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Suicide genetic

Arezou Sayad, Rezvan Noroozi, Zahra Khodamoradi, Mir Davood Omrani, Mohammad Taheri, Soudeh Ghafouri-Fard
Genetic association studies have linked suicide behavior with genes encoding transporters of monoamine. Variants in the vesicular monoamine transporter 1 (VMAT1) have been previously shown to be associated with several psychiatric disorders including schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. However, their association with suicide behavior has not been explored. In the present study, we genotyped three single-nucleotide polymorphisms (rs2270637, rs1390938, and rs2279709) within this gene in 100 individuals who attempted suicide, 236 suicide victims, and 300 control subjects without any history of psychiatric disorders or suicide ideation...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
Asghar Ghasemi, Morteza Seifi, Bahram Samadi Rad
AIM: Several studies have assessed a relationship between 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin) 2A receptor (5-HTR2A) gene polymorphisms with an increased risk of suicidal behavior. However, there has been no study about the association between 5-HTR2A gene polymorphisms, suicidal behavior, stressful life and loss events in a same time. METHODS: 5-HTR2A polymorphisms in a total of 191 suicide victims and 218 healthy controls were genotyped using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP)...
March 8, 2018: Gene
Katarina Uršič, Tomaž Zupanc, Alja Videtič Paska
Suicide is a well-defined public health problem and is a complex phenomenon influenced by a number of different risk factors, including genetic ones. Numerous studies have examined serotonin system genes. Monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A) is an outer mitochondrial membrane enzyme which is involved in the metabolic pathway of serotonin degradation. Upstream variable number of tandem repeats (uVNTR) in the promoter region of MAOA gene affects the activity of transcription. In the present study we genotyped MAOA-uVNTR polymorphism in 266 suicide victims and 191 control subjects of Slovenian population, which ranks among the European and world populations with the highest suicide rate...
March 2, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Fatima Saleem, Syed W Rizvi
Transgender or gender dysphoria has been defined in the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), as distress resulting from the incongruence between one's experienced gender and one's assigned gender, along with a persistent and strong desire to be of another gender, and accompanied by clinically significant distress. Adolescents referred for evaluation often want hormonal therapy and several among them also express a desire for gender reassignment surgery. Furthermore, evidence shows that adolescents and adults with gender dysphoria without a sex development disorder, before gender reassignments, are at increased risk for suicide...
December 24, 2017: Curēus
Konstantinos N Fountoulakis, Xenia Gonda
INTRODUCTION: There are large differences in suicide rates across Europe. The current study investigated the relationship of suicide and homicide rates in different countries of Europe with ancestry as it is defined with the haplotype frequencies of Y-DNA and mtDNA. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The mortality data were retrieved from the WHO online database. The genetic data were retrieved from The statistical analysis included Forward Stepwise Multiple Linear Regression analysis and Pearson Correlation Coefficient (R)...
February 17, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
Anna-Liina Rahikainen, Jukka U Palo, Jari Haukka, Antti Sajantila
BACKGROUND: Genetic variation in efflux transporter, permeability glycoprotein (P-gp), has recently been associated with completed violent suicides and also violent suicide attempts. As depression is known to be a risk factor for suicide and many antidepressants are P-gp substrates, it has been speculated that inadequate antidepressant treatment response or adverse side effects could be involved. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate whether there is an association between the P-gp coding ABCB1 gene and completed suicides in citalopram users...
February 23, 2018: Pharmacogenetics and Genomics
Ashok Kumar, Satyabrata Bag, Bhabatosh Das
BACKGROUND: Genomic islands (GIs) are discrete segments of mobile DNA with defined boundaries, acquired in the bacterial genome from another organism by horizontal gene transfer during the course of evolution. GIs contribute significantly in virulence, disease development, antimicrobial resistance and metabolic process. OBJECTIVE: The present study focuses on the development of a vector based genetic tool carrying selectable and counter-selectable markers, in order to flag the GIs in the bacterial chromosome and monitor their stability in laboratory growth conditions...
