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Onset puberty

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641706/delayed-onset-of-puberty-in-male-offspring-from-bisphenol-a-treated-dams-is-followed-by-the-modulation-of-gene-expression-in-the-hypothalamic-pituitary-testis-axis-in-adulthood
#1
Isabela M Oliveira, Renata M Romano, Patricia de Campos, Monica D Cavallin, Claudio A Oliveira, Marco A Romano
Bisphenol A (BPA) is a synthetic endocrine-disrupting chemical of high prevalence in the environment, which may affect the function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-testis (HPT) axis in adult rats. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether exposure to BPA during hypothalamic sexual differentiation at doses below the reproductive no observable adverse effect level of the World Health Organization causes changes in the regulation of the HPT axis. For this, 0.5 or 5mgkg-1 BPA was injected subcutaneously to the mothers from gestational day 18 to postnatal day (PND) 5...
June 23, 2017: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636888/responsiveness-of-pituitary-to-galanin-throughout-the-reproductive-cycle-of-male-european-sea-bass-dicentrarchus-labrax
#2
P Pinto, Z Velez, C Sousa, S Santos, A Andrade, M V Alvarado, A Felip, S Zanuy, A V M Canário
The neuropeptide galanin (Gal) is a putative factor regulating puberty onset and reproduction through its actions on the pituitary. The present study investigated the pituitary responsiveness to galanin and the patterns of galanin receptors (Galrs) expression throughout the reproductive cycle of two years old male European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax), an important aquaculture species. Quantitative analysis of pituitary and hypothalamus transcript expression of four galr subtypes revealed differential regulation according to the testicular developmental stage, with an overall decrease in expression from the immature stage to the mid-recrudescence stage...
June 18, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621341/the-gentle-art-of-saying-no-how-nitric-oxide-gets-things-done-in-the-hypothalamus
#3
REVIEW
Konstantina Chachlaki, John Garthwaite, Vincent Prevot
The chemical signalling molecule nitric oxide (NO), which freely diffuses through aqueous and lipid environments, subserves an array of functions in the mammalian central nervous system, such as the regulation of synaptic plasticity, blood flow and neurohormone secretion. In this Review, we consider the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which NO evokes short-term and long-term changes in neuronal activity. We also highlight recent studies showing that discrete populations of neurons that synthesize NO in the hypothalamus constitute integrative systems that support life by relaying metabolic and gonadal signals to the neuroendocrine brain, and thus gate the onset of puberty and adult fertility...
June 16, 2017: Nature Reviews. Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615280/age-associated-gene-expression-changes-in-the-arcuate-nucleus-of-male-rhesus-macaques
#4
Dominique Eghlidi, Vasilios Garyfallou, Steven Kohama, Henryk F Urbanski
The hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC) represents a major component of the neuroendocrine reproductive axis, and plays an important role in controlling the onset of puberty as well as age-associated reproductive senescence. Although significant gene expression changes have been observed in the ARC during sexual maturation it is unclear what changes occur during aging, especially in males. Therefore, in the present study we profiled the expression of reproduction-related genes in the ARC of young and old male rhesus macaques, as well as old males that had received 6 months of hormone supplementation (HS) in the form of daily testosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone; we also compared morning versus night ARC gene expression in the old males...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612726/-micrornas-new-players-in-the-hypothalamic-control-of-fertility
#5
Andrea Messina, Fanny Langlet, Vincent Prevot
MicroRNAs are small non-coding RNAs that modulate gene expression post-transcriptionally. Discovered more than 15 years ago, their functions start to be unraveled. Increasing evidence points to an important functional role of microRNAs in brain development. In particular, miRNAs have recently been established to play a vital role in the mechanisms underlying the infantile rise in gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) production by neurons in the hypothalamus, a phenomenon necessary for the onset of puberty in mammals...
