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Suicide genetic

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608626/serotonergic-5httlpr-rs25531-s-allele-homozygosity-associates-with-violent-suicides-in-male-citalopram-users
#1
Anna-Liina Rahikainen, Salla Majaharju, Jari Haukka, Jukka U Palo, Antti Sajantila
Depressive disorders are involved as a background factor in over 50% of suicide cases. The most widely used antidepressants today are serotonin selective reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). However, not all users benefit from SSRI medication. Although the overall number of suicides in Finland have decreased notably during the last decade, the annual rate is still relatively high, particularly in male population. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that the genetic variants associated with decreased citalopram efficiency, 5HTTLPR/rs25531, and increased impulsive behavior, MAOA-uVNTR and HTR2B Q20*, are more frequent among citalopram users committing suicide than among the citalopram users in general...
June 13, 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593724/a-new-strategy-for-creating-noncanonical-amino-acid-dependent-organisms
#2
Weimin Xuan, Peter G Schultz
The use of noncanonical amino acids (ncAAs) to control an organism's viability provides a strategy for the development of conditional 'kill switches' for live vaccines or engineered human cells. Here we report an approach inspired by the posttranslational acetylation/deacetylation of lysine residues, in which a protein encoded by a gene with an in-frame nonsense codon at an essential lysine can be expressed in its native state only upon genetic incorporation of AcK, and subsequent enzymatic deacetylation in the host cell...
June 7, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28581537/clinical-significance-of-psychotic-like-experiences-in-children-and-adolescents
#3
REVIEW
Barbara Remberk
Psychotic-like experiences (PLEs) are subtle, subclinical hallucinations and delusions which are quite common in general population. In children and youth prevalence rate is probably age-dependent with higher rate in younger population. PLEs are suggested to be a form of extended psychosis phenotype. Similar demographic, genetic and environmental risk factors observed for PLEs and schizophrenia support this hypothesis. Other mental health problems associated with PLEs include depression, suicidality, low functioning and psychiatric comorbidity...
April 30, 2017: Psychiatria Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580555/-care-of-individuals-with-bipolar-disorders
#4
Pei-Chen Hsu, Hsin-Chi Chen, Mei-Jou Lu, Ru-Band Lu, Ching-Lan Esther Lin
Bipolar disorder (BD) is a severe mental illness that is characterized by chronicity, pervasive instability, and relatively high rates of recurrence and suicide. Current evidence supports that adverse circles among hereditary and genetic factors, neuroinflamation, and social rhythm constitute a crucial etiology. Pharmacological treatment is the first priority for BD patients during the acute stage. Pharmacological and psychosocial treatments should be combined during the maintenance stage in order to help patients self-manage medication, effectively control mood swings, enhance disease self-management and social functions, decrease the risks of relapse and re-hospitalization, and stabilize overall health...
June 2017: Hu Li za Zhi the Journal of Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574009/potential-biomarkers-for-bipolar-disorder-where-do-we-stand
#5
REVIEW
Rajesh Sagar, Raman Deep Pattanayak
Bipolar disorder (BD) is a severe, recurrent mood disorder, associated with a significant morbidity and mortality, with high rates of suicides and medical comorbidities. There is a high risk of mood disorders among the first-degree relatives of patients with BD. In the current clinical practice, the diagnosis of BD is made by history taking, interview and behavioural observations, thereby lacking an objective, biological validation. This approach may result in underdiagnosis, misdiagnosis and eventually poorer outcomes...
January 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570395/runs-of-homozygosity-copy-number-variation-and-risk-for-depression-and-suicidal-behavior-in-an-arab-bedouin-kindred
#6
Nadine M Melhem, Sami Hamdan, Lambertus Klei, Shawn Wood, Jamie Zelazny, Amos Frisch, Abraham Weizman, Miri Carmel, Elena Michaelovsky, Ilana Farbstein, Danuta Wasserman, Muhammad El-Heib, Robert Ferrell, Alan Apter, Bernie Devlin, David Brent
OBJECTIVES: Inbreeding increases the probability of homozygosity of deleterious alleles. Inbreeding and runs of homozygosity (ROH) are associated with an increased risk for disease phenotypes, including schizophrenia and other psychiatric disorders. The effects of inbreeding, ROH, homozygous deletions, and other copy number variations (CNVs) on risk for depression and suicide attempt (SA) were quantified in an Arab Bedouin Kindred. METHODS: We carried out genetic analyses of 439 individuals from an Arab kindred with high rates of depression and suicidal behavior...
May 31, 2017: Psychiatric Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28558131/an-association-between-genetic-variation-in-the-glutamatergic-system-and-suicide-attempts-in-alcohol-dependent-individuals
#7
Sylwia Fudalej, Anna Klimkiewicz, Anna Mach, Andrzej Jakubczyk, Marcin Fudalej, Krystyna Wasilewska, Anna Podgórska, Paweł Krajewski, Rafał Płoski, Marcin Wojnar
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Pathological alterations of glutamatergic systems were observed in neurodegenerative and psychiatric disorders. There is some evidence that this system may be involved in the genetic vulnerability to suicide. The aim of the present study was to analyze possible relationship between the GRIN2B polymorphism and suicidal behavior. We hypothesized that this genetic factor may be associated with suicide attempts in alcohol-dependent patients and with death by suicide...
