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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678879/potassium-is-a-trigger-for-conformational-change-in-the-fusion-spike-of-an-enveloped-rna-virus
#1
Emma K Punch, Samantha Hover, Henry Tw Blest, Jack Fuller, Roger Hewson, Juan Fontana, Jamel Mankouri, John N Barr
Many enveloped viruses enter cells through the endocytic network, from which they must subsequently escape through fusion of viral and endosomal membranes. This membrane fusion is mediated by virus-encoded spikes that respond to the changing endosomal environment, which triggers conformational change in the spike that initiate the fusion process. Several fusion triggers have been identified and include pH, membrane composition and endosome-resident proteins and these cues dictate when and where viral fusion occurs...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678233/selection-of-avibacterium-paragallinarum-page-serovar-b-strains-for-an-infectious-coryza-vaccine
#2
Huiling Sun, Sanlei Xie, Xiaofei Li, Fuzhou Xu, Yi Li, Charlotte E Boucher, Xiaoling Chen
Infectious coryza is an important respiratory disease of chickens around the world and is caused by Avibacterium paragallinarum. Among the three Page serovars currently recognized for this bacterium, serovar B is a major circulating serovar in China nowadays. The cross-protection ability of the Page serovar B reference strain (0222) and five local isolates was evaluated by a vaccination-challenge trial in SPF chickens. The clinical signs seen in control birds challenged by strain 0222 and isolate HB 01 were significantly different, with isolate HB 01 giving more severe clinical signs...
May 2018: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675054/analysis-and-numerical-simulations-of-a-stochastic-seiqr-epidemic-system-with-quarantine-adjusted-incidence-and-imperfect-vaccination
#3
Fei Li, Xinzhu Meng, Xinzeng Wang
This paper considers a high-dimensional stochastic SEIQR (susceptible-exposed-infected-quarantined-recovered) epidemic model with quarantine-adjusted incidence and the imperfect vaccination. The main aim of this study is to investigate stochastic effects on the SEIQR epidemic model and obtain its thresholds. We first obtain the sufficient condition for extinction of the disease of the stochastic system. Then, by using the theory of Hasminskii and the Lyapunov analysis methods, we show there is a unique stationary distribution of the stochastic system and it has an ergodic property, which means the infectious disease is prevalent...
2018: Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674675/pathogen-derived-extracellular-vesicles-mediate-virulence-in-the-fatal-human-pathogen-cryptococcus-gattii
#4
Ewa Bielska, Marta Arch Sisquella, Maha Aldeieg, Charlotte Birch, Eloise J O'Donoghue, Robin C May
The Pacific Northwest outbreak of cryptococcosis, caused by a near-clonal lineage of the fungal pathogen Cryptococcus gattii, represents the most significant cluster of life-threatening fungal infections in otherwise healthy human hosts currently known. The outbreak lineage has a remarkable ability to grow rapidly within human white blood cells, using a unique 'division of labour' mechanism within the pathogen population, where some cells adopt a dormant behaviour to support the growth of neighbouring cells...
April 19, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673967/simple-multi-scale-modeling-of-the-transmission-dynamics-of-the-1905-plague-epidemic-in-bombay
#5
Bruce Pell, Tin Phan, Erica M Rutter, Gerardo Chowell, Yang Kuang
The first few disease generations of an infectious disease outbreak is the most critical phase to implement control interventions. The lack of accurate data and information during the early transmission phase hinders the application of complex compartmental models to make predictions and forecasts about important epidemic quantities. Thus, simpler models are often times better tools to understand the early dynamics of an outbreak particularly in the context of limited data. In this paper we mechanistically derive and fit a family of logistic models to spatial-temporal data of the 1905 plague epidemic in Bombay, India...