May 2017: Médecine Sciences: M/S
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608742/pediatric-onset-multiple-sclerosis-and-other-acquired-demyelinating-syndromes-of-the-central-nervous-system-in-denmark-during-1977-2015-a-nationwide-population-based-incidence-study
#6
Magnus Spangsberg Boesen, Melinda Magyari, Nils Koch-Henriksen, Lau Caspar Thygesen, Alfred Peter Born, Peter Vilhelm Uldall, Morten Blinkenberg
BACKGROUND: The incidence of acquired demyelinating syndromes (ADS) including multiple sclerosis (MS) has never been investigated in a Danish pediatric population. OBJECTIVES: We estimated the nationwide age- and sex-specific incidence of pediatric ADS including MS. METHODS: Data were sourced from the Danish Multiple Sclerosis Registry, providing cases of pediatric MS for 1977-2015, and the National Patient Register, providing cases of ADS during 2008-2015...
June 1, 2017: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601641/treatment-effect-and-safety-of-icatibant-in-pediatric-patients-with-hereditary-angioedema
#7
Henriette Farkas, Avner Reshef, Werner Aberer, Teresa Caballero, Laura McCarthy, James Hao, Wolfram Nothaft, Jennifer Schranz, Jonathan A Bernstein, H Henry Li
BACKGROUND: Clinical manifestations of hereditary angioedema with C1 inhibitor deficiency (C1-INH-HAE) usually begin in childhood, often intensifying during puberty. Currently there are insufficient efficacy/safety data for HAE therapies in children and adolescents due to the small number of pediatric patients enrolled in studies. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this phase 3 study was to evaluate the efficacy/safety of a single subcutaneous dose of icatibant (0.4 mg/kg; maximum 30 mg) in pediatric patients with C1-INH-HAE...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology in Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583077/identification-of-conserved-genes-triggering-puberty-in-european-sea-bass-males-dicentrarchus-labrax-by-microarray-expression-profiling
#8
Mercedes Blázquez, Paula Medina, Berta Crespo, Ana Gómez, Silvia Zanuy
BACKGROUND: Spermatogenesis is a complex process characterized by the activation and/or repression of a number of genes in a spatio-temporal manner. Pubertal development in males starts with the onset of the first spermatogenesis and implies the division of primary spermatogonia and their subsequent entry into meiosis. This study is aimed at the characterization of genes involved in the onset of puberty in European sea bass, and constitutes the first transcriptomic approach focused on meiosis in this species...
June 5, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580709/early-ovariectomy-reveals-the-germline-encoding-of-natural-anti-a-and-tn-cross-reactive-immunoglobulin-m-igm-arising-from-developmental-o-galnac-glycosylations-germline-encoded-natural-anti-a-tn-cross-reactive-igm
#9
Peter Arend
While native blood group A-like glycans have not been demonstrated in prokaryotic microorganisms as a source of human "natural" anti-A isoagglutinin production, and metazoan eukaryotic N-acetylgalactosamine O-glycosylation of serine or threonine residues (O-GalNAc-Ser/Thr-R) does not occur in bacteria, the O-GalNAc glycan-bearing ovarian glycolipids, discovered in C57BL/10 mice, are complementary to the syngeneic anti-A-reactive immunoglobulin M (IgM), which is not present in animals that have undergone ovariectomy prior to the onset of puberty...
June 5, 2017: Cancer Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578932/ovarian-hormones-organize-the-maturation-of-inhibitory-neurotransmission-in-the-frontal-cortex-at-puberty-onset-in-female-mice
#10
David J Piekarski, Josiah R Boivin, Linda Wilbrecht
The frontal cortex matures late in development, showing dramatic changes after puberty onset, yet few experiments have directly tested the role of pubertal hormones in cortical maturation. One mechanism thought to play a primary role in regulating the maturation of the neocortex is an increase in inhibitory neurotransmission, which alters the balance of excitation and inhibition. We hypothesized that pubertal hormones could regulate maturation of the frontal cortex by this mechanism. Here, we report that manipulations of gonadal hormones do significantly alter the maturation of inhibitory neurotransmission in the cingulate region of the mouse medial frontal cortex, an associative region that matures during the pubertal transition and is implicated in decision making, learning, and psychopathology...
