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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053823/effect-of-maternally-derived-antibody-on-sequential-infection-with-highly-virulent-bursal-disease-virus-in-newly-hatched-broilers
#1
W J Jeon, H J Lee, I S Roh, Y S Yoon, J H Kim, K S Choi
Maternally derived antibodies (MDAs) are important for protection against very virulent infectious bursal disease virus (vvIBDV). In this study, 5-day-old commercial broilers with non-uniform MDA titers (with a coefficient of variation of 50%) were challenged with vvIBDV and given free contact with each other during a 2-week period. The chicks were assigned to four MDA-titer subgroups, GI-1 (very low MDA), GI-2 (low MDA), GI-3 (medium MDA), and GI-4 (high MDA). Transient symptoms of infection were observed in 35...
October 5, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053792/2017-infectious-diseases-society-of-america-clinical-practice-guidelines-for-the-diagnosis-and-management-of-infectious-diarrhea
#2
Andi L Shane, Rajal K Mody, John A Crump, Phillip I Tarr, Theodore S Steiner, Karen Kotloff, Joanne M Langley, Christine Wanke, Cirle Alcantara Warren, Allen C Cheng, Joseph Cantey, Larry K Pickering
These guidelines are intended for use by healthcare professionals who care for children and adults with suspected or confirmed infectious diarrhea. They are not intended to replace physician judgement regarding specific patients or clinical or public health situations. This document does not provide detailed recommendations on infection prevention and control aspects related to infectious diarrhea.
October 19, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053740/gene-flow-of-common-ash-fraxinus-excelsior-l-in-a-fragmented-landscape
#3
Devrim Semizer-Cuming, Erik Dahl Kjær, Reiner Finkeldey
Gene flow dynamics of common ash (Fraxinus excelsior L.) is affected by several human activities in Central Europe, including habitat fragmentation, agroforestry expansion, controlled and uncontrolled transfer of reproductive material, and a recently introduced emerging infectious disease, ash dieback, caused by Hymenoscyphus fraxineus. Habitat fragmentation may alter genetic connectivity and effective population size, leading to loss of genetic diversity and increased inbreeding in ash populations. Gene flow from cultivated trees in landscapes close to their native counterparts may also influence the adaptability of future generations...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053557/bacterial-keratitis-isolated-organisms-and-antibiotic-resistance-patterns-in-san-francisco
#4
Michelle Y Peng, Vicky Cevallos, Stephen D McLeod, Thomas M Lietman, Jennifer Rose-Nussbaumer
PURPOSE: Understanding the spectrum of pathogens in a given geographic region is important when deciding on empiric antibiotic therapy. In this study, we evaluate the spectrum of bacterial organisms cultured from corneal samples and their antibiotic sensitivities to guide initial treatment of keratitis. METHODS: We performed a retrospective case review of cultures from suspected infectious keratitis cases at the Francis I. Proctor Foundation, University of California, San Francisco, from 1996 through 2015...
October 17, 2017: Cornea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052469/vitamin-d-and-l-isoleucine-promote-antimicrobial-peptide-hbd-2-production-in-peripheral-blood-mononuclear-cells-from-elderly-individuals
#5
Julio E Castañeda-Delgado, Zajda Araujo, Irma Gonzalez-Curiel, Carmen J Serrano, Cesar Rivas Santiago, Jose A Enciso-Moreno, Bruno Rivas-Santiago
Elderly individuals are susceptible to develop infectious diseases; promoting innate immunity to prevent infections is a key issue. Human β-defensin-2 (hBD-2) is an antimicrobial peptide with antimicrobial and immunomodulatory properties. L-isoleucine and vitamin D are important molecules that induce hBD-2. The Aim of this study was to determine the use L-isoleucine and Vitamin D to induce hBD-2 in cells from healthy elderly individuals and elderly individuals with recurrent infections. We explored three groups: young adults (n = 20) used as control group, elderly adults (n = 18) and elderly with recurrent infections (n = 11)...
