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obesity and sleep

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533903/using-paco2-values-to-grade-obesity-hypoventilation-syndrome-severity-a-retrospective-study
#1
Mario Francesco Damiani, Vito Antonio Falcone, Pierluigi Carratù, Cristina Scoditti, Elioda Bega, Silvano Dragonieri, Alfredo Scoditti, Onofrio Resta
BACKGROUND: To date, an important aspect that has still not been clarified is the assessment of OHS severity. The purpose of this retrospective study was to evaluate whether grading OHS severity according to PaCO2 values may be useful in order to provide a more definite characterization and targeted management of patients. In this regard, baseline anthropometric and sleep polygraphic characteristics, treatment options, and follow up outcomes, were compared between OHS patients with different degree of severity (as assessed according to PaCO2 values)...
2017: Multidisciplinary Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528348/effect-of-home-noninvasive-ventilation-with-oxygen-therapy-vs-oxygen-therapy-alone-on-hospital-readmission-or-death-after-an-acute-copd-exacerbation-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#2
Patrick B Murphy, Sunita Rehal, Gill Arbane, Stephen Bourke, Peter M A Calverley, Angela M Crook, Lee Dowson, Nicholas Duffy, G John Gibson, Philip D Hughes, John R Hurst, Keir E Lewis, Rahul Mukherjee, Annabel Nickol, Nicholas Oscroft, Maxime Patout, Justin Pepperell, Ian Smith, John R Stradling, Jadwiga A Wedzicha, Michael I Polkey, Mark W Elliott, Nicholas Hart
Importance: Outcomes after exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) requiring acute noninvasive ventilation (NIV) are poor and there are few treatments to prevent hospital readmission and death. Objective: To investigate the effect of home NIV plus oxygen on time to readmission or death in patients with persistent hypercapnia after an acute COPD exacerbation. Design, Setting, and Participants: A randomized clinical trial of patients with persistent hypercapnia (Paco2 >53 mm Hg) 2 weeks to 4 weeks after resolution of respiratory acidemia, who were recruited from 13 UK centers between 2010 and 2015...
May 21, 2017: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526994/adolescent-s-health-behaviors-and-risk-for-insulin-resistance-a-review-of-the-literature
#3
REVIEW
Jill L Kaar, Stacey L Simon, Sarah J Schmiege, Kristen J Nadeau, Megan M Kelsey
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: One-third of US adolescents are obese, and related comorbidities exist in this population. Preventing early indicators of these diseases, such as insulin resistance (IR), may impact future morbidity and mortality. Interventions to date have only focused on diet or exercise. Additional targets to prevent disease are needed. This paper reviews the evidence in adolescents examining multiple health behaviors that have been associated with IR. RECENT FINDINGS: Health behaviors (i...
July 2017: Current Diabetes Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525634/association-between-weekend-catch-up-sleep-and-lower-body-mass-population-based-study-weekend-catch-up-sleep-and-body-mass-index
#4
Hee-Jin Im, Shin-Hye Baek, Min Kyung Chu, Kwang Ik Yang, Won-Joo Kim, Seong-Ho Park, Robert J Thomas, Chang-Ho Yun
Study Objectives: To determine if weekend catch-up sleep (CUS) impacts body mass index (BMI) in the general population. Methods: A stratified random sample (2,156 subjects; age 19-82 years old, 43.0±14.5; 1,183 male) from the general population was evaluated, in 2010, using face-to-face interviews about sociodemographic characteristics, height, weight, habitual sleep duration and time-in-bed at night on weekdays and weekend, sleep-related profiles, mood and anxiety scales, and comorbid-medical conditions...
May 19, 2017: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525584/obesity-sleep-complaints-and-depression-are-the-cardiovascular-risk-factors-primarily-predicted-by-poor-working-conditions-in-the-gazel-cohort
#5
Pierre Meneton, Cédric Lemogne, Eléonore Herquelot, Sébastien Bonenfant, Sébastien Czernichow, Joël Ménard, Marcel Goldberg, Marie Zins
The mechanisms by which the work environment might influence cardiovascular risk are still a matter of debate. In particular, the involvement of the main behavioral and clinical risk factors and their relationships with working conditions are not always clear despite an abundant literature. Most studies have investigated the impact of a limited number of characteristics of the work environment on the occurrence of one or a few risk factors. In contrast, this study uses a global approach in which 30 objective and subjective indicators of working conditions are tested as predictors of 9 modifiable cardiovascular risk factors in a well-characterized cohort of 20,625 middle-aged French workers who were followed until they retired...
