kumar, Gene Kwan, Dharmesh Kumar Lal, Anders Larsson, Shai Linn, Alan Lopez, Paulo A Lotufo, Hassan Magdy Abd El Razek, Reza Malekzadeh, Mohsen Mazidi, Toni Meier, Kidanu Gebremariam Meles, George Mensah, Atte Meretoja, Haftay Mezgebe, Ted Miller, Erkin Mirrakhimov, Shafiu Mohammed, Andrew E Moran, Kamarul Imran Musa, Jagat Narula, Bruce Neal, Frida Ngalesoni, Grant Nguyen, Carla Makhlouf Obermeyer, Mayowa Owolabi, George Patton, João Pedro, Dima Qato, Mostafa Qorbani, Kazem Rahimi, Rajesh Kumar Rai, Salman Rawaf, Antônio Ribeiro, Saeid Safiri, Joshua A Salomon, Itamar Santos, Milena Santric Milicevic, Benn Sartorius, Aletta Schutte, Sadaf Sepanlou, Masood Ali Shaikh, Min-Jeong Shin, Mehdi Shishehbor, Hirbo Shore, Diego Augusto Santos Silva, Eugene Sobngwi, Saverio Stranges, Soumya Swaminathan, Rafael Tabarés-Seisdedos, Niguse Tadele Atnafu, Fisaha Tesfay, J S Thakur, Amanda Thrift, Roman Topor-Madry, Thomas Truelsen, Stefanos Tyrovolas, Kingsley Nnanna Ukwaja, Olalekan Uthman, Tommi Vasankari, Vasiliy Vlassov, Stein Emil Vollset, Tolassa Wakayo, David Watkins, Robert Weintraub, Andrea Werdecker, Ronny Westerman, Charles Shey Wiysonge, Charles Wolfe, Abdulhalik Workicho, Gelin Xu, Yuichiro Yano, Paul Yip, Naohiro Yonemoto, Mustafa Younis, Chuanhua Yu, Theo Vos, Mohsen Naghavi, Christopher Murray
BACKGROUND: The burden of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) remains unclear in many regions of the world. OBJECTIVES: The GBD (Global Burden of Disease) 2015 study integrated data on disease incidence, prevalence, and mortality to produce consistent, up-to-date estimates for cardiovascular burden. METHODS: CVD mortality was estimated from vital registration and verbal autopsy data. CVD prevalence was estimated using modeling software and data from health surveys, prospective cohorts, health system administrative data, and registries...
May 15, 2017: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524627/weight-loss-interventions-and-gut-microbiota-changes-in-overweight-and-obese-patients-a-systematic-review
#5
REVIEW
F B Seganfredo, C A Blume, M Moehlecke, A Giongo, D S Casagrande, J V N Spolidoro, A V Padoin, B D Schaan, C C Mottin
Imbalances in the gut microbiota, the bacteria that inhabit the intestines, are central to the pathogenesis of obesity. This systematic review assesses the association between the gut microbiota and weight loss in overweight/obese adults and its potential manipulation as a target for treating obesity. This review identified 43 studies using the keywords 'overweight' or 'obesity' and 'microbiota' and related terms; among these studies, 17 used dietary interventions, 11 used bariatric surgery and 15 used microbiota manipulation...
May 19, 2017: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522908/detection-and-characterization-of-murine-colitis-and-carcinogenesis-by-molecularly-targeted-contrast-enhanced-ultrasound
#6
Markus Brückner, Jan Heidemann, Tobias M Nowacki, Friederike Cordes, Jörg Stypmann, Philipp Lenz, Faekah Gohar, Andreas Lügering, Dominik Bettenworth
AIM: To study mucosal addressin cellular adhesion molecule-1 (MAdCAM-1) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-targeted contrast enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) for the assessment of murine colitis and carcinogenesis. METHODS: C57BL/6 mice were challenged with 3% dextran sodium-sulfate (DSS) for three, six or nine days to study the development of acute colitis. Ultrasound was performed with and without the addition of unspecific contrast agents. MAdCAM-1-targeted contrast agent was used to detect and quantify MAdCAM-1 expression...
