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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538389/antimicrobial-resistance-patterns-clinical-features-and-risk-factors-for-septic-shock-and-death-of-nosocomial-e-coli-bacteremia-in-adult-patients-with-hematological-disease-a-monocenter-retrospective-study-in-china
#1
Jie Ma, Ning Li, Yajie Liu, Chong Wang, Xiaoyan Liu, Shengmei Chen, Xinsheng Xie, Silin Gan, Meng Wang, Weijie Cao, Fang Wang, Yanfan Liu, Dingming Wan, Ling Sun, Hui Sun
The aim of this retrospective analysis was to evaluate the antimicrobial resistance, clinical features, and risk factors for septic shock and death of nosocomial E coli bacteremia in adult patients in a single hematological center in China. A retrospective case-control study of 157 adult hematological patients with 168 episodes of E coli bacteremia was initiated from April 2012 to July 2015. Antimicrobial susceptibility as well as antimicrobial co-resistance rates were analyzed. Clinical features and outcomes were also studied...
May 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534544/-factors-predicting-failure-in-empirical-antibiotic-treatment
#2
REVIEW
E J García-Lamberechts, J González-Del Castillo, A I Hormigo Sánchez, M J Núñez-Orantos, F J Candel, F J Martín-Sánchez
Infections are one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality in the population. The choice of empirical treatment is one of the most common decisions facing the physician. This first decision has consequences in the prognosis of the patient and the costs associated with the process. This review attempts to summarize the aspects that can lead to failure of antibiotic treatment by considering microbiological and pharmacological aspects, patient profile and infectious focus control. In addition, a series of recommendations are established to minimize this risk, from the point of view of diagnostic accuracy, adequate severity stratification of the patient, knowledge of the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic aspects of antibiotics and control of the infectious focus...
April 30, 2017: Anales del Sistema Sanitario de Navarra
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534320/infectious-keratitis-and-orthokeratology-lens-use-a-systematic-review
#3
REVIEW
Ka Wai Kam, Wing Yung, Gabriel Ka Hin Li, Li Jia Chen, Alvin L Young
PURPOSE: Myopia is a prevalent condition among Asians. Orthokeratology lens has gained popularity as a method of myopia control. This systematic review is to summarize the clinical profile of infectious keratitis in association with orthokeratology lens wear. METHODS: We searched in the PubMed and EMBASE for articles adopting the search strategy "(orthokeratology lens OR orthokeratology) AND (bacterial eye infection OR keratitis OR cornea ulcer OR microbial keratitis OR bacterial keratitis)", from the start date of the databases to August 23, 2016...
May 22, 2017: Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533993/bilateral-external-ventricular-drain-placement-and-intraventricular-irrigation-combined-with-concomitant-serial-prone-patient-positioning-a-novel-treatment-for-gravity-dependent-layering-in-bacterial-ventriculitis
#4
Andrew K Chan, Harjus S Birk, John K Yue, Ethan A Winkler, Michael W McDermott
A feared complication of ventricular access for drainage or shunting is ventriculitis. Early diagnosis and treatment is vital to prevent morbidity and mortality. Efficacy of directed antibiotic therapy in ventriculitis is limited by increasing multidrug resistant microorganisms and insufficient systemic antibiotic absorption into the cerebrospinal fluid. Treatment may involve intravenous and/or intrathecal antibiotics as well as external ventricular drainage. We present the first case report suggesting a potential role of a novel technique - direct ventricular catheter-mediated continuous saline irrigation and serial prone patient positioning - to treat a fulminant bacterial ventriculitis...
April 18, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533402/behavioral-and-neural-correlates-to-multisensory-detection-of-sick-humans
#5
Christina Regenbogen, John Axelsson, Julie Lasselin, Danja K Porada, Tina Sundelin, Moa G Peter, Mats Lekander, Johan N Lundström, Mats J Olsson
Throughout human evolution, infectious diseases have been a primary cause of death. Detection of subtle cues indicating sickness and avoidance of sick conspecifics would therefore be an adaptive way of coping with an environment fraught with pathogens. This study determines how humans perceive and integrate early cues of sickness in conspecifics sampled just hours after the induction of immune system activation, and the underlying neural mechanisms for this detection. In a double-blind placebo-controlled crossover design, the immune system in 22 sample donors was transiently activated with an endotoxin injection [lipopolysaccharide (LPS)]...
