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Suicide genetic

E Rizos, N Siafakas, E Skourti, C Papageorgiou, J Tsoporis, T H Parker, D I Christodoulou, D A Spandidos, E Katsantoni, V Zoumpourlis
Schizophrenia (SZ) and cancer (Ca) have a broad spectrum of clinical phenotypes and a complex biological background, implicating a large number of genetic and epigenetic factors. SZ is a chronic neurodevelopmental disorder signified by an increase in the expression of apoptotic molecular signals, whereas Ca is conversely characterized by an increase in appropriate molecular signaling that stimulates uncontrolled cell proliferation. The rather low risk of developing Ca in patients suffering from SZ is a hypothesis that is still under debate...
October 14, 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
Bojan Mirkovic, Claudine Laurent, Marc-Antoine Podlipski, Thierry Frebourg, David Cohen, Priscille Gerardin
Suicidal behaviors (SBs), which range from suicidal ideation to suicide attempts and completed suicide, represent a fatal dimension of mental ill-health. The involvement of genetic risk factors in SB is supported by family, twin, and adoption studies. The aim of this paper is to review recent genetic association studies in SBs including (i) case-control studies, (ii) family-based association studies, and (iii) genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Various studies on genetic associations have tended to suggest that a number of genes [e...
2016: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Gin S Malhi, Yulisha Byrow, Frederick Cassidy, Andrea Cipriani, Koen Demyttenaere, Mark A Frye, Michael Gitlin, Sidney H Kennedy, Terence A Ketter, Raymond W Lam, Rupert McShane, Alex J Mitchell, Michael J Ostacher, Sakina J Rizvi, Michael E Thase, Mauricio Tohen
SUMMARY: The appeal of ketamine - in promptly ameliorating depressive symptoms even in those with non-response - has led to a dramatic increase in its off-label use. Initial promising results await robust corroboration and key questions remain, particularly concerning its long-term administration. It is, therefore, timely to review the opinions of mood disorder experts worldwide pertaining to ketamine's potential as an option for treating depression and provide a synthesis of perspectives - derived from evidence and clinical experience - and to consider strategies for future investigations...
May 2016: BJPsych Open
Nathalie Goeders, Ray Chai, Bihe Chen, Andrew Day, George P C Salmond
Toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems are small genetic modules that encode a toxin (that targets an essential cellular process) and an antitoxin that neutralises or suppresses the deleterious effect of the toxin. Based on the molecular nature of the toxin and antitoxin components, TA systems are categorised into different types. Type III TA systems, the focus of this review, are composed of a toxic endoribonuclease neutralised by a non-coding RNA antitoxin in a pseudoknotted configuration. Bioinformatic analysis shows that the Type III systems can be classified into subtypes...
2016: Toxins
David J Laprade, Melissa S Brown, Morgan L McCarthy, James J Ritch, Nicanor Austriaco
The budding yeast Candida albicans is one of the most significant fungal pathogens worldwide. It proliferates in two distinct cell types: blastopores and filaments. Only cells that are able to transform from one cell type into the other are virulent in mouse disease models. Programmed cell death is a controlled form of cell suicide that occurs when C. albicans cells are exposed to fungicidal drugs like amphotericin B and caspofungin, and to other stressful conditions. We now provide evidence that suggests that programmed cell death is cell-type specific in yeast: Filamentous C...
July 2016: Microbial Cell
Sheldon H Preskorn
Suicide is a staggering, tragic, and growing cause of death in the United States. Despite a government-led 20-year effort, the suicide rate increased by 25% between 1999 and 2014. To prevent suicide, it is essential to understand the biological factors-genetic and epigenetic-and environmental factors that underlie it. To gain this increased understanding, the equivalent of the "War on Cancer" initiative is needed. The War on Cancer initiative, which began in the 1970s, has transformed the treatments and outcomes of cancer, and the same could occur with a similar initiative on suicide...
September 2016: Journal of Psychiatric Practice
Abigail Powers, Lynn Almli, Alicia Smith, Adriana Lori, Jen Leveille, Kerry J Ressler, Tanja Jovanovic, Bekh Bradley
Emotion dysregulation has been implicated as a risk factor for many psychiatric conditions. Therefore, examining genetic risk associated with emotion dysregulation could help inform cross-disorder risk more generally. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) of emotion dysregulation using single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array technology was conducted in a highly traumatized, minority, urban sample (N = 2600, males = 774). Post-hoc analyses examined associations between SNPs identified in the GWAS and current depression, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and history of suicide attempt...