May 19, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525321/characteristics-of-the-life-habits-of-obese-students-at-one-of-japan-s-national-colleges-of-technology
#6
Yoshinori Nagasawa, Shin-Ichi Demura, Shigeru Shimada
Aim This study clarified the characteristics of life habits of obese Japanese male students at the National Colleges of Technology, Japan. Materials and methods Healthy students aged 15-19 years answered a questionnaire containing 21 items on the following five categories of life habits: general exercise, meals, sleeping, leisure activity and illness or injury history. The subjects were divided into three groups based on the criteria of body mass index (BMI) and body fat percentage (%BF): non-obese (%BF < 20%, n = 420), overweight obese (%BF ≥ 20% and BMI ≥ 25, n = 99), and hidden obese (%BF ≥ 20% and BMI < 25, n = 60)...
May 17, 2017: International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522093/sleep-duration-associated-with-cardiovascular-conditions-among-adult-nevadans
#7
Brianna L Pergola, Sheniz Moonie, Jennifer Pharr, Timothy Bungum, Julia L Anderson
BACKGROUND: Associations between sleep duration and cardiovascular conditions have been inconsistent. Both short and long sleep duration are associated with increased risk for diabetes, hypertension, obesity, high cholesterol, depression, and overall metabolic dysfunction; all of which are cardiovascular disease risk factors. This study aimed to determine if deficient or excessive sleep duration is associated with cardiovascular conditions. METHODS: Data were obtained from the 2013 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System for the state of Nevada...
June 2017: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521681/effects-of-diets-on-adipose-tissue
#8
Silvia Ezquerro, Amaia Rodríguez, Piero Portincasa, Gema Frühbeck
Obesity is a major health problem that has become a global epidemic. Overweight and obesity are commonly associated with the development of several pathologies, such as insulin resistance, cardiovascular diseases, sleep apnea and several types of cancer, which can lead to further morbidity and mortality. An increased abdominal adiposity renders overweight and obese individuals more prone to metabolic and cardiovascular problems. In this sense, excess adiposity leads to several changes in the biology, morphology and function of the adipose tissue, such as adipocyte hypertrophy and hyperplasia, adipose tissue inflammation and fibrosis and an impaired secretion of adipokines, contributing to the onset of obesity-related co-morbidities...
May 17, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515112/impact-of-the-metabolic-syndrome-on-mortality-is-modified-by-objective-short-sleep-duration
#9
Julio Fernandez-Mendoza, Fan He, Caitlin LaGrotte, Alexandros N Vgontzas, Duanping Liao, Edward O Bixler
BACKGROUND: To examine whether objective sleep duration is an effect modifier of the impact of metabolic syndrome (MetS) on all-cause and cardiovascular disease/cerebrovascular mortality. METHODS AND RESULTS: We addressed this question in the Penn State Adult Cohort, a random, general population sample of 1344 men and women (48.8±14.2 years) who were studied in the sleep laboratory and followed up for 16.6±4.2 years. MetS was defined by the presence of 3 or more of obesity (≥30 kg/m(2)), elevated total cholesterol (≥200 mg/dL), triglycerides (≥150 mg/dL), fasting glucose (≥100 mg/dL), and blood pressure (≥130/85 mm Hg)...