April 16, 2018: Mathematical Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673804/infectious-disease-health-services-for-refugees-and-asylum-seekers-during-a-time-of-crisis-a-scoping-study-of-six-european-union-countries
#6
Kayvan Bozorgmehr, Mariya Samuilova, Roumyana Petrova-Benedict, Enrico Girardi, Pierluca Piselli, Alexander Kentikelenis
BACKGROUND: Systematic information on infectious disease services provided to refugees and asylum seekers in the European Union (EU) is sparse. We conducted a scoping study of experts in six EU countries in order to map health system responses related to infectious disease prevention and control among refugees and asylum seekers. METHODS: We conducted 27 semi-structured in-depth interviews with first-line staff and health officials to collect information about existing guidelines and practices at each stage of reception in first-entry (Greece/Italy), transit (Croatia/Slovenia), and destination countries (Austria/Sweden)...
April 11, 2018: Health Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672626/engystol-reduces-onset-of-experimental-respiratory-syncytial-virus-induced-respiratory-inflammation-in-mice-by-modulating-macrophage-phagocytic-capacity
#7
Sabine Wronski, Julia Dannenmaier, Sabine Schild, Olaf Macke, Laura Müller, Yvonne Burmeister, Bernd Seilheimer, Meike Müller
BACKGROUND: Respiratory viruses such as respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) or rhinovirus are one of the major causes for respiratory tract infections causing common cold disease. Respiratory viral infections range from mild symptoms in adults to serious illness especially in the very young or elderly as well as patients suffering from lung diseases or being immunocompromised due to other reasons. Engystol (EGY-2) is a multicomponent, multitarget preparation consisting of Vincetoxicum hirundinaria and Sulfur in various dilutions...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672594/type-i-interferon-signaling-attenuates-regulatory-t-cell-function-in-viral-infection-and-in-the-tumor-microenvironment
#8
Arunakumar Gangaplara, Craig Martens, Eric Dahlstrom, Amina Metidji, Ameya S Gokhale, Deborah D Glass, Maria Lopez-Ocasio, Rachel Baur, Kishore Kanakabandi, Stephen F Porcella, Ethan M Shevach
Regulatory T cells (Tregs) play a cardinal role in the immune system by suppressing detrimental autoimmune responses, but their role in acute, chronic infectious diseases and tumor microenvironment remains unclear. We recently demonstrated that IFN-α/β receptor (IFNAR) signaling promotes Treg function in autoimmunity. Here we dissected the functional role of IFNAR-signaling in Tregs using Treg-specific IFNAR deficient (IFNARfl/flxFoxp3YFP-Cre) mice in acute LCMV Armstrong, chronic Clone-13 viral infection, and in tumor models...
April 19, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672510/rodent-borne-diseases-and-their-public-health-importance-in-iran
#9
REVIEW
Mohammad Hasan Rabiee, Ahmad Mahmoudi, Roohollah Siahsarvie, Boris Kryštufek, Ehsan Mostafavi
BACKGROUND: Rodents are reservoirs and hosts for several zoonotic diseases such as plague, leptospirosis, and leishmaniasis. Rapid development of industry and agriculture, as well as climate change throughout the globe, has led to change or increase in occurrence of rodent-borne diseases. Considering the distribution of rodents throughout Iran, the aim of this review is to assess the risk of rodent-borne diseases in Iran. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDING: We searched Google Scholar, PubMed, Science Direct, Scientific Information Database (SID), and Magiran databases up to September 2016 to obtain articles reporting occurrence of rodent-borne diseases in Iran and extract information from them...
April 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671364/infectious-complications-in-morbidly-adherent-placenta-treated-with-leaving-placenta-in-situ-a-cohort-series-and-suggested-approach
#10
Mehmet Kutuk, Aysegul Kilic, Mehmet Ak, Mahmut Ozgun
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study is to assess the clinical and microbiological features of infections in patients with morbidly adherent placenta (MAP) treated by leaving placenta in situ (LPIS). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Retrospective analysis of MAP cases who were treated by LPIS between 2 May, 2010 and 15 March 2017. The inclusion criteria's were: gestational age at or above 24 weeks, prenatal diagnosis elective operation, and complete data. RESULTS: Nineteen MAP cases were treated by LPIS during the study period...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670718/evaluating-the-relationship-between-dental-caries-number-and-salivary-level-of-iga-in-adults
#11
Hesam Haeri-Araghi, Mahdieh Zarabadipour, Shadab Safarzadeh-Khosroshahi, Monirsadat Mirzadeh
Background: Dental caries are the most common mouth infectious disease and also chronic disease of childhood. Saliva plays different roles in oral cavity; for example, salivary immunoglobulins play significant role in body and oral immunity. Various studies were conducted on the different effects of IgA on oral cavity, especially dental caries, and reported controversial results. The current study aimed to compare salivary IgA level at different stages of dental caries in adults. Material and Methods: A total of 40 adults, aged 20 to 40 years, referred to the department of oral medicine at Qazvin Faculty of Dentistry, were selected voluntarily based on the number of decayed teeth...
