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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222911/current-and-future-therapeutic-regimens-for-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-nafld-and-non-alcoholic-steatohepatitis-nash
#1
REVIEW
Zobair M Younossi, Rohit Loomba, Mary E Rinella, Elisabetta Bugianesi, Giulio Marchesini, Brent A Neuschwander-Tetri, Lawrence Serfaty, Francesco Negro, Stephen H Caldwell, Vlad Ratziu, Kathleen E Corey, Scott L Friedman, Manal F Abdelmalek, Stephen A Harrison, Arun J Sanyal, Joel E Lavine, Philippe Mathurin, Michael R Charlton, Naga P Chalasani, Quentin M Anstee, Kris V Kowdley, Jacob George, Zachary D Goodman, Keith Lindor
NASH/NAFLD is rapidly becoming one of top causes of cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma and indication for liver transplantation. Except for life style modification through diet and exercise, there are currently no other approved treatments for NASH/NAFLD. Although weight loss can be effective, it is hard to achieve and sustain. In contrast, bariatric surgery can improve metabolic conditions associated with NAFLD and has been shown to improve liver histology. In order to have approved regimens for treatment of NASH/NAFLD, a number of issues that must be addressed...
December 9, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222860/adenosine-sensitive-wolff-parkinson-white-longer-time-across-the-atrioventricular-groove
#2
Cheyenne Beach, Christopher W Follansbee, Lee Beerman, Sharon Mazzocco, Li Wang, Gaurav Arora
BACKGROUND: Successful ablation sites in Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome (WPW) are characterized by short atrioventricular (AV) intervals. Approximately 15% of patients with WPW have adenosine-sensitive accessory pathways (APs). We sought to determine if local AV intervals of adenosine-sensitive APs are different from those of adenosine-insensitive APs in patients with WPW. METHODS: Patients ≤ 21 years with WPW and adenosine-sensitive APs who underwent successful ablation over a 9-year period were included...
December 9, 2017: Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology: PACE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222619/improvement-in-obstructive-sleep-apnea-after-a-tailored-behavioural-sleep%C3%A2-medicine-intervention-targeting-healthy-eating-and-physical-activity-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#3
Helena Igelström, Pernilla Åsenlöf, Margareta Emtner, Eva Lindberg
PURPOSE: The aim of the present single-centre randomised controlled trial was to assess the effect of a behavioural sleep medicine (BSM) intervention on obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) severity in patients who have been referred for new treatment with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP). METHODS: After baseline assessment including ventilatory and anthropometric parameters, and physical activity monitoring, 86 patients who were overweight (BMI ≥ 25) and had moderate-severe OSA with apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) ≥ 15 were randomised into a control group (CG; CPAP and advice about weight loss) or an experimental group (ExpG; CPAP and BSM intervention targeting physical activity and eating behaviour)...
December 8, 2017: Sleep & Breathing, Schlaf & Atmung
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221919/impact-of-lifestyle-interventions-targeting-healthy-diet-physical-activity-and-weight-loss-on-asthma-in-adults-what-is-the-evidence
#4
Sharmilee M Nyenhuis, Anne E Dixon, Jun Ma
Unhealthy lifestyle factors such as poor diet quality, sedentary lifestyle, and obesity are associated with negative health consequences in asthma including poor asthma control, impaired quality of life, and greater health care utilization. Lifestyle modification is the cornerstone of behavioral treatments and has been effective in chronic diseases such as atherothrombotic vascular disease and diabetes. There is a critical need for lifestyle interventions in asthma care that address obesity and its intimately linked risk behaviors in terms of poor diet and physical inactivity...