May 17, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513068/a-randomized-controlled-trial-branched-chain-amino-acid-levels-and-glucose-metabolism-in-patients-with-obesity-and-sleep-apnea
#10
Antonia Barceló, Daniel Morell-Garcia, Neus Salord, Cristina Esquinas, Gerardo Pérez, Antonio Pérez, Carmen Monasterio, Merce Gasa, Ana Maria Fortuna, Josep Maria Montserrat, Mercedes Mayos
There is evidence that changes in branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) levels may correlate with the efficacy of therapeutic interventions for affecting improvement in metabolic control. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether serum concentrations of BCAAs (leucine, isoleucine, valine) could mediate in insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance after continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). A prospective randomized controlled trial of OSA patients with morbid obesity was conducted...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Sleep Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511831/obstructive-sleep-apnea-and-dermatologic-disorders
#11
Madhulika A Gupta, Fiona C Simpson, Branka Vujcic, Aditya K Gupta
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is present in at least 2% of women and 4% of men, and its prevalence is increasing, because a major predisposing factor for OSA is a high body mass index. Psoriasis has the most strongly substantiated link with OSA, where the relationship may be bidirectional. Dermatologic disorders may be comorbid with OSA due to several factors: (i) the heightened proinflammatory state in OSA, which can occur independent of body mass index, and may exacerbate inflammatory dermatoses; (ii) intermittent hypoxemia may promote neovascularization and tumor growth in certain cancers, such as melanoma; (iii) obesity, present in majority of OSA patients, can be associated with a heightened proinflammatory state; (iv) upper airway obstruction due to local tumors or soft tissue swelling due to physical urticaria or angioedema; (v) acute nasal congestion in the atopic patient with allergic rhinitis; (vi) dermatologic disorders associated with other OSA risk factors (eg, acanthosis nigricans and metabolic syndrome); and (vii) a high sympathetic tone (eg, in atopic dermatitis) and resultant sleep fragmentation contributing to upper airway instability during sleep...
May 2017: Clinics in Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509114/implicating-the-potential-role-of-orexin-in-hypertension
#12
REVIEW
Monika Rani, Raghuvansh Kumar, Pawan Krishan
Orexins (orexin A and orexin B), neuropeptides of hypothalamic origin also known as hypocretins, have been well documented for regulating the different physiological functions including feeding, sleep wakefulness, stress, and reward. However, from the past few years, orexins have evolved as an emerging biomarker for various endocrine disorders including diabetes mellitus and obesity which ultimately leads to various cardiovascular risk factors. Orexins exist in two isoforms orexin A and orexin B and exert their effect by acting on the G protein-coupled receptors orexin 1 receptor (OX1R) and orexin 2 receptor (OX2R)...
May 16, 2017: Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508274/the-sleeping-remnant-effect-of-roux-en-y-gastric-bypass-on-plasma-levels-of-gastric-biomarkers-in-morbidly-obese-women-a-prospective-longitudinal-study
#13
Federico Marchesi, Francesco Tartamella, Giuseppina De Sario, Clarissa Forlini, Alberta Caleffi, Matteo Riccò, Francesco Di Mario
BACKGROUND: Morpho-functional modifications of the gastric remnant after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) have not been completely defined, due to its inaccessibility for bioptic mapping. The aim of the study is to evaluate such modifications using Gastropanel®, a non-invasive blood test cross-checking four gastric biomarkers, able to provide a snapshot of mucosa conditions. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Twenty-four women undergoing RYGB were prospectively enrolled. Gastropanel® parameters (pepsinogens, Gastrin-17 and immunoglobulins against Helicobacter pylori), biometrical/clinical data were collected preoperatively and at 6-months follow-up...
May 15, 2017: Obesity Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503259/five-year-outcomes-of-laparoscopic-sleeve-gastrectomy-as-a-primary-procedure-for-morbid-obesity-a-prospective-study
#14
Carlos Hoyuela
AIM: To prospectively evaluate the postoperative morbi-mortality and weight loss evolution of patients who underwent a laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) as a primary bariatric procedure during 5 years of follow-up. METHODS: Since 2006, data from patients undergoing a highly restrictive primary LSG have been prospectively registered in a database and analysed. Preoperative co-morbid conditions, operating time, hospital stay, early and late complications rate and evolution of weight loss after 5 years of follow-up were analysed...
