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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343208/legal-features-of-the-drug-advertising
#1
Vitalii M Pashkov, Andrii A Olefir, Oleksiy Y Bytyak
INTRODUCTION: In the article discribed current trends of advertising in the pharmaceutical market and foreign experience of legal regulation of these relations. As for the advertising of medicines identified it's symptoms, types, basic rules and prohibitions. Modern pharmaceutical companies can not successfully carry out economic activities without advertising. Besides we can mention some fundamental changes in society (information overload, universal access to internet, social media, freedom of movement of goods, labor and finance), also self-medication becomes more popular...
2017: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343046/perioperative-hemoglobin-a1c-as-a-predictor-of-deep-infection-following-single-level-lumbar-decompression-in-patients-with-diabetes
#2
Jourdan M Cancienne, Brian C Werner, Dennis Q Chen, Hamid Hassanzadeh, Adam L Shimer
BACKGROUND CONTEXT: Although multiple studies have cited diabetes mellitus as a risk factor decreased functional outcomes, increased infectious complications, and overall increased reoperation rate following degenerative lumbar spinal surgery, few have investigated how perioperative glycemic control influences such complications. PURPOSE: The primary goal of the present study was to use a national database to evaluate the association of perioperative glycemic control as demonstrated by Hemoglobin A1c levels in patients with diabetes undergoing primary, single level decompression without concomitant fusion with the incidence of deep postoperative infection following requiring operative irrigation and debridement...
March 22, 2017: Spine Journal: Official Journal of the North American Spine Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339489/human-subtilisin-kexin-isozyme-1-ski-1-site-1-protease-s1p-regulates-cytoplasmic-lipid-droplet-abundance-a-potential-target-for-indirect-acting-anti-dengue-virus-agents
#3
Anastasia Hyrina, Fanrui Meng, Steven J McArthur, Sharlene Eivemark, Ivan R Nabi, François Jean
Viral hijacking and manipulation of host-cell biosynthetic pathways by human enveloped viruses are shared molecular events essential for the viral lifecycle. For Flaviviridae members such as hepatitis C virus and dengue virus (DENV), one of the key subsets of cellular pathways that undergo manipulation is the lipid metabolic pathways, underlining the importance of cellular lipids and, in particular, lipid droplets (LDs) in viral infection. Here, we hypothesize that targeting cellular enzymes that act as key regulators of lipid homeostasis and LD formation could represent a powerful approach to developing a novel class of broad-spectrum antivirals against infection associated with all DENV serotypes (1-4) circulating around the world...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337880/effects-of-anesthesia-using-propofol-and-etomidate-on-t-lymphocyte-subpopulation-of-infectious-shock-patients-in-perioperative-period
#4
Y Wang, J Zhang, S J Zhang
Infectious or septic shock is induced when a toxic microorganism invades blood circulation in the human body. Emergency operation is an effective method for treating infectious shock in the early stages although the use of anesthesia is more complex due to the internal disorders caused by the disease. This study explored the effects of propofol and etomidate anesthesia on the cellular immune function (T lymphocyte subpopulation) of infectious shock patients, aiming to provide a basis for the selection of the proper anesthetic method...
January 2017: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336976/the-hall-technique-10-years-on-questions-and-answers
#5
N P T Innes, D J P Evans, C C Bonifacio, M Geneser, D Hesse, M Heimer, M Kanellis, V Machiulskiene, J Narbutaité, I C Olegário, A Owais, M P Araujo, D P Raggio, C Splieth, E van Amerongen, K Weber-Gasparoni, R M Santamaria
It is ten years since the first paper on the Hall Technique was published in the British Dental Journal and almost 20 years since the technique first came to notice. Dr Norna Hall a (now retired) general dental practitioner from the north of Scotland had, for many years, been managing carious primary molar teeth by cementing preformed metal crowns over them, with no local anaesthesia, tooth preparation or carious tissue removal. This first report, a retrospective analysis of Dr Hall's treatments, caused controversy...
