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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104563/differential-correlation-of-suicide-and-homicide-rates-according-to-geographical-areas-a-study-with-population-level-data
#1
Konstantinos N Fountoulakis, Xenia Gonda
The current study investigated the relationship of suicide and homicide rates internationally. WHO database mortality data for 82 countries concerning suicide, homicides, and cancer and traffic accidents as controls were used. The analysis included Pearson correlation and multiple linear regression analysis. Worldwide homicidal rates explained 55.42%, 43.86% and 41.7% of male and 22.0%, 22.14% and 13.25% of female suicides for 2000, 2005 and 2010 respectively. In Europe there was a positive correlation between male suicide rates and all homicide rates including homicide rates in both genders, in male victims, and in female victims...
January 6, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096356/active-mlkl-triggers-the-nlrp3-inflammasome-in-a-cell-intrinsic-manner
#2
Stephanie A Conos, Kaiwen W Chen, Dominic De Nardo, Hideki Hara, Lachlan Whitehead, Gabriel Núñez, Seth L Masters, James M Murphy, Kate Schroder, David L Vaux, Kate E Lawlor, Lisa M Lindqvist, James E Vince
Necroptosis is a physiological cell suicide mechanism initiated by receptor-interacting protein kinase-3 (RIPK3) phosphorylation of mixed-lineage kinase domain-like protein (MLKL), which results in disruption of the plasma membrane. Necroptotic cell lysis, and resultant release of proinflammatory mediators, is thought to cause inflammation in necroptotic disease models. However, we previously showed that MLKL signaling can also promote inflammation by activating the nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome to recruit the adaptor protein apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a caspase activation and recruitment domain (ASC) and trigger caspase-1 processing of the proinflammatory cytokine IL-1β...
January 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045099/cleavage-of-dfna5-by-caspase-3-during-apoptosis-mediates-progression-to-secondary-necrotic-pyroptotic-cell-death
#3
Corey Rogers, Teresa Fernandes-Alnemri, Lindsey Mayes, Diana Alnemri, Gino Cingolani, Emad S Alnemri
Apoptosis is a genetically regulated cell suicide programme mediated by activation of the effector caspases 3, 6 and 7. If apoptotic cells are not scavenged, they progress to a lytic and inflammatory phase called secondary necrosis. The mechanism by which this occurs is unknown. Here we show that caspase-3 cleaves the GSDMD-related protein DFNA5 after Asp270 to generate a necrotic DFNA5-N fragment that targets the plasma membrane to induce secondary necrosis/pyroptosis. Cells that express DFNA5 progress to secondary necrosis, when stimulated with apoptotic triggers such as etoposide or vesicular stomatitis virus infection, but disassemble into small apoptotic bodies when DFNA5 is deleted...
January 3, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039138/an-effective-counterselection-system-for-listeria-monocytogenes-and-its-use-to-characterize-10403s-strain-monocin-genomic-region
#4
Tal Argov, Lev Rabinovich, Nadejda Sigal, Anat A Herskovits
Construction of Listeria monocytogenes mutants by allelic exchange has been laborious and time consuming due to lack of proficient selection markers for the final recombination event. That is, a marker conveying substance sensitivity to the bacteria bearing it, enabling the exclusion of merodiploids and selection for plasmid loss. In order to address this issue, we engineered a counterselection marker based on a mutated phenylalanyl-tRNA synthetase gene (pheS*). This mutation renders the phenylalanine-binding site of the enzyme more promiscuous and allows the binding of the toxic p-chloro-phenylalanine analog (p-Cl-phe) as a substrate...
December 30, 2016: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28033474/hypothesizing-that-neuropharmacological-and-neuroimaging-studies-of-glutaminergic-dopaminergic-optimization-complex-kb220z-are-associated-with-dopamine-homeostasis-in-reward-deficiency-syndrome-rds
#5
Kenneth Blum, Marcelo Febo, Lyle Fried, Mona Li, Kristina Dushaj, Eric R Braverman, Thomas McLaughlin, Bruce Steinberg, Rajendra D Badgaiyan
BACKGROUND: There is need for better treatments of addictive behaviors, both substance and non-substance related, termed Reward Deficiency Syndrome (RDS). While the FDA has approved pharmaceuticals under the umbrella term Medication Assisted Treatment (MAT), these drugs are not optimal. OBJECTIVES: It is our contention that these drugs work well in the short-term by blocking dopamine function leading to psychological extinction. However, use of buprenorphine/Naloxone over a long period of time results in unwanted addiction liability, reduced emotional affect, and mood changes including suicidal ideation...