April 27, 2017: World Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502923/g-protein-coupled-receptor-signaling-through-gpr176-gz-and-rgs16-tunes-time-in-the-center-of-the-circadian-clock-review
#15
Kaoru Goto, Masao Doi, Tianyu Wang, Sumihiro Kunisue, Iori Murai, Hitoshi Okamura
G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) constitute an immensely important class of drug targets with diverse clinical applications. There are still more than 120 orphan GPCRs whose cognate ligands and physiological functions are not known. A set of circadian pacemaker neurons that governs daily rhythms in behavior and physiology resides in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) in the brain. Malfunction of the circadian clock has been linked to a multitude of diseases, such as sleeping disorders, obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer, which makes the clock an attractive target for drug development...
May 13, 2017: Endocrine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502282/morning-diastolic-blood-pressure-may-be-independently-associated-with-severity-of-obstructive-sleep-apnea-in-non-hypertensive-patients-a-cross-sectional-study
#16
Łukasz Mokros, Wojciech Kuczyński, Łukasz Franczak, Piotr Białasiewicz
STUDY OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study is to verify a possible association between arterial blood pressure and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) severity in a group of non-hypertensive patients. METHODS: This is a retrospective study of 1,171 consecutive patients referred to the sleep laboratory with complaints suggestive of OSA who underwent standard diagnostic polysomnography. In total, 454 patients with no history of arterial hypertension nor had received any such treatment were selected from this group...
May 11, 2017: Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine: JCSM: Official Publication of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500380/association-of-t-lymphocyte-immune-imbalance-and-il-10-gene-polymorphism-with-the-risk-of-obstructive-sleep-apnea-in-children-with-obesity
#17
Miao-Shang Su, Li Xu, Kang Xu, Ji-Shan Zheng
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to determine the role of T lymphocyte immune imbalance and interleukin (IL)-10 gene polymorphism in the development of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in obese children. METHODS: One hundred obese children at high-risk and low-risk for OSA based upon a sleep questionnaire were selected. Peripheral blood T lymphocyte subsets were measured by flow cytometry, and plasma IFN-γ, IL-4, and IL-10 cytokines were detected by ELISA. The relationships between OSA and the above variables were analyzed...
May 12, 2017: Sleep & Breathing, Schlaf & Atmung
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490370/behavioral-interventions-to-promote-adequate-sleep-among-women-protocol-for-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#18
Lydi-Anne Vézina-Im, Jennette Palcic Moreno, Theresa A Nicklas, Tom Baranowski
BACKGROUND: Short and poor sleep have been associated with adverse health outcomes in adults, such as overweight/obesity and type 2 diabetes, especially among women. Women therefore represent an important target for interventions aimed at improving sleep and such interventions have been advocated to enhance maternal, fetal, and infant health. This systematic review will assess the efficacy or effectiveness of behavioral interventions aimed at promoting adequate sleep among women. The primary outcomes will be changes in sleep duration and/or sleep quality from baseline to post-intervention and to the last available follow-up measured either through self-reports or objectively...
May 11, 2017: Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489875/functional-data-analysis-of-sleeping-energy-expenditure
#19
Jong Soo Lee, Issa F Zakeri, Nancy F Butte
Adequate sleep is crucial during childhood for metabolic health, and physical and cognitive development. Inadequate sleep can disrupt metabolic homeostasis and alter sleeping energy expenditure (SEE). Functional data analysis methods were applied to SEE data to elucidate the population structure of SEE and to discriminate SEE between obese and non-obese children. Minute-by-minute SEE in 109 children, ages 5-18, was measured in room respiration calorimeters. A smoothing spline method was applied to the calorimetric data to extract the true smoothing function for each subject...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489776/is-c-reactive-protein-a-marker-of-obstructive-sleep-apnea-a-meta-analysis
#20
Kun Li, Peng Wei, Yanwen Qin, Yongxiang Wei
BACKGROUND: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common disease, distinguished by recurrent episodes of upper airway obstruction during sleep, with an inflammatory component. C-reactive protein (CRP) and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) are markers of systemic inflammation and may serve as biomarkers of OSA. METHODS: Scientific studies published from January 1, 2006, to January 1, 2016 were obtained via searches of PubMed, Embase, SCI, and China National Knowledge Internet (CNKI) using relevant terms...
May 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
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