February 22, 2018: Recent Patents on Biotechnology
Arnauld Belmer, Emily Quentin, Silvina L Diaz, Bruno P Guiard, Sebastian P Fernandez, Stéphane Doly, Sophie M Banas, Pothitos M Pitychoutis, Imane Moutkine, Aude Muzerelle, Anna Tchenio, Anne Roumier, Manuel Mameli, Luc Maroteaux
Serotonin is a neurotransmitter involved in many psychiatric diseases. In humans, a lack of 5-HT 2B receptors is associated with serotonin-dependent phenotypes, including impulsivity and suicidality. A lack of 5-HT 2B receptors in mice eliminates the effects of molecules that directly target serotonergic neurons including amphetamine derivative serotonin releasers, and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor antidepressants. In this work, we tested the hypothesis that 5-HT 2B receptors directly and positively regulate raphe serotonin neuron activity...
February 5, 2018: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Mayara Grizotte-Lake, Shipra Vaishnava
Autophagy is genetically associated with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD); however, its role remains unclear in disease pathogenesis. Three recent studies reveal a novel cytoprotective role of autophagy during viral, bacterial, and protozoan-triggered IBD (Burger et al., 2018; Matsuzawa-Ishimoto et al., 2017; Pott et al., 2018).
February 14, 2018: Cell Host & Microbe
Tiphaine Birien, Axel Thiel, Ghislaine Henneke, Didier Flament, Yann Moalic, Mohamed Jebbar
A gene disruption system for Thermococcus barophilus was developed using simvastatin (HMG-CoA reductase encoding gene) for positive selection and 5-Fluoroorotic acid (5-FOA), a pyrF gene for negative selection. Multiple gene mutants were constructed with this system, which offers the possibility of complementation in trans, but produces many false positives (<80%). To significantly reduce the rate of false positives, we used another counterselective marker, 6-methylpurine (6-MP), a toxic analog of adenine developed in Thermococcus kodakarensis, consistently correlated with the TK0664 gene (encoding a hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl-transferase)...
February 7, 2018: Genes
Iren Csala, Peter Dome, Judit Lazary
Backgorund: There is accumulating evidence on the association between the cholinergic system and nicotine dependence (ND) in the literature and the bidirectional relationship of ND and depression. However, the molecular background of the development of ND and related affective phenotype is not clear. METHODS: We recruited 255 tretament-seeking smokers into our study. For phenotyping assessments we used the Fagerstrom Nicotine Dependence Test; The Minnessotta Nicotine Withdrawal Scale; the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale and the Parental Bonding Instrument...
December 2017: Neuropsychopharmacologia Hungarica
Alexander Harms, Ditlev Egeskov Brodersen, Namiko Mitarai, Kenn Gerdes
Bacterial toxin-antitoxin (TA) modules are abundant genetic elements that encode a toxin protein capable of inhibiting cell growth and an antitoxin that counteracts the toxin. The majority of toxins are enzymes that interfere with translation or DNA replication, but a wide variety of molecular activities and cellular targets have been described. Antitoxins are proteins or RNAs that often control their cognate toxins through direct interactions and, in conjunction with other signaling elements, through transcriptional and translational regulation of TA module expression...
January 21, 2018: Molecular Cell
Régine Vivien, Soraya Saïagh, Philippe Lemarre, Valérie Chabaud, Béline Jesson, Catherine Godon, Ulrich Jarry, Thierry Guillaume, Patrice Chevallier, Henri Vié, Béatrice Clémenceau
BACKGROUND AIMS: To produce an anti-leukemic effect after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation we have long considered the theoretical possibility of using banks of HLA-DP specific T-cell clones transduced with a suicide gene. For that application as for any others, a clonal strategy is constrained by the population doubling (PD) potential of T cells, which has been rarely explored or exploited. METHODS: We used clinical-grade conditions and two donors who were homozygous and identical for all HLA-alleles except HLA-DP...
January 21, 2018: Cytotherapy
Ali Bozorgmehr, Mohammad Ghadirivasfi, Mostafa Tavakoli, Hamid Rahmani, Fahimeh Heydari, Esmaeil Shahsavand Ananloo
OBJECTIVE: In recent decades, the role of genetic factors in the predisposition to suicidal behavior has attracted considerable attention. Although each genetic investigation appears to be valuable, no one study on its own can comprehensively explain the etiology of suicidal behavior. METHODS: In this study, using a broad literature review, we found the suicide-associated gene coexpression network. In addition, cytoband, molecular function, biological process, cellular component, tissue-based expression, and disease/disorder enrichment analyses were carried out to determine the most central cellular and molecular infrastructures involved in suicidal behavior...