December 29, 2016: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031582/brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-and-suicide-in-schizophrenia-critical-role-of-neuroprotective-mechanisms-as-an-emerging-hypothesis
#6
REVIEW
Amresh Shrivastava, Avinash De Sousa, G Prasad Rao
Suicide is a common occurrence in psychiatric disorders and is a cause of increased healthcare utilization worldwide. Schizophrenia is one of the most common psychiatric disorders worldwide and posited to be seen in 1% of the population worldwide. Suicide is a common occurrence in schizophrenia with 25%-30% patients with schizophrenia attempting suicide and 8%-10% completing it. There is a need for valid biological markers to help clinicians identify patients with schizophrenia that may be at a risk of suicide and thus help in them receiving better care and interventions at the earliest even before a suicide attempt occurring...
November 2016: Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030616/rare-cnvs-in-suicide-attempt-include-schizophrenia-associated-loci-and-neurodevelopmental-genes-a-pilot-genome-wide-and-family-based-study
#7
Marcus Sokolowski, Jerzy Wasserman, Danuta Wasserman
Suicidal behavior (SB) has a complex etiology involving genes and environment. One of the genetic components in SB could be copy number variations (CNVs), as CNVs are implicated in neurodevelopmental disorders. However, a recently published genome-wide and case-control study did not observe any significant role of CNVs in SB. Here we complemented these initial observations by instead using a family-based trio-sample that is robust to control biases, having severe suicide attempt (SA) in offspring as main outcome (n = 660 trios)...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28026826/programmed-cell-death-strategy-for-maintenance-cellular-organisms-homeostasis
#8
Mirosław Godlewski, Agnieszka Kobylińska
Programmed cell death (PCD) is a cellular suicide process, commonly found in organisms, that is important for elimination unnecessary and damaged cells during development and adaptation to abiotic and biotic environmental stresses. PCD is a complex and precise, genetically controlled cellular process, in opposite to non-programmed death, necrosis, in which cells are "killed" by strong abiotic factors. This article shows: the occurrence of PCD during animals and plants ontogenesis, classification of cell death types in these organisms with description of autophagy, apoptosis and necrotic cell death and with discussion on plant cell death by apoptosis...
December 20, 2016: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011644/phosphatidylserine-stimulates-ceramide-1-phosphate-c1p-intermembrane-transfer-by-c1p-transfer-proteins
#9
Xiuhong Zhai, Yong-Guang Gao, Shrawan K Mishra, Dhirendra K Simanshu, Ivan A Boldyrev, Linda M Benson, H Robert Bergen, Lucy Malinina, John Mundy, Julian G Molotkovsky, Dinshaw J Patel, Rhoderick E Brown
Genetic models for studying localized cell suicide that halt the spread of pathogen infection and immune response activation in plants include Arabidopsis accelerated-cell-death11 (acd11) In this mutant, sphingolipid homeostasis is disrupted via depletion of ACD11, a lipid transfer protein that is specific for ceramide-1-phosphate (C1P) and phyto-C1P. The C1P binding site in ACD11 and in human ceramide-1-phosphate transfer protein (CPTP) is surrounded by cationic residues. Here, we investigated the functional regulation of ACD11 and CPTP by anionic phosphoglycerides and found that 1 palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-phosphatidic acid or 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-phosphatidylglycerol (≈ 15 mol%) in C1P-source vesicles depressed C1P intermembrane transfer...
December 23, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999411/apoptosis-in-cellular-society-communication-between-apoptotic-cells-and-their-neighbors
#10
REVIEW
Yuhei Kawamoto, Yu-Ichiro Nakajima, Erina Kuranaga
Apoptosis is one of the cell-intrinsic suicide programs and is an essential cellular behavior for animal development and homeostasis. Traditionally, apoptosis has been regarded as a cell-autonomous phenomenon. However, recent in vivo genetic studies have revealed that apoptotic cells actively influence the behaviors of surrounding cells, including engulfment, proliferation, and production of mechanical forces. Such interactions can be bidirectional, and apoptosis is non-autonomously induced in a cellular community...