May 22, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532931/infectious-keratitis-after-laser-vision-correction-incidence-and-risk-factors
#6
Julie M Schallhorn, Steven C Schallhorn, Keith Hettinger, Stephen Hannan
PURPOSE: To describe the incidence and risk factors associated with microbial keratitis in a large population of laser vision correction (LVC) patients. SETTING: Optical Express centers, Glasgow, United Kingdom. DESIGN: Retrospective case series. METHODS: Records were searched to identify all cases of presumed microbial keratitis after LVC between January 1, 2008, and April 1, 2015. Consecutive patients having primary or enhancement LVC during that time served as controls...
April 2017: Journal of Cataract and Refractive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532458/results-of-an-early-intervention-programme-for-patients-with-bacteraemia-analysis-of-prognostic-factors-and-mortality
#7
A Del Arco, J Olalla, J de la Torre, A Blázquez, N Montiel-Quezel, J L Prada, F Rivas, J García-Alegría, F Fernández-Sánchez
BACKGROUND: Bacteraemia is a common cause of morbidity and mortality in patients admitted to hospital. The aim of this study is to analyse the results of a two-year programme for the early optimisation of antibiotic treatment in patients admitted to the Costa del Sol Hospital (Marbella. Spain). METHODS: A prospective two-year cohort study was conducted, evaluating all episodes of bacteraemia at the Costa del Sol Hospital. Epidemiological and microbiological characteristics, any modification of the initial antibiotic treatment, prognostic risk stratification, early mortality related to the episode of bacteraemia, and mortality after the seventh day, were included in the analysis...
May 22, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531279/mechanisms-governing-inflammasome-activation-assembly-and-pyroptosis-induction
#8
Sannula Kesavardhana, Thirumala-Devi Kanneganti
Inflammasomes are multimeric protein complexes that regulate inflammatory responses and pyroptotic cell death to exert host defense against microbes. Intracellular pattern-recognition receptors such as nucleotide-binding domain and leucine-rich repeat receptors (NLRs) and absent in melanoma 2 like receptors (ALRs) assemble the inflammasome complexes in response to pathogens and danger or altered-self signals in the cell. Inflammasome sensors, in association with an adaptor protein - apoptosis associated speck-like protein containing a caspase-activation and -recruitment domain (ASC) - activate inflammatory caspase-1 to enable the release of inflammatory cytokines and induce cell death, conferring host defense against pathogens...
May 20, 2017: International Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531247/the-health-cost-of-tobacco-use-in-uganda
#9
Nigar Nargis, Kellen Nyamurungi, Sebastian Olakira Baine, Daniel Kadobera
The economic cost of tobacco use is well documented in high-income countries. It has been measured in relatively fewer low-and middle-income countries, and much less in sub-Saharan Africa despite the longstanding recognition of significant current and future health risk to people attributed by tobacco use in this region. This article fills this gap by estimating the economic cost of tobacco use in Uganda, a low-income country in sub-Saharan Africa. This study estimates the economic cost of tobacco use in Uganda using the cost-of-illnesses approach based on data collected from a survey of patients and caregivers in four major service centers in Mulago National Referral Hospital, namely, Uganda Cancer Institute, Uganda Heart Institute, Chest Clinic and Diabetic Clinic, key informant interviews and secondary sources for the year 2014...
May 22, 2017: Health Policy and Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529738/therapeutic-benefits-of-glutamine-an-umbrella-review-of-meta-analyses
#10
Marc P McRae
Glutamine may be an essential amino acid in patients with catabolic disease, as it has been demonstrated that circulating glutamine levels drop during critical illness and following major surgery; this may result in an increase in secondary infection risk, recovery time and mortality rates. However, there is much discrepancy in the literature with regards to randomized controlled studies, and therefore, the present study is an umbrella review of published meta-analyses, conducted to examine the effectiveness of glutamine's role as a therapeutic agent...