January 29, 2018: Psychiatric Genetics
Qingzhong Wang, Bhaskar Roy, Gustavo Turecki, Richard C Shelton, Yogesh Dwivedi
OBJECTIVE: Proinflammatory cytokines have recently received considerable attention for their role in suicidal behavior; however, how the expression of cytokine genes is regulated is not clearly known. The authors examined underlying mechanisms of critical cytokine gene tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) dysregulation in the brains of individuals who died by suicide. METHOD: TNF-α expression was examined in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex of the postmortem brains of persons with and without major depressive disorder who died by suicide and of persons with major depressive disorder who died of causes other than suicide...
January 24, 2018: American Journal of Psychiatry
Laura Orsolini, Fabiola Sarchione, Federica Vellante, Michele Fornaro, Ilaria Matarazzo, Giovanni Martinotti, Alessandro Valchera, Marco Di Nicola, Alessandro Carano, Massimo Di Giannantonio, Giampaolo Perna, Luigi Olivieri, Domenico De Berardis
BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia is a complex illness in which genetic, environmental, and epigenetic components have been implicated. However, recently, psychiatric disorders appear to be related to a chronic inflammatory state, at the level of specific cerebral areas which have been found as well impaired and responsible of the schizophrenia symptomatology. Hence, a role of inflammatory mediators and cytokines has been as well supposed. Accordingly, it has been recently investigated the role of an acute inflammatory phase protein, the C-reactive protein (CRP)...
January 19, 2018: Current Neuropharmacology
Abigail Ortiz, Kamil Bradler, Arend Hintze
OBJECTIVE: Bipolar disorder is a severe mood disorder characterized by alternating episodes of mania and depression. Several interventions have been developed to decrease high admission rates and high suicides rates associated with the illness, including psychoeducation and early episode detection, with mixed results. More recently, machine learning approaches have been used to aid clinical diagnosis or to detect a particular clinical state; however, contradictory results arise from confusion around which of the several automatically generated data are the most contributory and useful to detect a particular clinical state...
January 22, 2018: Bipolar Disorders
Eric Libby, William W Driscoll, William C Ratcliff
Programmed cell death (PCD) occurs in both unicellular and multicellular organisms. While PCD plays a key role in the development and maintenance of multicellular organisms, explaining why single-celled organisms would evolve to actively commit suicide has been far more challenging. Here, we explore the potential for PCD to act as an accessory to microbial bet-hedging strategies that utilize stochastic phenotype switching. We consider organisms that face unpredictable and recurring disasters, in which fitness depends on effective phenotypic diversification...
January 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
Pierre-Eric Lutz, Daniel Almeida, Raoul Belzeaux, Ipek Yalcin, Gustavo Turecki
Preclinical and clinical studies have demonstrated that the kappa opioid receptor (KOR) regulates reward, hedonic tone and emotions. At therapeutic level, on-going clinical trials are assessing the potential of targeting the KOR for the management of depression, anxiety disorders and substance use disorders. However, genetic polymorphisms in the KOR gene that potentially contribute to its implication in these phenotypes have been poorly studied. Here we investigated an insertion-deletion in the promoter region of KOR (rs35566036), recently associated with alcohol addiction, in a cohort of depressed subjects who died by suicide, as well as psychiatrically healthy individuals...
January 11, 2018: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Ali Bozorgmehr, Fatemeh Alizadeh, Sattar Norouzi Ofogh, Mohammad Reza Abdollahzadeh Hamzekalayi, Sara Herati, Atefeh Moradkhani, Ali Shahbazi, Mohammad Ghadirivasfi
BACKGROUND: Available sources indicate that the risk of suicide in people with major depression is higher than other psychiatric disorders. Although it seems that these two conditions may have a shared cause in some cases, no studies have been conducted to identify a common basis for them. METHODS: In this study, following an extensive review of literature, we found almost all the genes that are involved in major depression and suicidal behavior, and we isolated genes shared between the two conditions...
January 8, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
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