December 5, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology in Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221645/primary-care-led-weight-management-for-remission-of-type-2-diabetes-direct-an-open-label-cluster-randomised-trial
#5
Michael Ej Lean, Wilma S Leslie, Alison C Barnes, Naomi Brosnahan, George Thom, Louise McCombie, Carl Peters, Sviatlana Zhyzhneuskaya, Ahmad Al-Mrabeh, Kieren G Hollingsworth, Angela M Rodrigues, Lucia Rehackova, Ashley J Adamson, Falko F Sniehotta, John C Mathers, Hazel M Ross, Yvonne McIlvenna, Renae Stefanetti, Michael Trenell, Paul Welsh, Sharon Kean, Ian Ford, Alex McConnachie, Naveed Sattar, Roy Taylor
BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes is a chronic disorder that requires lifelong treatment. We aimed to assess whether intensive weight management within routine primary care would achieve remission of type 2 diabetes. METHODS: We did this open-label, cluster-randomised trial (DiRECT) at 49 primary care practices in Scotland and the Tyneside region of England. Practices were randomly assigned (1:1), via a computer-generated list, to provide either a weight management programme (intervention) or best-practice care by guidelines (control), with stratification for study site (Tyneside or Scotland) and practice list size (>5700 or ≤5700)...
December 4, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215198/inflammatory-signalling-regulates-eccentric-contraction-induced-protein-synthesis-in-cachectic-skeletal-muscle
#6
Justin P Hardee, Brittany R Counts, Song Gao, Brandon N VanderVeen, Dennis K Fix, Ho-Jin Koh, James A Carson
BACKGROUND: Skeletal muscle responds to eccentric contractions (ECC) with an anabolic response that involves the induction of protein synthesis through the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1. While we have reported that repeated ECC bouts after cachexia initiation attenuated muscle mass loss and inflammatory signalling, cachectic muscle's capacity to induce protein synthesis in response to ECC has not been determined. Therefore, we examined cachectic muscle's ability to induce mechano-sensitive pathways and protein synthesis in response to an anabolic stimulus involving ECC and determined the role of muscle signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3)/nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NFκB) signalling on ECC-induced anabolic signalling...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212103/recurrent-diffuse-gastric-bleeding-as-a-leading-symptom-of%C3%A2-gastrointestinal-al-amyloidosis
#7
Caspar Franck, Marino Venerito, Jochen Weigt, Albert Roessner, Peter Malfertheiner
Amyloidosis is a rare disease (incidence about 0.8/100 000) characterized by extracellular tissue deposition of fibrils composed of low molecular weight subunits of a variety of serum proteins. Clinical manifestations are largely determined by the type of precursor protein, the tissue distribution and the amount of amyloid deposition. Gastrointestinal (GI) manifestations of amyloidosis are even more uncommon (3 % of all amyloidosis patients). Symptoms of GI amyloidosis are nonspecific, heterogeneous, and include weight loss, GI bleeding, heartburn, early satiety, diarrhea and abdominal pain...
December 2017: Zeitschrift Für Gastroenterologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209570/car-t-cell-immunotherapy-of-met-expressing-malignant-mesothelioma
#8
Thivyan Thayaparan, Roseanna M Petrovic, Daniela Y Achkova, Tomasz Zabinski, David M Davies, Astero Klampatsa, Ana C Parente-Pereira, Lynsey M Whilding, Sjoukje Jc van der Stegen, Natalie Woodman, Michael Sheaff, Jennifer R Cochran, James F Spicer, John Maher
Mesothelioma is an incurable cancer for which effective therapies are required. Aberrant MET expression is prevalent in mesothelioma, although targeting using small molecule-based therapeutics has proven disappointing. Chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) couple the HLA-independent binding of a cell surface target to the delivery of a tailored T-cell activating signal. Here, we evaluated the anti-tumor activity of MET re-targeted CAR T-cells against mesothelioma. Using immunohistochemistry, MET was detected in 67% of malignant pleural mesotheliomas, most frequently of epithelioid or biphasic subtype...
2017: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205090/rapamycin-exacerbates-cardiovascular-dysfunction-after-complete-high-thoracic-spinal-cord-injury
#9
Khalid C Eldahan, David H Cox, Jenna L Gollihue, Samir P Patel, Alexander G Rabchevsky
Autonomic dysreflexia (AD) is a potentially life-threatening syndrome in individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) above the T6 spinal level that is characterized by episodic hypertension in response to noxious stimuli below the lesion. Maladaptive intraspinal plasticity is thought to contribute to the temporal development of AD, and experimental approaches that reduce such plasticity mitigate the severity of AD. The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) has gained interest as a mediator of plasticity, regeneration and nociceptor hypersensitivity in the injured spinal cord...
