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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527083/shared-mechanisms-of-epilepsy-migraine-and-affective-disorders
#1
Davide Zarcone, Simona Corbetta
Since the nineteenth century several clinical features have been observed in common between migraine and epilepsy (such as episodic attacks, triggering factors, presence of aura, frequent familiarity), but only in recent years researchers have really engaged in finding a common pathogenic mechanism. From studies of disease incidence, we understand how either migraine among patients with epilepsy or epilepsy among migraine patients are more frequent than in the general population. This association may result from a direct causality, by the same environmental risk factors and/or by a common genetic susceptibility...
May 2017: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515818/pharmacogenomic-testing-for-psychotropic-medication-selection-a-systematic-review-of-the-assurex-genesight-psychotropic-test
#2
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: A large proportion of the Ontario population lives with a diagnosed mental illness. Nearly 5% of Ontarians have major depressive disorder, and another 5% have another type of depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, anxiety, or some other disorder not otherwise specified. Medications are commonly used to treat mental illness, but choosing the right medication for each patient is challenging, and more than 40% of patients discontinue their medication within 90 days because of adverse effects or lack of response...
2017: Ontario Health Technology Assessment Series
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510361/chlamydia-trachomatis-transformation-and-allelic-exchange-mutagenesis
#3
Konrad E Mueller, Katerina Wolf, Kenneth A Fields
Gene inactivation is essential for forward and reverse genetic approaches to establish protein function. Techniques such as insertion or chemical mutagenesis have been developed to mutagenize chlamydiae via targeted or random mutagenesis, respectively. Both of these approaches require transformation of chlamydiae to either introduce insertion elements or complement mutants. We have recently developed a targeted mutagenesis strategy, fluorescence-reported allelic exchange mutagenesis (FRAEM), to delete Chlamydia trachomatis L2 genes...
May 16, 2017: Current Protocols in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488899/lifetime-prevalence-of-psychiatric-morbidities-suicidality-and-quality-of-life-in-a-community-population-with-the-bimodal-chronotype-a-nationwide-epidemiologic-study
#4
Won-Hyoung Kim, Doo-Young Jung, Joo-Young Lee, Sung-Man Chang, Hong-Jin Jeon, Jun-Young Lee, Seong-Jin Cho, Dong-Woo Lee, Jae-Nam Bae, Jin Pyo Hong, Maeng-Je Cho, Bong-Jin Hahm
Chronotypes are classified as morning, evening, or intermediate, but there are reports of a bimodal type. This study was undertaken to describe the characteristics of the bimodal chronotype and to explore relationships between the bimodal type and psychiatric disorders, fatigue, and quality of life. A total of 2389 subjects from a Korean national epidemiological survey of psychiatric disorders responded during face-to-face interviews. The Korean Composite International Diagnostic Interview was used to diagnose psychiatric disorders, and the Composite Scale of Morningness was used to assess chronotypes...
May 10, 2017: Chronobiology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486792/gambling-disorder-an-integrative-review-of-animal-and-human-studies
#5
REVIEW
Katherine M Nautiyal, Mayumi Okuda, Rene Hen, Carlos Blanco
Gambling disorder (GD), previously called pathological gambling and classified as an impulse control disorder in DSM-III and DSM-IV, has recently been reclassified as an addictive disorder in the DSM-5. It is widely recognized as an important public health problem associated with substantial personal and social costs, high rates of psychiatric comorbidity, poor physical health, and elevated suicide rates. A number of risk factors have been identified, including some genetic polymorphisms. Animal models have been developed in order to study the underlying neural basis of GD...
April 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485899/determinants-of-bdnf-blood-levels-in-patients-with-alcohol-use-disorder
#6
Philippe Nubukpo, Nicolas Ramoz, Murielle Girard, Dominique Malauzat, Philip Gorwood
BACKGROUND: Blood Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) levels are influenced by both addiction and mood disorders, as well as somatic conditions, gender, and genetic polymorphisms, leading to widely varying results. Depressive symptoms and episodes are frequently observed in patients with alcohol-use disorder, and vary widely over time, making it a challenge to determine which aspects are specifically involved in variations of serum BDNF levels in this population. METHODS: We assessed 227 patients with alcohol dependence involved in a detoxification program, at baseline and after a follow-up of six months, for the AUDIT score, the length of alcohol dependence, and the number of past detoxification programs...