April 28, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522589/identification-of-cancer-targeted-tropomyosin-inhibitors-and-their-synergy-with-microtubule-drugs
#7
Mark A Currier, Justine R Stehn, Ashleigh Swain, Duo Chen, Jeff Hook, Eleanor Eiffe, Andrew Heaton, David Brown, Brooke Nartker, David W Eaves, Nina Kloss, Herbert Treutlein, Jun Zeng, Irina B Alieva, Vera B Dugina, Edna C Hardeman, Peter W Gunning, Timothy P Cripe
Actin filaments, with their associated tropomyosin polymers, and microtubules are dynamic cytoskeletal systems regulating numerous cell functions. While anti-microtubule drugs are well-established, anti-actin drugs have been more elusive. We previously targeted actin in cancer cells by inhibiting the function of a tropomyosin isoform enriched in cancer cells, Tpm3.1, using a first-in-class compound, TR100. Here, we screened over 200 other anti-tropomyosin analogues for anti-cancer and on-target activity using a series of in vitro cell-based and biochemical assays...
May 18, 2017: Molecular Cancer Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515477/cancer-cachexia-associates-with-a-systemic-autophagy-inducing-activity-mimicked-by-cancer-cell-derived-il-6-trans-signaling
#8
Kristine Pettersen, Sonja Andersen, Simone Degen, Valentina Tadini, Joël Grosjean, Shinji Hatakeyama, Almaz N Tesfahun, Siver Moestue, Jana Kim, Unni Nonstad, Pål R Romundstad, Frank Skorpen, Sveinung Sørhaug, Tore Amundsen, Bjørn H Grønberg, Florian Strasser, Nathan Stephens, Dag Hoem, Anders Molven, Stein Kaasa, Kenneth Fearon, Carsten Jacobi, Geir Bjørkøy
The majority of cancer patients with advanced disease experience weight loss, including loss of lean body mass. Severe weight loss is characteristic for cancer cachexia, a condition that significantly impairs functional status and survival. The underlying causes of cachexia are incompletely understood, and currently no therapeutic approach can completely reverse the condition. Autophagy coordinates lysosomal destruction of cytosolic constituents and is systemically induced by starvation. We hypothesized that starvation-mimicking signaling compounds secreted from tumor cells may cause a systemic acceleration of autophagy during cachexia...
May 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514081/weight-loss-and-improved-metabolic-outcomes-amongst-rural-african-american-women-in-the-deep-south-six-month-outcomes-from-a-community-based-randomized-trial
#9
J D Ard, T L Carson, J M Shikany, Y Li, C M Hardy, J C Robinson, A G Williams, M L Baskin
BACKGROUND: Obesity is highly prevalent in African American women, especially those in the rural southern USA, resulting in persistent health disparities. OBJECTIVE: To test the effectiveness of an evidence-based behavioural weight loss intervention delivered by community health advisors to African American women in the rural south. DESIGN AND METHODS: Overweight or obese African American women (30-70 years) from eight counties in Mississippi and Alabama participated in a 24-month randomized controlled trial of an evidence-based behavioural weight loss programme augmented with community strategies to support healthy lifestyles (Weight Loss Plus, N = 154) compared to the weight loss programme alone (Weight Loss Only, N = 255)...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511934/repeated-manganese-administration-produced-abnormal-expression-of-circadian-clock-genes-in-the-hypothalamus-and-liver-of-rats
#10
Huan Li, Ximin Fan, Ying Luo, Sheng Song, Jie Liu, Qiyuan Fan
Manganese (Mn) neurotoxicity displays non-motor dysfunction and motor impairment like Parkinson's disease (PD), and is called as Manganism. Circadian disruption is a non-motor symptom found in PD and Manganism. Clock genes are essential to drive and maintain circadian rhythm, but little is known about Mn exposure on circadian clock genes expression. Both the brain and liver are targets of Mn, we hypothesize that repeated Mn administration could affect clock gene expression in the hypothalamus and livers. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were intraperitoneally injected Mn(2+) 1mg and 5mg/kg as MnCl2·4H2O, every other day for 30 days...