December 20, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992891/negative-experiences-in-childhood-and-the-development-and-course-of-bipolar-disorder
#11
REVIEW
Paulina Jaworska-Andryszewska, Janusz Rybakowski
The aim of this paper is to review the effects of negative childhood experiences on the development and course of bipolar disorder (BD) and to discuss the involved mechanisms. The negative childhood experiences that may play a role in BD are critical or traumatic events including all kinds of abuse, loss of a parent or parents resulting from death, suicide, separation, divorce or prolonged separation. Previous studies indicate that in BD patients negative childhood events are more frequent than in control group...
October 31, 2016: Psychiatria Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992853/clock-gene-variants-associated-with-the-discrepancy-between-subjective-and-objective-severity-in-bipolar-depression
#12
Masahiro Suzuki, Sara Dallaspezia, Clara Locatelli, Cristina Lorenzi, Makoto Uchiyama, Cristina Colombo, Francesco Benedetti
BACKGROUND: The discrepancy between subjective and objective severity of depressive syndromes has been proposed as a predictor of treatment outcome and suicidal risk in depression, and is associated with depressive cognitive distortions. A recent study reported that evening-type depressed patients showed higher depressive cognitions than morning-type patients. Therefore, it can be hypothesized that genetic factors affecting evening preference, such as carrying of the CLOCK rs1801260*C allele, may influence the discrepancy...
December 13, 2016: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27982135/antibiotic-free-selection-for-the-high-level-biosynthesis-of-a-silk-elastin-like-protein
#13
Mário Barroca, Paulo Rodrigues, Rómulo Sobral, M Manuela R Costa, Susana R Chaves, Raul Machado, Margarida Casal, Tony Collins
Silk-elastin-like proteins (SELPs) are a family of genetically engineered recombinant protein polymers exhibiting mechanical and biological properties suited for a wide range of applications in the biomedicine and materials fields. They are being explored as the next generation of biomaterials but low productivities and use of antibiotics during production undermine their economic viability and safety. We have developed an industrially relevant, scalable, fed-batch process for the high level production of a novel SELP in E...
December 16, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27982017/extracellular-vesicle-mediated-suicide-mrna-protein-delivery-inhibits-glioblastoma-tumor-growth-in-vivo
#14
E P Erkan, D Senfter, S Madlener, G Jungwirth, T Ströbel, N Saydam, O Saydam
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are considered as important mediators of intercellular communication, which carry a diverse repertoire of genetic information between cells. This feature of EVs can be used and improved to advance their therapeutic potential. We have previously shown that genetically engineered EVs carrying the suicide gene mRNA and protein-cytosine deaminase (CD) fused to uracil phosphoribosyltransferase (UPRT)-inhibited schwannoma tumor growth in vivo. To further examine whether this approach can be applied to other cancer types, we established a subcutaneous xenograft glioblastoma tumor model in mice, as glioblastoma represents the most common primary brain tumor, which is highly aggressive compared with the original schwannoma tumor model...
December 16, 2016: Cancer Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27964944/resequencing-three-candidate-genes-discovers-seven-potentially-deleterious-variants-susceptibility-to-major-depressive-disorder-and-suicide-attempts-in-chinese
#15
Shitao Rao, Cherry She Ting Leung, Macro Hb Lam, Yun Kwok Wing, Mary Miu Yee Waye, Stephen Kwok Wing Tsui
BACKGROUND: To date almost 200 genes were found to be associated with major depressive disorder (MDD) or suicide attempts (SA), but very few genes were reported for their molecular mechanisms. This study aimed to find out whether there were common or rare variants in three candidate genes altering the risk for MDD and SA in Chinese. METHODS: Three candidate genes (HOMER1, SLC6A4 and TEF) were chosen for resequencing analysis and association studies as they were reported to be involved in the etiology of MDD and SA...