May 9, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485403/gad1-alternative-transcripts-and-dna-methylation-in-human-prefrontal-cortex-and-hippocampus-in-brain-development-schizophrenia
#7
R Tao, K N Davis, C Li, J H Shin, Y Gao, A E Jaffe, M C Gondré-Lewis, D R Weinberger, J E Kleinman, T M Hyde
Genetic variations and adverse environmental events in utero or shortly after birth can lead to abnormal brain development and increased risk of schizophrenia. γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA), the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian brain, plays a vital role in normal brain development. GABA synthesis is controlled by enzymes derived from two glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) genes, GAD1 and GAD2, both of which produce transcript isoforms. While the full-length GAD1 transcript (GAD67) has been implicated in the neuropathology of schizophrenia, the transcript structure of GAD1 in the human brain has not been fully characterized...
May 9, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28478783/genetic-and-other-risk-factors-for-suicidal-ideation-and-the-relationship-with-depression
#8
R Dutta, H A Ball, S H Siribaddana, A Sumathipala, S Samaraweera, P McGuffin, M Hotopf
BACKGROUND: There is a genetic contribution to the risk of suicide, but sparse prior research on the genetics of suicidal ideation. METHODS: Active and passive suicidal ideation were assessed in a Sri Lankan population-based twin registry (n = 3906 twins) and a matched non-twin sample (n = 2016). Logistic regression models were used to examine associations with socio-demographic factors, environmental exposures and psychiatric symptoms. The heritability of suicidal ideation was assessed using structural equation modelling...
May 8, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467954/-association-between-the-5-httlpr-polymorphism-of-the-serotonin-transporter-gene-and-suicide-a-case-control-pilot-study
#9
Janos Bokor, Xenia Gonda, Peter Dome, Gabor Faludi, Elek Dinya, Andras Laszik
OBJECTIVES: Besides psychological and social effects, biological, biochemical and genetic factors also play a role in the background of suicide. The aim is developing a complex model incorporating all the above factors so that suicide could be predicted and prevented in those at risk. Based on several studies 5-HTTLPR s allele frequency is increased in case of violent completed suicides. The aim of the present study was to validate this association in a sample of completed suicides. METHODS: During autopsy sample DNA samples were obtained for 5-HTTLPR genotyping from 200 subjects deceased due to suicide and 200 controls deceased due to other causes...
March 2017: Neuropsychopharmacologia Hungarica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445878/differential-allelic-expression-of-htr1b-in-suicide-victims-genetic-and-epigenetic-effect-of-the-cis-acting-variants
#10
Ali Bani-Fatemi, Aaron Howe, Clement Zai, James L Kennedy, John Vincent, John Strauss, Albert Wong, Vincenzo De Luca
OBJECTIVES: In the present study, we tested the allelic imbalance of the C861G single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of HTR1B in the frontal cortex of suicide victims. METHODS: The study was conducted using 3 sets of samples. First, C861G allele-specific mRNA levels in the frontal cortex were compared between suicide (n = 13) and nonsuicide controls (n = 13) from the Stanley Medical Research postmortem brain collection. Second, we tested common variants in the HTR1B promoter for linkage disequilibrium (LD) with the C861G variant in an unrelated sample of suicide attempters (SA; n = 38) and non-SA (NSA; n = 42)...
April 27, 2017: Neuropsychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398339/animal-models-to-improve-our-understanding-and-treatment-of-suicidal-behavior
#11
REVIEW
T D Gould, P Georgiou, L A Brenner, L Brundin, A Can, P Courtet, Z R Donaldson, Y Dwivedi, S Guillaume, I I Gottesman, S Kanekar, C A Lowry, P F Renshaw, D Rujescu, E G Smith, G Turecki, P Zanos, C A Zarate, P A Zunszain, T T Postolache
Worldwide, suicide is a leading cause of death. Although a sizable proportion of deaths by suicide may be preventable, it is well documented that despite major governmental and international investments in research, education and clinical practice suicide rates have not diminished and are even increasing among several at-risk populations. Although nonhuman animals do not engage in suicidal behavior amenable to translational studies, we argue that animal model systems are necessary to investigate candidate endophenotypes of suicidal behavior and the neurobiology underlying these endophenotypes...