May 13, 2017: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507883/risk-factors-for-medical-and-surgical-complications-following-single-level-alif
#11
Winward Choy, Nikki Barrington, Roxanna M Garcia, Robert B Kim, Heron Rodriguez, Sandi Lam, Nader Dahdaleh, Zachary A Smith
STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to determine rates of medical and surgical postoperative complications following anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF) along with their associated predictors. METHODS: Using the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement database, patients who underwent single-level ALIF surgery from 2006 to 2013 were identified. The 30-day rate of postoperative medical and surgical complications along with associated risk factors were evaluated by multivariable logistic regression...
April 2017: Global Spine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507516/body-brain-connections-the-effects-of-obesity-and-behavioral-interventions-on-neurocognitive-aging
#12
REVIEW
Chelsea M Stillman, Andrea M Weinstein, Anna L Marsland, Peter J Gianaros, Kirk I Erickson
Obesity is a growing public health problem in the United States, particularly in middle-aged and older adults. Although the key factors leading to a population increase in body weight are still under investigation, there is evidence that certain behavioral interventions can mitigate the negative cognitive and brain ("neurocognitive") health consequences of obesity. The two primary behaviors most often targeted for weight loss are caloric intake and physical activity. These behaviors might have independent, as well as overlapping/synergistic effects on neurocognitive health...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504048/the-penn-state-heart-assistant-a-pilot-study-of-a-web-based-intervention-to-improve-self-care-of-heart-failure-patients
#13
Tom Lloyd, Harleah Buck, Andrew Foy, Sara Black, Antony Pinter, Rosanne Pogash, Bobby Eismann, Eric Balaban, John Chan, Allen Kunselman, Joshua Smyth, John Boehmer
The Penn State Heart Assistant, a web-based, tablet computer-accessed, secure application was developed to conduct a proof of concept test, targeting patient self-care activities of heart failure patients including daily medication adherence, weight monitoring, and aerobic activity. Patients (n = 12) used the tablet computer-accessed program for 30 days-recording their information and viewing a short educational video. Linear random coefficient models assessed the relationship between weight and time and exercise and time...
May 1, 2017: Health Informatics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497923/ccr3-monoclonal-antibody-inhibits-eosinophilic-inflammation-and-mucosal-injury-in-a-mouse-model-of-eosinophilic-gastroenteritis
#14
Dae Jin Song, Mun Hee Shim, Nahyun Lee, Young Yoo, Ji Tae Choung
PURPOSE: Although the role of eosinophils in eosinophilic gastroenteritis (EGE) is not fully understood, they are believed to be a principal effector cell. Previous studies have demonstrated that eotaxin and its specific receptor, cysteine-cysteine chemokine receptor-3 (CCR3), play a central role in eosinophil trafficking into the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Thus, we examined the targeting of CCR3 as a potential therapeutic intervention for EGE in a mouse model. METHODS: Eight- to 10-week-old BALB/c mice were intraperitoneally sensitized and intragastrically challenged with ovalbumin (OVA)...
July 2017: Allergy, Asthma & Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497664/insulin-sensitizers-in-adolescents-with-polycystic-ovary-syndrome
#15
Trang N LE, Edmond P Wickham Iii, John E Nestler
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common disorder of androgen excess in women of reproductive age. The diagnosis of PCOS can be more challenging in adolescents than in adult women given significant overlap between normal puberty and the signs of PCOS, including acne, menstrual irregularity, and polycystic ovarian morphology. Optimal treatments for adult women with PCOS vary depending on patient risk factors and reproductive goals, but mainly include hormonal contraception and insulin sensitizers...