May 2017: Biomedical Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529540/the-potential-role-of-infectious-agents-and-pelvic-inflammatory-disease-in-ovarian-carcinogenesis
#11
REVIEW
Kasper Ingerslev, Estrid Hogdall, Tine Henrichsen Schnack, Wojciech Skovrider-Ruminski, Claus Hogdall, Jan Blaakaer
BACKGROUND: The etiological cause of ovarian cancer is poorly understood. It has been theorized that bacterial or viral infection as well as pelvic inflammatory disease could play a role in ovarian carcinogenesis. AIM: To review the literature on studies examining the association between ovarian cancer and bacterial or viral infection or pelvic inflammatory disease. METHODS: Database search through MEDLINE, applying the medical subject headings: "Ovarian neoplasms", AND "Chlamydia infections", "Neisseria gonorrhoeae", "Mycoplasma genitalium", "Papillomaviridae", or "pelvic inflammatory disease"...
2017: Infectious Agents and Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529302/changes-of-global-infectious-disease-governance-in-2000s-rise-of-global-health-security-and-transformation-of-infectious-disease-control-system-in-south-korea
#12
Eun Kyung Choi, Jong-Koo Lee
This paper focus upon the changes of global infectious disease governance in 2000s and the transformation of infectious disease control system in South Korea. Traditionally, infectious disease was globally governed by the quarantine regulated by the international conventions. When an infectious disease outbreak occurred in one country, each country prevented transmission of the disease through the standardized quarantine since the installation of international sanitary convention in 1892. Republic of Korea also organized the infectious disease control system with quarantine and disease report procedure after the establishment of government...
December 2016: Ŭi Sahak
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528844/prevalence-of-chlamydia-trachomatis-and-neisseria-gonorrhea-and-associated-factors-among-women-living-with-human-immunodeficiency-virus-in-brazil-a-multicenter-study
#13
Angelica E Miranda, Mariangela F Silveira, Ana Gabriela Travassos, Teresinha Tenório, Isabel Cristina Chulvis do Val, Leonor de Lannoy Tavares, Hortensio Simões de Mattos Junior, Newton Sergio de Carvalho
BACKGROUND: Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (GC) cause infections in the female genital tract, increasing susceptibility to and infectiousness of HIV. The objectives of the present study were to determine the prevalence and associated factors of CT and GC infection among HIV-infected women in Brazil. METHODS: Cross-sectional study conducted from March to December 2015, including HIV-infected women attending referral centers in nine states of Brazil, aged 18-49 years, nonpregnant...
May 18, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528763/evaluation-of-recombinant-chinese-avian-hepatitis-e-virus-cahev-orf2-and-orf3-proteins-for-protection-of-chickens-against-cahev-infection
#14
Shahid Faraz Syed, Yani Sun, Taofeng Du, Yiyang Chen, Baoyuan Liu, Xinjie Wang, Huixia Li, Yuchen Nan, En-Min Zhou, Qin Zhao
Avian hepatitis E virus (HEV) is the etiologic agent of big liver and spleen disease in chickens. In 2010, the Chinese avian HEV (CaHEV) strain was isolated from chickens and demonstrated to cause the decreased egg production in layer hens. No avian HEV commercial vaccine has yet been developed to prevent virus infection in China. In this study, recombinant CaHEV truncated ORF2 and complete ORF3 proteins were evaluated separately for immunoprotection of chickens against CaHEV infection. First, truncated ORF2 and complete ORF3 proteins were expressed in Escherichia coli...
May 18, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527892/outbreak-of-zika-virus-infection-in-singapore-an-epidemiological-entomological-virological-and-clinical-analysis
#15
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: An outbreak of Zika virus infection was detected in Singapore in August, 2016. We report the first comprehensive analysis of a national response to an outbreak of Zika virus infection in Asia. METHODS: In the first phase of the outbreak, patients with suspected Zika virus infection were isolated in two national referral hospitals until their serum tested negative for the virus. Enhanced vector control and community engagement measures were deployed in disease clusters, including stepped-up mosquito larvicide and adulticide use, community participation in source reduction (destruction of mosquito breeding sites), and work with the local media to promote awareness of the outbreak...