May 30, 2017: American Journal on Addictions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548103/an-aavp-based-solid-phase-transducing-matrix-for-transgene-delivery-potential-for-translational-applications
#8
T L Smith, G R Souza, R L Sidman, W Arap, R Pasqualini
A hybrid vector of adeno-associated virus and phage (termed AAVP) has been introduced as a platform for systemic ligand-directed delivery of transgenes to tumors over the past decade. A series of studies have evaluated the AAVP platform for potential theranostic or purely therapeutic applications in several tumor models. Sufficient ligand-directed tumor targeting consistently resulted in specific molecular-genetic imaging and/or anti-tumor responses to 'suicide' transgene delivery. However, efforts to optimize transduction efficiency are still ongoing...
May 26, 2017: Cancer Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542233/is-survival-improved-by-the-use-of-niv-and-peg-in-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-als-a-post-mortem-study-of-80-als-patients
#9
Christian Burkhardt, Christoph Neuwirth, Andreas Sommacal, Peter M Andersen, Markus Weber
BACKGROUND: Non-invasive ventilation (NIV) and percutaneous gastrostomy (PEG) are guideline-recommended interventions for symptom management in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Their effect on survival is controversial and the impact on causes of death is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of NIV and PEG on survival and causes of death in ALS patients. METHODS: Eighty deceased ALS patients underwent a complete post mortem analysis for causes of death between 2003 and 2015...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527083/shared-mechanisms-of-epilepsy-migraine-and-affective-disorders
#10
Davide Zarcone, Simona Corbetta
Since the nineteenth century several clinical features have been observed in common between migraine and epilepsy (such as episodic attacks, triggering factors, presence of aura, frequent familiarity), but only in recent years researchers have really engaged in finding a common pathogenic mechanism. From studies of disease incidence, we understand how either migraine among patients with epilepsy or epilepsy among migraine patients are more frequent than in the general population. This association may result from a direct causality, by the same environmental risk factors and/or by a common genetic susceptibility...
May 2017: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515818/pharmacogenomic-testing-for-psychotropic-medication-selection-a-systematic-review-of-the-assurex-genesight-psychotropic-test
#11
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: A large proportion of the Ontario population lives with a diagnosed mental illness. Nearly 5% of Ontarians have major depressive disorder, and another 5% have another type of depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, anxiety, or some other disorder not otherwise specified. Medications are commonly used to treat mental illness, but choosing the right medication for each patient is challenging, and more than 40% of patients discontinue their medication within 90 days because of adverse effects or lack of response...
2017: Ontario Health Technology Assessment Series
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510361/chlamydia-trachomatis-transformation-and-allelic-exchange-mutagenesis
#12
Konrad E Mueller, Katerina Wolf, Kenneth A Fields
Gene inactivation is essential for forward and reverse genetic approaches to establish protein function. Techniques such as insertion or chemical mutagenesis have been developed to mutagenize chlamydiae via targeted or random mutagenesis, respectively. Both of these approaches require transformation of chlamydiae to either introduce insertion elements or complement mutants. We have recently developed a targeted mutagenesis strategy, fluorescence-reported allelic exchange mutagenesis (FRAEM), to delete Chlamydia trachomatis L2 genes...
May 16, 2017: Current Protocols in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488899/lifetime-prevalence-of-psychiatric-morbidities-suicidality-and-quality-of-life-in-a-community-population-with-the-bimodal-chronotype-a-nationwide-epidemiologic-study
#13
Won-Hyoung Kim, Doo-Young Jung, Joo-Young Lee, Sung-Man Chang, Hong-Jin Jeon, Jun-Young Lee, Seong-Jin Cho, Dong-Woo Lee, Jae-Nam Bae, Jin Pyo Hong, Maeng-Je Cho, Bong-Jin Hahm
Chronotypes are classified as morning, evening, or intermediate, but there are reports of a bimodal type. This study was undertaken to describe the characteristics of the bimodal chronotype and to explore relationships between the bimodal type and psychiatric disorders, fatigue, and quality of life. A total of 2389 subjects from a Korean national epidemiological survey of psychiatric disorders responded during face-to-face interviews. The Korean Composite International Diagnostic Interview was used to diagnose psychiatric disorders, and the Composite Scale of Morningness was used to assess chronotypes...
May 10, 2017: Chronobiology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486792/gambling-disorder-an-integrative-review-of-animal-and-human-studies
#14
REVIEW
Katherine M Nautiyal, Mayumi Okuda, Rene Hen, Carlos Blanco
Gambling disorder (GD), previously called pathological gambling and classified as an impulse control disorder in DSM-III and DSM-IV, has recently been reclassified as an addictive disorder in the DSM-5. It is widely recognized as an important public health problem associated with substantial personal and social costs, high rates of psychiatric comorbidity, poor physical health, and elevated suicide rates. A number of risk factors have been identified, including some genetic polymorphisms. Animal models have been developed in order to study the underlying neural basis of GD...