March 1, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939829/association-of-the-polygenic-risk-score-for-schizophrenia-with-mortality-and-suicidal-behavior-a-danish-population-based-study
#16
Thomas M Laursen, Betina B Trabjerg, Ole Mors, Anders D Børglum, David M Hougaard, Manuel Mattheisen, Sandra M Meier, Enda M Byrne, Preben B Mortensen, Trine Munk-Olsen, Esben Agerbo
BACKGROUND: It is unknown whether an increased genetic liability to schizophrenia influences the risk of dying early. The aim of the study was to determine whether the genetic predisposition to schizophrenia is associated with the risk of dying early and experience a suicide attempt. METHOD: Case control study, Denmark. The main measure was the mortality rate ratios (MRR) for deaths and odds ratios (OR) for multiple suicide attempts, associated with one standard deviations increase of the polygenic risk-score for schizophrenia (PRS)...
December 6, 2016: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913417/development-of-an-improved-system-for-the-generation-of-knockout-mutants-of-amycolatopsis-sp-strain-atcc-39116
#17
Florian Meyer, Hilke Pupkes, Alexander Steinbüchel
The Gram-positive actinomycete Amycolatopsis sp. strain ATCC 39116 is used for the industrial production of natural vanillin. Previously, the only gene deletion performed in this strain targeted the gene vdh, coding for a vanillin dehydrogenase. The generation of this mutant suffered from a high number of illegitimate recombinations and a low rate of homologous recombination. To alleviate this, we constructed an optimized deletion system based on a modified suicide vector. Thereby, we were able to increase the rate of homologous integration from less than 1% of the analyzed clones to 20% or 50%, depending on the targeted gene...
February 1, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910884/the-hha-tomb-toxin-antitoxin-system-shows-conditional-toxicity-and-promotes-persister-cell-formation-by-inhibiting-apoptosis-like-death-in-s-typhimurium
#18
Sangeeta Jaiswal, Prajita Paul, Chandrashekhar Padhi, Shilpa Ray, Daniel Ryan, Shantoshini Dash, Mrutyunjay Suar
Toxin-antitoxin (TA) modules are two component "addictive" genetic elements found on either plasmid or bacterial chromosome, sometimes on both. TA systems perform a wide range of functions like biofilm formation, persistence, programmed cell death, phage abortive infection etc. Salmonella has been reported to contain several such TA systems. However, the hemolysin expression modulating protein (Hha) and its adjacent uncharacterized hypothetical protein TomB (previously known as YbaJ), have not been listed as a TA module in Salmonella...
December 2, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907031/in-vitro-pre-clinical-validation-of-suicide-gene-modified-anti-cd33-redirected-chimeric-antigen-receptor-t-cells-for-acute-myeloid-leukemia
#19
Kentaro Minagawa, Muhammad O Jamil, Mustafa Al-Obaidi, Larisa Pereboeva, Donna Salzman, Harry P Erba, Lawrence S Lamb, Ravi Bhatia, Shin Mineishi, Antonio Di Stasi
BACKGROUND: Approximately fifty percent of patients with acute myeloid leukemia can be cured with current therapeutic strategies which include, standard dose chemotherapy for patients at standard risk of relapse as assessed by cytogenetic and molecular analysis, or high-dose chemotherapy with allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant for high-risk patients. Despite allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant about 25% of patients still succumb to disease relapse, therefore, novel strategies are needed to improve the outcome of patients with acute myeloid leukemia...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895323/elevated-cyp2c19-expression-is-associated-with-depressive-symptoms-and-hippocampal-homeostasis-impairment
#20
M M Jukić, N Opel, J Ström, T Carrillo-Roa, S Miksys, M Novalen, A Renblom, S C Sim, E M Peñas-Lledó, P Courtet, A Llerena, B T Baune, D J de Quervain, A Papassotiropoulos, R F Tyndale, E B Binder, U Dannlowski, M Ingelman-Sundberg
The polymorphic CYP2C19 enzyme metabolizes psychoactive compounds and is expressed in the adult liver and fetal brain. Previously, we demonstrated that the absence of CYP2C19 is associated with lower levels of depressive symptoms in 1472 Swedes. Conversely, transgenic mice carrying the human CYP2C19 gene (2C19TG) have shown an anxious phenotype and decrease in hippocampal volume and adult neurogenesis. The aims of this study were to: (1) examine whether the 2C19TG findings could be translated to humans, (2) evaluate the usefulness of the 2C19TG strain as a tool for preclinical screening of new antidepressants and (3) provide an insight into the molecular underpinnings of the 2C19TG phenotype...
November 29, 2016: Molecular Psychiatry
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