December 5, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197373/health-related-quality-of-life-in-long-term-survivors-of-unresectable-locally-advanced-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#10
Juntao Ran, Jingbo Wang, Nan Bi, Wei Jiang, Zongmei Zhou, Zhouguang Hui, Jun Liang, Qinfu Feng, Luhua Wang
BACKGROUND: Heath-related quality of life (HRQoL) among survivors with unresectable locally-advanced non-small cell lung cancer (LA-NSCLC) treated with radiotherapy and chemotherapy still is not clear. The current study were performed to determine HRQoL for long-term survivors with unresectable LA-NSCLC and to identify risk factors for poor HRQoL. METHODS: Among patients with LA-NSCLC receiving radiotherapy and chemotherapy between January 2006 and December 2010, 82 long-term survivors beyond 5 years were identified in this cross-sectional study...
December 2, 2017: Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197192/laparoscopic-gastric-plication-for-the-treatment-of-morbid-obesity-by-using-real-time-imaging-of-the-stomach-pouch
#11
Cristian Borz, Tivadar Jr Bara, Tivadar Bara, Andras Suciu, Marton Denes, Bogdan Borz, Dorin Marian, Simona Muresan, Anca Bacarea, Mircea Muresan, Gabriela Jimborean
BACKGROUND: Bariatric surgery is a continuously evolving field. Laparoscopic greater curvature plication is a new investigational procedure used to treat patients with morbid obesity. The demand for this operation from the obese patients is also rising. The problem is that during gastric plication the exact dimensions and volume of the pouch are not known so frequently it is too large or too tight thus compromising the results. The aim of the study was to identify the parameters that can improve the outcomes after this procedure...
2017: Annali Italiani di Chirurgia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196066/cough-due-to-tuberculosis-and-other-chronic-infections-chest-guideline-and-expert-panel-report
#12
Stephen K Field, Patricio Escalante, Dina A Fisher, Belinda Ireland, Richard S Irwin
BACKGROUND: Cough is common in pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) and other chronic respiratory infections. Identifying features that predict whether pulmonary TB is the cause would help target appropriate individuals for rapid and cost-effective screening, potentially limiting disease progression, and preventing transmission to others. METHODS: A systematic literature search for individual studies to answer 8 Key questions (KQ) was conducted according to established Chest Organization methods using the following databases: MEDLINE via PubMed, EMBASE, Scopus and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews from 1/1/1984 to April 2014...
November 28, 2017: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193211/is-tranexamic-acid-exposure-related-to-blood-loss-in-hip-arthroplasty-a-pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic-study
#13
Julien Lanoiselée, Paul J Zufferey, Edouard Ollier, Sophie Hodin, Xavier Delavenne
AIMS: Tranexamic acid (TXA) is an antifibrinolytic agent, decreasing blood loss in hip arthroplasty. The present study investigated the relationship between TXA exposure markers, including the time above the in vitro threshold reported for inhibition of fibrinolysis (10 mg l-1 ), and perioperative blood loss. METHODS: Data were obtained from a prospective, double-blind, parallel-arm, randomized superiority study in hip arthroplasty. Patients received a preoperative intravenous bolus of TXA 1 g followed by a continuous infusion of either TXA 1 g or placebo over 8 h...
October 26, 2017: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29191155/provider-initiated-tuberculosis-case-finding-in-outpatient-departments-of-health-care-facilities-in-ghana-yield-by-screening-strategy-and-target-group
#14
Sally-Ann Ohene, Frank Bonsu, Nii Nortey Hanson-Nortey, Ardon Toonstra, Adelaide Sackey, Knut Lonnroth, Mukund Uplekar, Samuel Danso, George Mensah, Felix Afutu, Paul Klatser, Mirjam Bakker
BACKGROUND: Meticulous identification and investigation of patients presenting with tuberculosis (TB) suggestive symptoms rarely happen in crowded outpatient departments (OPDs). Making health providers in OPDs diligently follow screening procedures may help increase TB case detection. From July 2010 to December 2013, two symptom based TB screening approaches of varying cough duration were used to screen and test for TB among general outpatients, PLHIV, diabetics and contacts in Accra, Ghana...