October 20, 2017: International Journal for Vitamin and Nutrition Research. Journal International de Vitaminologie et de Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052143/interplay-between-microenvironmental-abnormalities-and-infectious-agents-in-tumorigenesis
#6
Qing Zhu, Feng Gu, Caixia Zhu, Yuyan Wang, Fang Wei, Qiliang Cai
Emerging evidence has shown that the cell of microenvironmental abnormalities is a key factor that controls many cellular physiological processes including cellular communication, homing, proliferation, and survival. Given its central regulatory role, it is therefore not surprising that it is widely exploited by infectious agents for inducing pathogenesis. In the past decade, a number of oncogenic pathogens including viruses, bacteria, and parasites are demonstrated to take advantage of the tumor microenvironmental factors including hypoxia, oxidative stress, and cytokines, to create an extracellular environment more favorable for pathogen survival and propagation and escape from the host immune surveillance...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052092/a-72-h-intervention-for-improvement-of-the-rate-of-optimal-antibiotic-therapy-in-patients-with-bloodstream-infections
#7
R Murri, F Taccari, T Spanu, T D'Inzeo, I Mastrorosa, F Giovannenze, G Scoppettuolo, G Ventura, C Palazzolo, M Camici, S Lardo, B Fiori, M Sanguinetti, R Cauda, M Fantoni
Antimicrobial stewardship programs are implemented to optimize the use of antibiotics and control the spread of antibiotic resistance. Many antimicrobial stewardship interventions have demonstrated significant efficacy in reducing unnecessary prescriptions of antibiotics, the duration of antimicrobial therapy, and mortality. We evaluated the benefits of a combination of rapid diagnostic tests and an active re-evaluation of antibiotic therapy 72 h after the onset of bloodstream infection (BSI). All patients with BSI from November 2015 to November 2016 in a 1100-bed university hospital in Rome, where an Infectious Disease Consultancy Unit (Unità di Consulenza Infettivologica, UDCI) is available, were re-evaluated at the bedside 72 h after starting antimicrobial therapy and compared to two pre-intervention periods: the UDCI was called by the ward physician for patients with BSI and the UDCI was called directly by the microbiologist immediately after a pathogen was isolated from blood cultures...
October 19, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051316/profile-of-pig-farms-combining-high-performance-and-low-antimicrobial-usage-within-four-european-countries
#8
Lucie Collineau, Annette Backhans, Jeroen Dewulf, Ulf Emanuelson, Elisabeth Grosse Beilage, Anne Lehébel, Svenja Loesken, Elisabeth Okholm Nielsen, Merel Postma, Marie Sjölund, Katharina D C Stärk, Catherine Belloc
Pig farmers are strongly encouraged to reduce their antimicrobial usage because of the rising threat from antimicrobial resistance. However, such efforts should not compromise the herd health status and performance. This study aimed to describe the profile of so-called 'top-farms' that managed to combine both high technical performance and low antimicrobial usage. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 227 farrow-to-finish farms in Belgium, France, Germany and Sweden. Among them, 44 farms were allocated to the top-farms group and were compared with the 'regular' farms group in terms of farm characteristics, biosecurity and health status...
October 19, 2017: Veterinary Record
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050752/maternal-substance-use-disorders-and-infant-outcomes-in-the-first-year-of-life-among-massachusetts-singletons-2003-2010
#9
Sunah S Hwang, Hafsatou Diop, Chia-Ling Liu, Qi Yu, Hermik Babakhanlou-Chase, Xiaohui Cui, Milton Kotelchuck
OBJECTIVE: To determine the association of maternal substance use disorders (SUDs) during pregnancy with adverse neonatal outcomes and infant hospital re-admissions, observational stays, and emergency department utilization in the first year of life. STUDY DESIGN: We analyzed 2 linked statewide datasets from 2002 to 2010: the Massachusetts Pregnancy to Early Life Longitudinal data system and the Massachusetts Bureau of Substance Abuse Services Management Information System...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050187/-cytokine-analysis-of-aqueous-humor-in-aids-patients
#10
W J Kong, C G Guo, L Y Xie, W B Wei, H W Dong, C Chen, K F Du
Objective: To explore the Cytokine of aqueous humor in AIDS patients with different eye diseases. Methods: A case-control study including 38 patients who was diagnosed as acquired immunodeficiency syndrome(AIDS) at Infectious Center and Department of Ophthalmology in Beijing You'an Hospital, Capital Medical University. And 16 cases of 38 patients were cytomegalovirus retinitis (CMVR), 14 cases were HIV-related retinal disease, and 8 cases presented as normal. A series of tests were performed including vision acuity check, intraocular pressure, fundus photography, blood cell count of CD4+ T lymphocyte and the content of cytokines in aqueous humor by Luminex 200(TM) liquid chip analyzer...