June 19, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578432/effects-of-childhood-and-adolescence-physical-activity-patterns-on-psychosis-risk-a-general-population-cohort-study
#11
Elina Sormunen, Maiju M Saarinen, Raimo K R Salokangas, Risto Telama, Nina Hutri-Kähönen, Tuija Tammelin, Jorma Viikari, Olli Raitakari, Jarmo Hietala
Schizophrenia spectrum disorders are associated with high morbidity and mortality in somatic diseases. The risk factors of this excess mortality include, e.g., obesity, dietary factors, and physical inactivity, especially after the onset of psychosis, but there are limited early developmental data on these factors in individuals who later develop psychosis. A population-based cohort study "Cardiovascular Risk of Young Finns" started in 1980 with 3596 children and adolescents from six different age groups (3, 6, 9, 12, 15, and 18 years)...
January 13, 2017: NPJ Schizophrenia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28561889/innervation-of-the-medial-prefrontal-cortex-by-tyrosine-hydroxylase-immunoreactive-fibers-during-adolescence-in-male-and-female-rats
#12
Jari Willing, Laura R Cortes, Joseph M Brodsky, Taehyeon Kim, Janice M Juraska
Adolescence is associated with continued maturation of the cerebral cortex, particularly the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). We have previously documented pruning in the number of neurons, dendrites, and synapses in the rat mPFC from preadolescence to adulthood, with the period of pubertal onset being particularly important. We hypothesized that dopaminergic innervation of this region, critical for executive functions, would also be influenced by pubertal onset. Here, we measured changes in the volume of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) immunoreactive axons in all layers of the male and female mPFC from preadolescence to adulthood (postnatal Day (P) 25, 35, 45, 60, and 90) as a marker of dopaminergic innervation...
May 31, 2017: Developmental Psychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28553601/pubertal-onset-in-apparently-healthy-indian-boys-and-impact-of-obesity
#13
Vineet Surana, Aashima Dabas, Rajesh Khadgawat, Raman Kumar Marwaha, V Sreenivas, M Ashraf Ganie, Nandita Gupta, Neena Mehan
OBJECTIVE: Primary - to determine the age of pubertal onset in Indian boys. Secondary - (a) to assess the impact of obesity on pubertal timing, (b) to assess the relationship between gonadotropins and puberty. DESIGN: Cross-sectional. SETTING: General community-seven schools across New Delhi. PARTICIPANTS: Random sample of 1306 school boys, aged 6-17 years. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Anthropometric measurement for weight and height and pubertal staging was performed for all subjects...
May 2017: Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533118/white-matter-alterations-at-pubertal-onset
#14
Sila Genc, Marc L Seal, Thijs Dhollander, Charles B Malpas, Philip Hazell, Timothy J Silk
Recent neurodevelopmental research supports the contribution of pubertal stage to local and global grey and white matter remodelling. Little is known, however, about white matter microstructural alterations at pubertal onset. This study investigated differences in white matter properties between pre-pubertal and pubertal children using whole brain fixel-based analysis (FBA) of the microscopic density and macroscopic cross-section of fibre bundles. Diffusion-weighted imaging data were acquired for 74 typically developing children (M=10...
May 19, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532840/effect-of-breed-plane-of-nutrition-and-age-on-growth-scrotal-development-metabolite-concentrations-and-on-systemic-gonadotropin-and-testosterone-concentrations-following-a-gnrh-challenge-in-young-dairy-bulls
#15
C J Byrne, S Fair, A M English, C Urh, H Sauerwein, M A Crowe, P Lonergan, D A Kenny
The onset of puberty in the bull is regulated by the timing of early GnRH pulsatility release from the hypothalamus, which has been demonstrated to be affected by plane of nutrition during calf-hood. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of plane of nutrition on growth rate, scrotal development, metabolite concentrations and exogenous gonadotrophin (GnRH) induced release of luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and testosterone (TT) in pre-pubertal bulls of two contrasting dairy breeds...