March 24, 2017: British Dental Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336667/dengue-diversity-across-spatial-and-temporal-scales-local-structure-and-the-effect-of-host-population-size
#6
Henrik Salje, Justin Lessler, Irina Maljkovic Berry, Melanie C Melendrez, Timothy Endy, Siripen Kalayanarooj, Atchareeya A-Nuegoonpipat, Sumalee Chanama, Somchai Sangkijporn, Chonticha Klungthong, Butsaya Thaisomboonsuk, Ananda Nisalak, Robert V Gibbons, Sopon Iamsirithaworn, Louis R Macareo, In-Kyu Yoon, Areerat Sangarsang, Richard G Jarman, Derek A T Cummings
A fundamental mystery for dengue and other infectious pathogens is how observed patterns of cases relate to actual chains of individual transmission events. These pathways are intimately tied to the mechanisms by which strains interact and compete across spatial scales. Phylogeographic methods have been used to characterize pathogen dispersal at global and regional scales but have yielded few insights into the local spatiotemporal structure of endemic transmission. Using geolocated genotype (800 cases) and serotype (17,291 cases) data, we show that in Bangkok, Thailand, 60% of dengue cases living <200 meters apart come from the same transmission chain, as opposed to 3% of cases separated by 1 to 5 kilometers...
March 24, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335862/modeling-infectious-diseases-in-the-context-of-a-developing-immune-system
#7
Samrah Masud, Vincenzo Torraca, Annemarie H Meijer
Zebrafish has been used for over a decade to study the mechanisms of a wide variety of inflammatory disorders and infections, with models ranging from bacterial, viral, to fungal pathogens. Zebrafish has been especially relevant to study the differentiation, specialization, and polarization of the two main innate immune cell types, the macrophages and the neutrophils. The optical accessibility and the early appearance of myeloid cells that can be tracked with fluorescent labels in zebrafish embryos and the ability to use genetics to selectively ablate or expand immune cell populations have permitted studying the interaction between infection, development, and metabolism...
2017: Current Topics in Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335317/cytotoxicity-of-silver-nanoparticle-and-chitin-nanofiber-sheet-composites-caused-by-oxidative-stress
#8
Jun Kinoda, Masayuki Ishihara, Hidemi Hattori, Shingo Nakamura, Koichi Fukuda, Hidetaka Yokoe
Size-controlled spherical silver nanoparticles (<10 nm) and chitin-nanofiber sheet composites (Ag NPs/CNFS) have previously been reported to have strong antimicrobial activity in vitro. Although Ag NPs/CNFS have strong antimicrobial activity, their cytotoxicity has not been investigated. This study was performed to evaluate the effects of Ag NPs/CNFS on cytotoxicity for fibroblasts in vitro and healing delay of wound repair in vivo, focused on oxidative stress. Cytotoxic activities of Ag NPs/CNFS were investigated using a fibroblast cell proliferation assay, nitric oxide/nitrogen dioxide (NO/NO₂) measurement of the cell lysates in vitro, inhibitory effects of Ag NPs/CNFS on healing-impaired wound repair using diabetic mice in vivo, 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) immunohistochemical staining of the skin sections, and generation of carbonyl protein in the wound was performed to evaluate cytotoxicity with oxidative stress...
October 20, 2016: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333932/impairment-of-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling-in-blood-cells-of-patients-with-severe-cavitary-pulmonary-tuberculosis
#9
Lin Fan, Hongbo Shen, Huichang Huang, Rui Yang, Lan Yao
Tuberculosis (TB) remains as a leading infectious disease worldwide. Our previous study showed interferon (IFN)-γ and CD3 T cell impairment in patients with severe cavitary pulmonary TB (PTB). However, the cause of the change in immune responses during the progression of TB is still poorly understood. In this study, eight newly diagnosed patients with severe cavitary and mild lesion non-cavity PTB were recruited, and three healthy volunteers were recruited as the control. RNA extracted from blood was tested by whole genome oligo microarrays...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333929/the-rise-and-fall-of-rabies-in-japan-a-quantitative-history-of-rabies-epidemics-in-osaka-prefecture-1914-1933
#10
Aiko Kurosawa, Kageaki Tojinbara, Hazumu Kadowaki, Katie Hampson, Akio Yamada, Kohei Makita
Japan has been free from rabies since the 1950s. However, during the early 1900s several large-scale epidemics spread throughout the country. Here we investigate the dynamics of these epidemics between 1914 and 1933 in Osaka Prefecture, using archival data including newspapers. The association between dog rabies cases and human population density was investigated using Mixed-effects models and epidemiological parameters such as the basic reproduction number (R0), the incubation and infectious period and the serial interval were estimated...