April 11, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367056/association-study-of-mif-promoter-polymorphisms-with-suicide-completers-in-the-japanese-population
#12
Naofumi Shimmyo, Akitoyo Hishimoto, Ikuo Otsuka, Satoshi Okazaki, Shuken Boku, Kentaro Mouri, Tadasu Horai, Motonori Takahashi, Yasuhiro Ueno, Osamu Shirakawa, Ichiro Sora
BACKGROUND: Numerous studies suggest that inflammation plays a key role in suicidal behavior. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), a proinflammatory cytokine, has received increasing attention in depression research. However, no study has investigated whether MIF has genetic involvement in completed suicide. In this study, we sought to explore the relationship between two functional polymorphisms on the MIF gene promoter (MIF-794CATT5-8 microsatellite and MIF-173G/C single-nucleotide polymorphism [SNP]) and completed suicide by using one of the largest samples of suicide completers ever reported...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314127/suicide-attempt-in-mental-disorders-medi-association-with-5-htt-il-10-and-tnf-alpha-polymorphisms
#13
Verônica de Medeiros Alves, Aline Cristine Pereira E Silva, Elaine Virgínia Martins de Souza, Leilane Camila Ferreira de Lima Francisco, Edilson Leite de Moura, Valfrido Leão de-Melo-Neto, Antonio E Nardi
BACKGROUND: Mental disorders (MeDi) and suicide attempts (SA) are influenced by environmental and genetic factors. Genetic polymorphism studies have identified some candidate genes for suicidal behaviour in people with MeDi. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate MeDi and SA in relation to the presence of rs2020933 (5-HTT), rs1800871 (IL-10) and rs1800629 (TNF-α) polymorphisms. METHODS: A questionnaire for identification and general data, a brief quality of life assessment (WHOQOL-brief), the scale of suicide ideation by Beck and the MINI International Neuropsychiatric Interview were used in this study...
February 27, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301970/disclosing-the-parameters-leading-to-high-productivity-of-retroviral-producer-cells-lines-evaluating-random-versus-targeted-integration
#14
Vanessa S Bandeira, Hélio A Tomás, Evren Alici, Manuel J T Carrondo, Ana S Coroadinha
Gammaretrovirus and lentivirus are the preferred viral vectors to genetically modify T and natural killer cells to be used in immune cell therapies. The transduction efficiency of hematopoietic and T cells is more efficient using gibbon ape leukemia virus (GaLV) pseudotyping. In this context gammaretroviral vector producer cells offer competitive higher titers than transient lentiviral vectors productions. The main aim of this work was to identify the key parameters governing GaLV-pseudotyped gammaretroviral vector productivity in stable producer cells, using a retroviral vector expression cassette enabling positive (facilitating cell enrichment) and negative cell selection (allowing cell elimination)...
April 2017: Human Gene Therapy Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285864/e-coli-reca-gene-improves-gene-targeted-homologous-recombination-in-mycoplasma-hyorhinis
#15
Hassan Z A Ishag, Qiyan Xiong, Maojun Liu, Zhixin Feng, Guoqing Shao
Mycoplasma hyorhinis is an opportunistic pathogen of pigs. Recently, it has been shown to transform cell cultures, increasing the attention of the researchers. Studies on the pathogenesis require specific genetic tool that is not yet available for the pathogen. To address this limitation, we constructed two suicide plasmids pGEMT-tetM/LR and pGEMT-recA-tetM/LR having a tetracycline resistance marker flanked by two hemolysin gene arms. The latter plasmid encodes an E. coli recA, a gene involved in DNA recombination, repair and maintenance of DNA...