December 1, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190418/interventions-to-change-the-behaviour-of-health-professionals-and-the-organisation-of-care-to-promote-weight-reduction-in-children-and-adults-with-overweight-or-obesity
#15
REVIEW
Gerd Flodgren, Daniela C Gonçalves-Bradley, Carolyn D Summerbell
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of overweight and obesity is increasing globally, an increase which has major implications for both population health and costs to health services. This is an update of a Cochrane Review. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of strategies to change the behaviour of health professionals or the organisation of care compared to standard care, to promote weight reduction in children and adults with overweight or obesity. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the following databases for primary studies up to September 2016: CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, DARE and PsycINFO...
November 30, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29185788/risk-factors-for-motorcycle-loss-of-control-crashes
#16
Dan Wu, Martine Hours, Jean-Louis Martin
OBJECTIVE: The present paper identifies and assesses the effect of critical factors on the risk of motorcycle loss-of-control (LOC) crashes. METHOD: Data come from a French project on road crashes, which comprises all fatal road crashes and a random sample of 1/20th of non-fatal crashes in France in 2011, based on police reports. A case-control study was carried out on a sample of 903 crashes for 444 LOC motorcycle riders (case) and 470 non-LOC and non-responsible motorcycle riders (control)...
November 29, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29182408/rapid-weight-loss-is-not-associated-with-competitive-success-in-elite-youth-olympic-style-boxers-in-europe
#17
Damir Zubac, Hrvoje Karnincic, Damir Sekulic
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to examine the influence of rapid weight loss (RWL) on competitive success in elite youth Olympic-style boxers. In addition, this study examined the practice and prevalence of weight reduction, weight management protocols and related symptoms in youth boxers from twelve European countries (n=83; all males; 17.1±0.9 y). METHODS: The data were collected using an extensive questionnaire on weight cutting and its associated protocols and symptoms prior to highest-level continental championships...
November 28, 2017: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29181707/role-of-sex-and-the-environment-in-moderating-weight-gain-due-to-inadequate-sleep
#18
REVIEW
Jamie E Coborn, Monica M Houser, Claudio E Perez-Leighton, Jennifer A Teske
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The growing prevalence of obesity, inadequate sleep and sleep disorders together with the negative impact of lack of sleep on overall health highlights the need for therapies targeted towards weight gain due to sleep loss. RECENT FINDINGS: Sex disparities in obesity and sleep disorders are present; yet, the role of sex is inadequately addressed and thus it is unclear whether sensitivity to sleep disruption differs between men and women. Like sex, environmental factors contribute to the development of obesity and poor sleep...
December 2017: Current Obesity Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29179477/long-noncoding-rna-nnt-as1-promotes-hepatocellular-carcinoma-progression-and-metastasis-through-mir-363-cdk6-axis
#19
Ye-Bin Lu, Qin Jiang, Man-Yi Yang, Ji-Xiang Zhou, Qi Zhang
Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been tested to act as important regulator in liver cancer genesis and progression. LncRNA Nicotinamide Nucleotide Transhydrogenase-antisense RNA1 (NNT-AS1) has been reported to participate in the tumorigenesis. However, the exact molecular mechanism of NNT-AS1 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is still unknown. In present study, our team identified the up-regulated expression of NNT-AS1 in HCC tissue and cell lines compared with adjacent noncancerous tissue and normal cells...
October 24, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29178659/behavioral-weight-loss-intervention-for-migraine-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#20
Dale S Bond, J Graham Thomas, Richard B Lipton, Julie Roth, Jelena M Pavlovic, Lucille Rathier, Kevin C O'Leary, E Whitney Evans, Rena R Wing
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to test whether behavioral weight loss (BWL) intervention decreases headaches in women with comorbid migraine and overweight or obesity. METHODS: This randomized, single-blind trial allocated women 18 to 50 years old with 4 to 20 migraine days per month and a BMI = 25.0-49.9 kg/m2 to 16 weeks of BWL (n = 54), which targeted exercise and eating behaviors for weight loss, or to migraine education control (ME, n = 56), which delivered didactic instruction on migraine and treatments...
November 27, 2017: Obesity
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