October 11, 2017: [Zhonghua Yan Ke za Zhi] Chinese Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049371/combining-epidemiology-with-basic-biology-of-sand-flies-parasites-and-hosts-to-inform-leishmaniasis-transmission-dynamics-and-control
#11
REVIEW
Orin Courtenay, Nathan C Peters, Matthew E Rogers, Caryn Bern
Quantitation of the nonlinear heterogeneities in Leishmania parasites, sand fly vectors, and mammalian host relationships provides insights to better understand leishmanial transmission epidemiology towards improving its control. The parasite manipulates the sand fly via production of promastigote secretory gel (PSG), leading to the "blocked sand fly" phenotype, persistent feeding attempts, and feeding on multiple hosts. PSG is injected into the mammalian host with the parasite and promotes the establishment of infection...
October 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049254/one-stage-posterior-approaches-for-treatment-of-thoracic-spinal-infection-transforaminal-and-costotransversectomy-compared-with-anterior-approach-with-posterior-instrumentation
#12
Fu-Cheng Kao, Tsung-Ting Tsai, Chi-Chien Niu, Po-Liang Lai, Lih-Huei Chen, Wen-Jer Chen
Treating thoracic infective spondylodiscitis with anterior surgical approaches carry a relatively high risk of perioperative and postoperative complications. Posterior approaches have been reported to result in lower complication rates than anterior procedures, but more evidence is needed to demonstrate the safety and efficacy of 1-stage posterior approaches for treating infectious thoracic spondylodiscitis.Preoperative and postoperative clinical data, of 18 patients who underwent 2 types of 1-stage posterior procedures, costotransversectomy and transforaminal thoracic interbody debridement and fusion and 7 patients who underwent anterior debridement and reconstruction with posterior instrumentation, were retrospectively assessed...
October 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046809/hospital-resuscitation-teams-a-review-of-the-risks-to-the-healthcare-worker
#13
REVIEW
Stephen M Vindigni, Juan N Lessing, David J Carlbom
BACKGROUND: "Code blue" events and related resuscitation efforts involve multidisciplinary bedside teams that implement specialized interventions aimed at patient revival. Activities include performing effective chest compressions, assessing and restoring a perfusing cardiac rhythm, stabilizing the airway, and treating the underlying cause of the arrest. While the existing critical care literature has appropriately focused on the patient, there has been a dearth of information discussing the various stresses to the healthcare team...
2017: Journal of Intensive Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046789/a-retrospective-study-of-late-adverse-events-in-proton-beam-therapy-for-prostate-cancer
#14
Hirokazu Makishima, Hitoshi Ishikawa, Keiichi Tanaka, Yutaro Mori, Masashi Mizumoto, Kayoko Ohnishi, Teruhito Aihara, Nobuyoshi Fukumitsu, Toshiyuki Okumura, Hideyuki Sakurai
The efficacy and safety of proton beam therapy (PBT) were retrospectively evaluated in 111 consecutive patients with prostate cancer who underwent definitive PBT between 2008 and 2012. Following exclusion of 18 patients due to treatment suspension, loss to follow-up, and histology, the analysis included 93 patients with a median age of 68 years (range, 49-81 years). A total of 7, 32 and 54 prostate cancer patients were classified as low-, intermediate- and high-risk, respectively, as follows: High-risk, T≥3a or prostate-specific antigen (PSA) ≥20 ng/ml or Gleason Score ≥8; low-risk, T ≤2b and PSA≤10 ng/ml and Gleason Score=6; intermediate-risk, all other combinations...
October 2017: Molecular and Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046768/smartphones-and-e-tablets-in-perioperative-medicine
#15
REVIEW
Frederic Michard
Smartphones and electronic tablets (e-tablets) have become ubiquitous devices. Their ease of use, smartness, accessibility, mobility and connectivity create unique opportunities to improve quality of surgical care from prehabilitation to rehabilitation. Before surgery, digital applications (Apps), serious games and text messaging may help for a better control of risk factors (hypertension, overweight), for smoking cessation, and for optimizing adherence to preoperative recommendations (e.g., regarding anticoagulation or antihypertensive treatments)...