April 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485899/determinants-of-bdnf-blood-levels-in-patients-with-alcohol-use-disorder
#15
Philippe Nubukpo, Nicolas Ramoz, Murielle Girard, Dominique Malauzat, Philip Gorwood
BACKGROUND: Blood Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) levels are influenced by both addiction and mood disorders, as well as somatic conditions, gender, and genetic polymorphisms, leading to widely varying results. Depressive symptoms and episodes are frequently observed in patients with alcohol-use disorder, and vary widely over time, making it a challenge to determine which aspects are specifically involved in variations of serum BDNF levels in this population. METHODS: We assessed 227 patients with alcohol dependence involved in a detoxification program, at baseline and after a follow-up of six months, for the AUDIT score, the length of alcohol dependence, and the number of past detoxification programs...
May 9, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485403/gad1-alternative-transcripts-and-dna-methylation-in-human-prefrontal-cortex-and-hippocampus-in-brain-development-schizophrenia
#16
R Tao, K N Davis, C Li, J H Shin, Y Gao, A E Jaffe, M C Gondré-Lewis, D R Weinberger, J E Kleinman, T M Hyde
Genetic variations and adverse environmental events in utero or shortly after birth can lead to abnormal brain development and increased risk of schizophrenia. γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA), the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian brain, plays a vital role in normal brain development. GABA synthesis is controlled by enzymes derived from two glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) genes, GAD1 and GAD2, both of which produce transcript isoforms. While the full-length GAD1 transcript (GAD67) has been implicated in the neuropathology of schizophrenia, the transcript structure of GAD1 in the human brain has not been fully characterized...
May 9, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28478783/genetic-and-other-risk-factors-for-suicidal-ideation-and-the-relationship-with-depression
#17
R Dutta, H A Ball, S H Siribaddana, A Sumathipala, S Samaraweera, P McGuffin, M Hotopf
BACKGROUND: There is a genetic contribution to the risk of suicide, but sparse prior research on the genetics of suicidal ideation. METHODS: Active and passive suicidal ideation were assessed in a Sri Lankan population-based twin registry (n = 3906 twins) and a matched non-twin sample (n = 2016). Logistic regression models were used to examine associations with socio-demographic factors, environmental exposures and psychiatric symptoms. The heritability of suicidal ideation was assessed using structural equation modelling...
May 8, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467954/-association-between-the-5-httlpr-polymorphism-of-the-serotonin-transporter-gene-and-suicide-a-case-control-pilot-study
#18
Janos Bokor, Xenia Gonda, Peter Dome, Gabor Faludi, Elek Dinya, Andras Laszik
OBJECTIVES: Besides psychological and social effects, biological, biochemical and genetic factors also play a role in the background of suicide. The aim is developing a complex model incorporating all the above factors so that suicide could be predicted and prevented in those at risk. Based on several studies 5-HTTLPR s allele frequency is increased in case of violent completed suicides. The aim of the present study was to validate this association in a sample of completed suicides. METHODS: During autopsy sample DNA samples were obtained for 5-HTTLPR genotyping from 200 subjects deceased due to suicide and 200 controls deceased due to other causes...
March 2017: Neuropsychopharmacologia Hungarica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445878/differential-allelic-expression-of-htr1b-in-suicide-victims-genetic-and-epigenetic-effect-of-the-cis-acting-variants
#19
Ali Bani-Fatemi, Aaron Howe, Clement Zai, James L Kennedy, John Vincent, John Strauss, Albert Wong, Vincenzo De Luca
OBJECTIVES: In the present study, we tested the allelic imbalance of the C861G single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of HTR1B in the frontal cortex of suicide victims. METHODS: The study was conducted using 3 sets of samples. First, C861G allele-specific mRNA levels in the frontal cortex were compared between suicide (n = 13) and nonsuicide controls (n = 13) from the Stanley Medical Research postmortem brain collection. Second, we tested common variants in the HTR1B promoter for linkage disequilibrium (LD) with the C861G variant in an unrelated sample of suicide attempters (SA; n = 38) and non-SA (NSA; n = 42)...
2016: Neuropsychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398339/animal-models-to-improve-our-understanding-and-treatment-of-suicidal-behavior
#20
REVIEW
T D Gould, P Georgiou, L A Brenner, L Brundin, A Can, P Courtet, Z R Donaldson, Y Dwivedi, S Guillaume, I I Gottesman, S Kanekar, C A Lowry, P F Renshaw, D Rujescu, E G Smith, G Turecki, P Zanos, C A Zarate, P A Zunszain, T T Postolache
Worldwide, suicide is a leading cause of death. Although a sizable proportion of deaths by suicide may be preventable, it is well documented that despite major governmental and international investments in research, education and clinical practice suicide rates have not diminished and are even increasing among several at-risk populations. Although nonhuman animals do not engage in suicidal behavior amenable to translational studies, we argue that animal model systems are necessary to investigate candidate endophenotypes of suicidal behavior and the neurobiology underlying these endophenotypes...
April 11, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
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