May 17, 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527248/-clinical-and-demographic-profile-and-risk-factors-for-clostridium-difficile-infection
#16
Carlos Carvajal, Carlos Pacheco, Fabián Jaimes
INTRODUCTION: Clostridium difficile infection is the leading cause of nosocomial infectious diarrhea. The increasing incidence added to a lower rate of response to the initial treatment and higher rates of relapse has generated a higher burden of the disease. OBJECTIVE: To determine the clinical characteristics of hospitalized patients with C. difficile infection. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We made a nested case-cohort study. We reviewed medical records of the patients with nosocomial diarrhea for whom an assay for toxin A-B of C...
January 24, 2017: Biomédica: Revista del Instituto Nacional de Salud
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526883/openspritzer-an-open-hardware-pressure-ejection-system-for-reliably-delivering-picolitre-volumes
#17
C J Forman, H Tomes, B Mbobo, R J Burman, M Jacobs, T Baden, J V Raimondo
The ability to reliably and precisely deliver picolitre volumes is an important component of biological research. Here we describe a high-performance, low-cost, open hardware pressure ejection system (Openspritzer), which can be constructed from off the shelf components. The device is capable of delivering minute doses of reagents to a wide range of biological and chemical systems. In this work, we characterise the performance of the device and compare it to a popular commercial system using two-photon fluorescence microscopy...
May 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523921/combination-of-h120-and-1-96-avian-infectious-bronchitis-virus-vaccine-strains-protect-chickens-against-challenge-with-is-1494-06-variant-2-like-infectious-bronchitis-virus
#18
M Habibi, V Karimi, A G Langeroudi, S A Ghafouri, M Hashemzadeh, R K Farahani, H Maghsoudloo, H Abdollahi, P Seifouri
Avian infectious bronchitis (IB) is a worldwide chicken disease, caused by avian infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) which infects all commercial poultry lines. The present study was done to evaluate protection caused by two different serotype vaccines (Massachusetts and 793/B) in order to evaluate protection against challenge with IS/1494/06-like virus (variant 2-like virus), which is prevalent in the Middle East. SPF chickens were divided into four groups (n = 20). First and second group as negative control group and non-vaccinated-challenged group received no vaccine...
2017: Acta Virologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521805/thalassemias-in-south-asia-clinical-lessons-learnt-from-bangladesh
#19
REVIEW
Mohammad Sorowar Hossain, Enayetur Raheem, Tanvira Afroze Sultana, Shameema Ferdous, Nusrat Nahar, Sazia Islam, Mohammad Arifuzzaman, Mohammad Abdur Razzaque, Rabiul Alam, Sonia Aziz, Hazera Khatun, Abdur Rahim, Manzur Morshed
Thalassemias are emerging as a global public health concern. Due to remarkable success in the reduction of childhood mortality by controlling infectious diseases in developing countries, thalassemias are likely to be a major public health concern in the coming decades in South Asia. Despite the fact that Bangladesh lies in the world's thalassemia belt, the information on different aspects (epidemiology, clinical course, mortality, complications and treatment outcomes) of thalassemias is lacking. In this comprehensive review, the aim is to to depict the epidemiological aspects of thalassemias, mutation profile and current treatment and management practices in the country by sharing the experience of dealing with 1178 cases over 2009-2014 time periods in a specialized thalassemia treatment centre...
May 18, 2017: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521528/prevention-and-control-of-emergent-infectious-disease-with-high-specific-antigen-sensor
#20
Hongzhe Zhang, Shanshan Zhang, Nan Liu
This study aims to evaluate the application of a new type of high specificity antigen sensor in detecting the viruses in sudden infectious diseases. Influenza A (H1N1) virus immunosensor was used for the respective determination of the six kinds of antigens of H1N1, H3N2 viral protein, HA protein of H7N9, influenza B virus, adenovirus, and EV71 virus of same dilution degree on the Screen Printed Carbon Electrode (SPCE), so as to test the specificity of the detection method. In addition, various batches of chick embryo allantoic saliva dilution simulation samples were also detected on their recovery (accuracy), repeatability (precision), and stability...
May 18, 2017: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
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