October 2017: Korean Journal of Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046456/viperin-targets-flavivirus-virulence-by-inducing-assembly-of-non-infectious-capsid-particles
#16
Kirstin Vonderstein, Emma Nilsson, Philipp Hubel, Lars Nygård Skalman, Arunkumar Upadhyay, Jenny Pasto, Andreas Pichlmair, Richard Lundmark, Anna K Överby
Efficient antiviral immunity requires interference with virus replication at multiple layers targeting diverse steps in the viral life cycle. Here we describe a novel flavivirus inhibition mechanism that results in interferon-mediated obstruction of tick-borne encephalitis virus particle assembly, and involves release of malfunctional membrane associated capsid (C) particles. This mechanism is controlled by the activity of the interferon-induced protein viperin, a broad spectrum antiviral interferon stimulated gene...
October 18, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046295/free-circulating-active-elastase-contributes-to-chronic-inflammation-in-hemodialysis-patients
#17
Eman Khatib-Massalha, Regina Michelis, Beny Trabelcy, Yoram Gerchman, Batya Kristal, Amiram Ariel, Shifra Sela
Atherosclerosis and cardiovascular complications are prevalent among patients undergoing chronic hemodialysis (HD). In this population, peripheral polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNLs) are primed, releasing pro-inflammatory mediators, such as elastase. Elastase is normally inhibited by a specific inhibitor, avoiding undesirable degradation of cellular and extracellular components. This study tested the hypothesis that in states of non-infectious inflammation, elastase is released by PMNLs and acts in an uncontrolled manner to inflict vascular damage...
October 18, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045406/microrna-profiling-of-human-primary-macrophages-exposed-to-dengue-virus-identifies-mirna-3614-5p-as-antiviral-and-regulator-of-adar1-expression
#18
Mayra Diosa-Toro, Liliana Echavarría-Consuegra, Jacky Flipse, Geysson Javier Fernández, Joost Kluiver, Anke van den Berg, Silvio Urcuqui-Inchima, Jolanda M Smit
BACKGROUND: Due to the high burden of dengue disease worldwide, a better understanding of the interactions between dengue virus (DENV) and its human host cells is of the outmost importance. Although microRNAs modulate the outcome of several viral infections, their contribution to DENV replication is poorly understood. METHODS AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We investigated the microRNA expression profile of primary human macrophages challenged with DENV and deciphered the contribution of microRNAs to infection...
October 18, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044372/should-we-be-treating-animal-schistosomiasis-in-africa-the-need-for-a-one-health-economic-evaluation-of-schistosomiasis-control-in-people-and-their-livestock
#19
Charlotte M Gower, Louise Vince, Joanne P Webster
A One Health economic perspective allows informed decisions to be made regarding control priorities and/or implementation strategies for infectious diseases. Schistosomiasis is a major and highly resilient disease of both humans and livestock. The zoonotic component of transmission in sub-Saharan Africa appears to be more significant than previously assumed, and may thereby affect the recently revised WHO vision to eliminate schistosomiasis as a public health problem by 2025. Moreover, animal schistosomiasis is likely to be a significant cost to affected communities due to its direct and indirect impact on livelihoods...
June 1, 2017: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043989/antiviral-screening-of-four-plant-extracts-against-acyclovir-resistant-herpes-simplex-virus-type-1
#20
Masoud Parsania, Mohammad-Bagher Rezaee, Seyed Hamidreza Monavari, Kamkar Jaimand, Seyed Milad Mousavi-Jazayeri, Mehdi Razazian, Mohammad Hossein Nadjarha
Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) causes serious infections particularly in immunocompromised patients. Methanolic extract of four plants were evaluated for their anti-viral effects against acyclovir resistant HSV-1 in HeLa cell line. The 50% cytotoxic concentration (CC50) as well as the effective minimal cytotoxic concentration of each plant extract were evaluated by MTT assay. Antiviral effects of the plant extracts on HSV-1 were examined at different concentrations of the extract. The effective minimal cytotoxic concentration was evaluated at different times of virus replication after infection...
July 2017: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
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