May 11, 2017: Minerva Pediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496348/role-of-sodium-glucose-cotransporter-2-inhibitors-in-type-i-diabetes-mellitus
#16
REVIEW
Hala Ahmadieh, Nisrine Ghazal, Sami T Azar
The burden of diabetes mellitus (DM) in general has been extensively increasing over the past few years. Selective sodium glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors were extensively studied in type 2 DM and found to have sustained urinary glucose loss, improvement of glycemic control, in addition to their proven metabolic effects on weight, blood pressure, and cardiovascular benefits. Type 1 DM (T1D) patients clearly depend on insulin therapy, which till today fails to achieve the optimal glycemic control and metabolic targets that are needed to prevent risk of complications...
2017: Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492810/rimonabant-improves-metabolic-parameters-partially-attributed-to-restoration-of-high-voltage-activated-ca2-channels-in-skeletal-muscle-in-hfd-fed-mice
#17
B Chen, N Hu
Cannabinoid type 1 receptor (CB1R) inhibition tends to be one of the promising strategies for the treatment of obesity and other related metabolic disorders. Although CB1R inhibition may cause adverse psychiatric effects including depression and anxiety, the investigation of the role of peripheral CB1R on weight loss and related metabolic parameters are urgently needed. We first explored the effect of rimonabant, a selective CB1R antagonist/inverse agonist, on some metabolic parameters in high fat-diet (HFD)-induced obesity in mice...
May 4, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, Revista Brasileira de Pesquisas Médicas e Biológicas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28491474/the-role-of-race-and-gender-in-nutrition-habits-and-self-efficacy-results-from-the-young-adult-weight-loss-study
#18
Janna D Stephens, Andrew Althouse, Alai Tan, Bernadette Mazurek Melnyk
Overweight and obesity are a massive public health problem and young adults are at high risk for gaining weight once they enter a college. This study sought to examine gender and race as they relate to nutrition habits and self-efficacy in a population of diverse young adults from the Young Adult Weight Loss Study. Participants (N = 62) were 29% males, 38.7% white, 33.8% Asian, and 12.9% African American. Males had lower self-efficacy for healthy eating (mean score = 92.5, SD = 17.1) compared to females (mean = 102...
2017: Journal of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486387/minimally-invasive-versus-open-pancreaticoduodenectomy-a-propensity-matched-study-from-a-national-cohort-of-patients
#19
Ibrahim Nassour, Sam C Wang, Alana Christie, Mathew M Augustine, Matthew R Porembka, Adam C Yopp, Michael A Choti, John C Mansour, Xian-Jin Xie, Patricio M Polanco, Rebecca M Minter
OBJECTIVE: To compare the perioperative outcomes of minimally invasive pancreaticoduodenectomy (MIPD) in comparison with open pancreaticoduodenectomy (OPD) in a national cohort of patients. BACKGROUND: Limited well-controlled studies exist comparing perioperative outcomes between MIPD and OPD. METHODS: Patients who underwent MIPD and OPD were abstracted from the 2014 to 2015 pancreas-targeted American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program...
May 8, 2017: Annals of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484068/delivery-of-health-coaching-by-medical-assistants-in-primary-care
#20
Zora Djuric, Michelle Segar, Carissa Orizondo, Jeffrey Mann, Maya Faison, Nithin Peddireddy, Matthew Paletta, Amy Locke
BACKGROUND: Health coaching is potentially a practical method to assist patients in achieving and maintaining healthy lifestyles. In health coaching, the coach partners with the patient, helping patients discover their own strengths, challenges, and solutions. METHODS: Two medical assistants were provided with brief training. The 12-week program consisted of telephone coaching with in-person visits at the beginning and end of the program. Coaching targeted improvements in diet, physical activity, and/or sleep habits using a self-care planning form...
May 2017: Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine: JABFM
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