March 23, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333229/escherichia-coli-cattle-and-the-propagation-of-disease
#11
Richard A Stein, David E Katz
Several early models describing host-pathogen interaction have assumed that each individual host has approximately the same likelihood of becoming infected or of infecting others. More recently, a concept that has been increasingly emphasized in many studies is that for many infectious diseases, transmission is not homogeneous but highly skewed at the level of populations. In what became known as the "20/80 rule", about 20% of the hosts in a population were found to contribute to about 80% of the transmission potential...
March 1, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332653/review-of-the-foot-and-mouth-disease-situation-in-north-africa-and-the-risk-of-introducing-the-disease-into-europe
#12
R Bouguedour, A Ripani
Foot and mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious disease of cloven-hoofed animals, including cattle, pigs, sheep, goats, and certain wildlife species. The disease can cause massive economic losses when introduced into countries that were free from the infection, generating negative effects due to reduced animal productivity and restrictions on international livestock trade. Following 15 years of FMD absence, Tunisia and Algeria experienced an incursion of the disease in 2014. The epidemiological situation and disease control measures in operation for FMD in the North African region are not homogeneous...
December 2016: Revue Scientifique et Technique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332646/the-role-of-animal-reservoirs-in-social-environmental-landscapes-remarks-on-the-control-of-avian-influenza-and-preparedness-for-pandemics
#13
M P Ortiz-Rodríguez, G C Ramírez-Nieto, L C Villamil-Jiménez
Influenza viruses are well known for their ability to infect and cause disease in a broad range of hosts. Modern advances in reverse genetics have enabled scientists to probe the mutations that allow influenza viruses to perform host switching. Despite this detailed understanding of the molecular modifications that allow host switching and adaptation, there is a gap in knowledge regarding the factors external to the virus and their interactions that act as triggers leading to a pandemic. Studies on the ecology of zoonotic pathogens should be the new paradigm for understanding not only influenza viruses but any other infectious disease that can be a threat to animal and human health...
December 2016: Revue Scientifique et Technique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332643/virus-mutations-and-their-impact-on-vaccination-against-infectious-bursal-disease-gumboro-disease
#14
A Boudaoud, B Mamache, W Tombari, A Ghram
Infectious bursal disease (also known as Gumboro disease) is an immunosuppressive viral disease specific to chickens. In spite of all the information amassed on the antigenic and immunological characteristics of the virus, the disease has not yet been brought fully under control. It is still prevalent in properly vaccinated flocks carrying specific antibodies at levels normally high enough to prevent the disease. Common causes apart, failure of vaccination against infectious bursal disease is associated mainly with early vaccination in flocks of unknown immune status and with the evolution of viruses circulating in the field, leading to antigenic drift and a sharp rise in pathogenicity...
December 2016: Revue Scientifique et Technique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331966/increased-risk-of-incident-osteoporosis-and-osteoporotic-fracture-in-tuberculosis-patients-a-population-based-study-in-a-tuberculosis-endemic-area
#15
Y-Y Chen, J-Y Feng, W-Y Ting, Y-F Yen, P-H Chuang, S-W Pan, V Y-F Su, W-J Su
The occurrence of osteoporosis in tuberculosis, a chronic infection, has rarely been evaluated. In this study, we found significantly higher incidence rates of osteoporosis (Adjusted hazard ratio (AHR) 1.82) and osteoporotic fracture (AHR 2.33) in tuberculosis patients than matched cohorts, which suggest that osteoporosis screening should be considered in tuberculosis patients' follow-up program. The aim of this study is to determine the occurrence of incident osteoporosis in patients who completed anti-tuberculosis (TB) treatment...