March 8, 2017: Journal of Microbiological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261051/the-life-span-model-of-suicide-and-its-neurobiological-foundation
#16
Birgit Ludwig, Bhaskar Roy, Qingzhong Wang, Badari Birur, Yogesh Dwivedi
The very incomprehensibility of the suicidal act has been occupying the minds of researchers and health professionals for a long time. Several theories of suicide have been proposed since the beginning of the past century, and a myriad of neurobiological studies have been conducted over the past two decades in order to elucidate its pathophysiology. Both neurobiology and psychological theories tend to work in parallel lines that need behavioral and empirical data respectively, to confirm their hypotheses. In this review, we are proposing a "Life Span Model of Suicide" with an attempt to integrate the "Stress-Diathesis Model" and the "Interpersonal Model of Suicide" into a neurobiological narrative and support it by providing a thorough compilation of related genetic, epigenetic, and gene expression findings...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242870/neurons-derived-from-patients-with-bipolar-disorder-divide-into-intrinsically-different-sub-populations-of-neurons-predicting-the-patients-responsiveness-to-lithium
#17
S Stern, R Santos, M C Marchetto, A P D Mendes, G A Rouleau, S Biesmans, Q-W Wang, J Yao, P Charnay, A G Bang, M Alda, F H Gage
Bipolar disorder (BD) is a progressive psychiatric disorder with more than 3% prevalence worldwide. Affected individuals experience recurrent episodes of depression and mania, disrupting normal life and increasing the risk of suicide greatly. The complexity and genetic heterogeneity of psychiatric disorders have challenged the development of animal and cellular models. We recently reported that hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) neurons differentiated from induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived fibroblasts of BD patients are electrophysiologically hyperexcitable...
February 28, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240356/density-dependent-selection-on-mate-search-and-evolution-of-allee-effects
#18
Luděk Berec, Andrew M Kramer, Veronika Bernhauerová, John M Drake
Sexually reproducing organisms require males and females to find each other. Increased difficulty of females finding mates as male density declines is the most frequently reported mechanism of Allee effects in animals. Evolving more effective mate search may alleviate Allee effects, but may depend on density regimes a population experiences. In particular, high-density populations may evolve mechanisms that induce Allee effects which become detrimental when populations are reduced and maintained at a low density...
February 27, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239362/reducing-the-diagnostic-heterogeneity-of-schizoaffective-disorder
#19
Katherine Seldin, Kristan Armstrong, Max L Schiff, Stephan Heckers
OBJECTIVE: Clinical outcome studies of schizoaffective disorder patients have yielded conflicting results. One reason is the heterogeneity of samples drawn from the schizoaffective disorder population. Here, we studied schizoaffective disorder patients who showed marked functional impairment and continuous signs of illness for at least 6 months (i.e., DSM criteria B and C for schizophrenia). METHODS: We assessed 176 chronic psychosis patients with a structured interview (SCID-IV-TR) and the Diagnostic Interview for Genetic Studies schizoaffective disorder module...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213124/reciprocal-relationships-between-substance-use-and-disorders-and-suicidal-ideation-and-suicide-attempts-in-the-collaborative-study-of-the-genetics-of-alcoholism
#20
Arpana Agrawal, Rebecca Tillman, Richard A Grucza, Elliot C Nelson, Vivia V McCutcheon, Lauren Few, Kenneth R Conner, Michael T Lynskey, Danielle M Dick, Howard J Edenberg, Victor M Hesselbrock, John R Kramer, Samuel Kuperman, John I Nurnberger, Marc A Schuckit, Bernice Porjesz, Kathleen K Bucholz
BACKGROUND: Substance use and misuse and suicidal thoughts and behaviors tend to co-occur. The purpose of this study was to examine whether (a) suicidal ideation and attempt are related to onset of alcohol, nicotine and cannabis use and dependence; (b) early use of alcohol, nicotine and cannabis is associated with onset of suicidal ideation and attempt; and (c) whether these associations persist while controlling for covariates, such as family history of alcohol problems, major depression and other internalizing and externalizing disorders...
April 15, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
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