July 1, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516749/international-comparison-of-adult-height-in-children-with-growth-hormone-deficiency-and-limitations-of-growth-hormone-treatment-in-japan
#16
Toshiaki Tanaka
The approved therapeutic dose of growth hormone (GH) for growth hormone deficiency (GHD) varies depending on the country. Japan has the lowest therapeutic dose globally, with a single dose of 0.175 mg/kg/week. GH treatment for GHD is considered as a replacement therapy and in fact, a dose of 0.175 mg/kg/week is slightly higher than GH secretion in prepubertal healthy children but nearly the same as that of pubertal children. Although the same growth rate as that of healthy children is expected in response to replacement therapy, the catch-up growth observed for the first 1 to 2 years of GH treatment was misinterpreted as an effect of the GH replacement therapy...
March 2017: Pediatric Endocrinology Reviews: PER
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508614/methods-for-rating-sexual-development-in-girls
#17
Vincenzo De Sanctis, Ihab Zaki Elhakim, Ashraf T Soliman, Heba Elsedfy, Rania Elalaily, Giuseppe Millimaggi
Sexual maturity rating (SMR) is important in population studies and in clinical care. Pubertal staging allows doctors to assess the maturation of adolescents to correlate several pubertal phenomena such as age at menarche, growth spurt and final height, to advise and manage patients appropriately and to have sensitive "sensors" of the effects of environmental exposure on human populations. The commonly used markers of the timing of female puberty are thelarche and menarche. Appearance of the breast bud is the first indicator of puberty onset in 90% of girls...
September 2016: Pediatric Endocrinology Reviews: PER
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503109/parental-reports-of-prodromal-psychopathology-in-pediatric-bipolar-disorder
#18
Mariely Hernandez, Ciro Marangoni, Marie C Grant, Jezelle Estrada, Gianni L Faedda
OBJECTIVES: Early psychopathology in children diagnosed with Bipolar Disorder (BD) remains poorly characterized. Parental retrospective reports provide helpful details on the earliest manifestations and their evolution over time. These symptoms occur early in the course of BD, often before a formal diagnosis is made and/or treatment is implemented, and are of great importance to early recognition and prevention. METHODS: Parents of pre-pubertal children and adolescents with DSM-IV diagnoses of BD attending an outpatient mood disorders clinic provided retrospective ratings of 37 symptoms of child psychopathology...
April 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501545/betamethasone-causes-intergenerational-reproductive-impairment-in-male-rats
#19
Cibele Dos Santos Borges, Taina Louise Pacheco, Katiussia Pinho da Silva, Fábio Henrique Fernandes, Mary Gregory, André Sampaio Pupo, Daisy Maria F Salvadori, Daniel G Cyr, Wilma De G Kempinas
Prenatal betamethasone (BM) exposure in rats negatively impacts sperm quality and male fertility. Studies have shown that BM can cause multi-generational effects on the pituitary-adrenal-axis of rats. The objective of this study was to assess the reproductive development and fertility of male rats (F2) whose fathers (F1) were exposed to BM (0.1mg/kg) on gestational days 12, 13, 18 and 19. In F2 rats, there was a significant reduction in body weights of the BM-treated group at PND 1 as well as delayed onset of puberty, and decreases in FSH levels, Leydig cell volume, sperm number and motility, seminal vesicle contractility and ejaculated volume...
May 10, 2017: Reproductive Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501319/association-of-pyrethroids-exposure-with-onset-of-puberty-in-chinese-girls
#20
Xiaoqing Ye, Wuye Pan, Yuehao Zhao, Shilin Zhao, Yimin Zhu, Weiping Liu, Jing Liu
Pyrethroids, a class of ubiquitous insecticides, have been considered as endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs). Female animal studies suggested that early-life pyrethroids exposure might delay puberty onset. However, it remains unclear whether this association applies to human populations. A total of 305 girls at the ages of 9-15 years old were recruited in Hangzhou, China in this study. The concentration of the common metabolite of pyrethroids, 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (3-PBA), was analyzed in urine samples to reflect the exposure level of pyrethroids...
August 2017: Environmental Pollution
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