January 2018: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670609/enhanced-replication-of-virulent-newcastle-disease-virus-in-chicken-macrophages-is-due-to-polarized-activation-of-cells-by-inhibition-of-tlr7
#12
Pingze Zhang, Zhuang Ding, Xinxin Liu, Yanyu Chen, Junjiao Li, Zhi Tao, Yidong Fei, Cong Xue, Jing Qian, Xueli Wang, Qingmei Li, Tobias Stoeger, Jianjun Chen, Yuhai Bi, Renfu Yin
Newcastle disease (ND), caused by infections with virulent strains of Newcastle disease virus (NDV), is one of the most important infectious disease affecting wild, peridomestic, and domestic birds worldwide. Vaccines constructed from live, low-virulence (lentogenic) viruses are the most accepted prevention and control strategies for combating ND in poultry across the globe. Avian macrophages are one of the first cell lines of defense against microbial infection, responding to signals in the microenvironment...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670069/a-novel-energy-efficient-multi-sensor-fusion-wake-up-control-strategy-based-on-a-biomimetic-infectious-immune-mechanism-for-target-tracking
#13
Jie Zhou, Yan Liang, Qiang Shen, Xiaoxue Feng, Quan Pan
A biomimetic distributed infection-immunity model (BDIIM), inspired by the immune mechanism of an infected organism, is proposed in order to achieve a high-efficiency wake-up control strategy based on multi-sensor fusion for target tracking. The resultant BDIIM consists of six sub-processes reflecting the infection-immunity mechanism: occurrence probabilities of direct-infection (DI) and cross-infection (CI), immunity/immune-deficiency of DI and CI, pathogen amount of DI and CI, immune cell production, immune memory, and pathogen accumulation under immunity state...
April 18, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668629/asymptomatic-intrathyroidal-pyriform-sinus-fistula-mimicking-thyroid-cancer-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#14
Soo Chin Kim, Ji-Hoon Kim, Jae-Kyung Won, Eun Jae Chung
RATIONALE: There have been many reports of non-thyroidal lesions which can be mistaken for thyroidal lesions on ultrasound (US) examination. However, it is not known that pyriform sinus fistula (PSF) can manifest as an incidental thyroid nodule and cause serious complication on fine-needle aspiration (FNA). PATIENT CONCERNS: We present a 34-year-old man with PSF incidentally detected on US. US examination showed hypoechoic nodule with several bright echogenic spots at the uppermost part of left thyroid gland...
April 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668544/splenectomy-to-optimize-hemoglobin-s-control-in-children-with-sickle-cell-anemia-on-chronic-transfusion-therapy-for-stroke-prevention
#15
L Vandy Black, Jolie S Ramesar, Catherine H Boston
Chronic transfusion therapy with the goal of maintaining a hemoglobin (Hb) S <30% is the primary recommended treatment for children with sickle cell anemia and a history of overt stroke or abnormal transcranial Doppler examination. We report chronic hypersplenism as a cause of poor HbS% control in 3 children on chronic transfusion therapy for stroke prevention. Splenectomy resulted in a 39.77% (95% confidence interval, 34.3-45.3, P<0.0001) mean reduction in HbS% with no perioperative or infectious complications suggesting the need for additional research into splenectomy as a therapeutic option for select high-risk children to optimize transfusion therapy for stroke prevention...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Hematology/oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666966/point-of-care-lung-ultrasound-for-diagnosis-of-pneumocystis-jirovecii-pneumonia-notes-from-the-field
#16
Maria Teresa Giordani, Francesca Tamarozzi, Daniel Kaminstein, Enrico Brunetti, Tom Heller
BACKGROUND: Thoracic ultrasound is helpful to evaluate lung pathology in patients with acute dyspnea. Several studies have demonstrated the efficacy of point-of-care ultrasound in patients with extrapulmonary TB and HIV co-infection. This retrospective, open-label case-control study explores the role of lung ultrasound in the diagnosis of Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PJP) in HIV-positive patients. In particular, it highlights the potential role of specific sonographic features that may be unique to this population...