March 22, 2017: Osteoporosis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331772/an-automated-gravity-driven-csf-drainage-system-decreases-complications-and-lowers-costs
#16
Robert E Lieberson, Jan Eckermann, William Meyer, Tung Trang
BACKGROUND: FlowSafe(TM) (BeckerSmith Medical, Irvine, CA, USA) is a novel, robotic, external lumbar drainage (ELD) system, which was designed to control cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) drainage, reduce complications, and decrease treatment costs. METHODS:  Forty-seven consecutive neurosurgical patients requiring ELD were treated using the FlowSafe system. RESULTS: In 39 of 40 patients with traumatic and surgical dural openings, potential CSF leaks were avoided...
February 3, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331092/monkeypox-virus-host-factor-screen-in-haploid-cells-identifies-essential-role-of-garp-complex-in-extracellular-virus-formation
#17
Susan Realegeno, Andreas S Puschnik, Amrita Kumar, Cynthia Goldsmith, Jillybeth Burgado, Suryaprakash Sambhara, Victoria A Olson, Darin Carroll, Inger Damon, Tetsuya Hirata, Taroh Kinoshita, Jan E Carette, Panayampalli Subbian Satheshkumar
Monkeypox virus (MPXV) is a human pathogen that is a member of the Orthopoxvirus genus, which includes Vaccinia virus and Variola virus (the causative agent of smallpox). Human monkeypox is considered an emerging zoonotic infectious disease. To identify host factors required for MPXV infection, we performed a genome-wide insertional mutagenesis screen in human haploid cells. The screen revealed several candidate genes, including those involved in Golgi trafficking, glycosaminoglycan biosynthesis and glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) - anchor biosynthesis...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330886/preclinical-diagnosis-predicting-its-ability-to-improve-control-of-farm-to-farm-foot-and-mouth-disease-transmission-in-cattle
#18
Noel Nelson, David J Paton, Simon Gubbins, Claire Colenutt, Emma Brown, Sophia Hodgson, Jose L Gonzales
Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) can cause large disruptive epidemics in livestock. Current eradication measures rely on the rapid clinical detection and removal of infected herds. Here, we have evaluated the potential for preclinical diagnosis during reactive surveillance to reduce the risk of between farm transmission. We used data from transmission experiments in cattle where both individual animal samples, such as blood, probang, saliva or nasal swabs, and herd level samples, such as air samples, were taken daily during the course of infection...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330758/regulation-of-type-i-interferon-signaling-in-immunity-and-inflammation-a-comprehensive-review
#19
REVIEW
Kun Chen, Juan Liu, Xuetao Cao
Type I interferons (IFNs) play essential roles in establishing and modulating host defense against microbial infection via induction of IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) through Janus kinase (JAK)-signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) signaling pathway. However, dysregulation of IFNs production and function could also mediate immune pathogenesis such as inflammatory autoimmune diseases and infectious diseases via aberrantly activating inflammatory responses or improperly suppressing microbial controls...
March 19, 2017: Journal of Autoimmunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330710/implementing-a-negative-pressure-isolation-ward-for-a-surge-in-airborne-infectious-patients
#20
Shelly L Miller, Nicholas Clements, Steven A Elliott, Shobha S Subhash, Aaron Eagan, Lewis J Radonovich
BACKGROUND: During a large-scale airborne infectious disease outbreak, the number of patients needing hospital-based health care services may exceed available negative-pressure isolation room capacity. METHODS: To test one method of increasing hospital surge capacity, a temporary negative-pressure isolation ward was established at a fully functioning hospital. Negative pressure was achieved in a 30-bed hospital ward by adjusting the ventilation system. Differential pressure was continuously measured at 22 locations, and ventilation airflow was characterized throughout the ward...
March 20, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
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