April 17, 2018: Critical Ultrasound Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666030/resection-arthroplasty-compared-with-total-hip-arthroplasty-in-treating-chronic-hip-pain-of-patients-with-a-history-of-substance-abuse
#17
William Curtis, Meir Marmor
BACKGROUND: Retrospective comparison of surgical management of severe hip pain in patients with a history of substance abuse treated by modified Girdlestone resection arthroplasty (RA) vs delayed total hip arthroplasty (THA) following yearlong sobriety pathway. METHODS: Patients were identified using charts, current procedural terminology (CPT) code query, and THA sobriety pathway registry. The primary outcome was adequate pain control following surgery, defined as visual analog scale ≤ 5 or verbal description of "moderate" or lower pain...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Arthroplasty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665783/surveillance-on-the-endemic-of-zika-virus-infection-by-meteorological-factors-in-colombia-a-population-based-spatial-and-temporal-study
#18
Lung-Chang Chien, Ro-Ting Lin, Yunqi Liao, Francisco S Sy, Adriana Pérez
BACKGROUND: Zika virus (ZIKV) infection is a pandemic and a public health emergency. It is transmitted by mosquitoes, primarily the Aedes genus. In light of no treatment currently, it is crucial to develop effective vector control programs to prevent the spread of ZIKV infection earlier when observing possible risk factors, such as weather conditions enhancing mosquito breeding and surviving. METHODS: This study collected daily meteorological measurements and weekly ZIKV infectious cases among 32 departments of Colombia from January 2015-December 2016...
April 17, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665775/contact-among-healthcare-workers-in-the-hospital-setting-developing-the-evidence-base-for-innovative-approaches-to-infection-control
#19
Krista M English, Joanne M Langley, Allison McGeer, Nathaniel Hupert, Raymond Tellier, Bonnie Henry, Scott A Halperin, Lynn Johnston, Babak Pourbohloul
BACKGROUND: Nosocomial, or healthcare-associated infections (HAI), exact a high medical and financial toll on patients, healthcare workers, caretakers, and the health system. Interpersonal contact patterns play a large role in infectious disease spread, but little is known about the relationship between health care workers' (HCW) movements and contact patterns within a heath care facility and HAI. Quantitatively capturing these patterns will aid in understanding the dynamics of HAI and may lead to more targeted and effective control strategies in the hospital setting...
April 17, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664914/ahl-lactonase-expression-in-three-marine-emerging-pathogenic-vibrio-spp-reduces-virulence-and-mortality-in-brine-shrimp-artemia-salina-and-manila-clam-venerupis-philippinarum
#20
Marta Torres, José Carlos Reina, Juan Carlos Fuentes-Monteverde, Gerardo Fernández, Jaime Rodríguez, Carlos Jiménez, Inmaculada Llamas
Bacterial infectious diseases produced by Vibrio are the main cause of economic losses in aquaculture. During recent years it has been shown that the expression of virulence genes in some Vibrio species is controlled by a population-density dependent gene-expression mechanism known as quorum sensing (QS), which is mediated by the diffusion of signal molecules such as N-acylhomoserine lactones (AHLs). QS disruption, especially the enzymatic degradation of signalling molecules, known as quorum quenching (QQ), is one of the novel therapeutic strategies for the treatment of bacterial infections...
2018: PloS One
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