September 9, 2016: Journal of Psychiatric Research
D Latrasse, M Benhamed, C Bergounioux, C Raynaud, M Delarue
Programmed cell death (PCD) is a ubiquitous genetically regulated process consisting of the activation of finely controlled signalling pathways that lead to cellular suicide. PCD can be part of a developmental programme (dPCD) or be triggered by environmental conditions (ePCD). In plant cells, as in animal cells, extensive chromatin condensation and degradation of the nuclear DNA are among the most conspicuous features of cells undergoing PCD. Changes in chromatin condensation could either reflect the structural changes required for internucleosomal fragmentation of nuclear DNA or relate to large-scale chromatin rearrangements associated with a major transcriptional switch occurring during cell death...
September 17, 2016: Journal of Experimental Botany
Eduardo De la Cruz-Cano
Suicide is one of the leading causes of death around the world with approximately one million suicides per year. An increasing number of neurobiological studies implicate HPA system dysfunction in suicide behavior, stimulating genetic research to focus on genes related to this system. This systematic review was focused on searching a correlation between FKBP5 and CRHR1 genes with suicidal behavior. Therefore, an electronic search strategy, using PubMed, EBSCO and Cochrane Library databases, was conducted from the inception of the studies into the databases to July 2016...
September 13, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
D Leguay
This article attempts to identify and put into perspective the different approaches that could globally prevent the suffering induced by schizophrenia, from the detection of early psychosis to the impact on individual and family functioning and emotional health. Schizophrenia causes, at the community level, a number of difficult consequences and associated costs, which likely could be reduced if specific strategies, already known and documented internationally, were applied. Two areas not explored in this article: the role of medication and the issue of suicide prevention...
September 9, 2016: L'Encéphale
Wen Wee Ma, Muhammad Wasif Saif, Bassel F El-Rayes, Marwan G Fakih, Thomas H Cartwright, James A Posey, Thomas R King, Reid W von Borstel, Michael K Bamat
BACKGROUND: Increased susceptibility to 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)/capecitabine can lead to rapidly occurring toxicity caused by impaired clearance, dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase deficiency, and other genetic variations in the enzymes that metabolize 5-FU. Life-threatening 5-FU overdoses occur because of infusion pump errors, dosage miscalculations, and accidental or suicidal ingestion of capecitabine. Uridine triacetate (Vistogard) was approved in 2015 for adult and pediatric patients who exhibit early-onset severe or life-threatening 5-FU/capecitabine toxicities or present with an overdose...
September 13, 2016: Cancer
Veerle Bergink, Natalie Rasgon, Katherine L Wisner
OBJECTIVE: Psychosis or mania after childbirth is a psychiatric emergency with risk for suicide and infanticide. METHOD: The authors reviewed the epidemiologic and genetic research and physiological postpartum triggers (endocrine, immunological, circadian) of psychosis. They also summarized all systematic reviews and synthesized the sparse clinical studies to provide diagnostic recommendations, treatment options, and strategies for prevention. RESULTS: The incidence of first-lifetime onset postpartum psychosis/mania from population-based register studies of psychiatric admissions varies from 0...
September 9, 2016: American Journal of Psychiatry
Dominique F Maciejewski, Miguel E Renteria, Abdel Abdellaoui, Sarah E Medland, Lauren R Few, Scott D Gordon, Pamela A F Madden, Grant Montgomery, Timothy J Trull, Andrew C Heath, Dixie J Statham, Nicholas G Martin, Brendan P Zietsch, Karin J H Verweij
Non-suicidal and suicidal self-injury are very destructive, yet surprisingly common behaviours. Depressed mood is a major risk factor for non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI), suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. We conducted a genetic risk prediction study to examine the polygenic overlap of depressive symptoms with lifetime NSSI, suicidal ideation, and suicide attempts in a sample of 6237 Australian adult twins and their family members (3740 females, mean age = 42.4 years). Polygenic risk scores for depressive symptoms significantly predicted suicidal ideation, and some predictive ability was found for suicide attempts; the polygenic risk scores explained a significant amount of variance in suicidal ideation (lowest p = 0...
September 2, 2016: Behavior Genetics
J Pawlak, M Dmitrzak-Węglarz, M Maciukiewicz, P Kapelski, P Czerski, A Leszczyńska-Rodziewicz, D Zaremba, J Hauser
: Introduction The influence of personality traits on suicidal behaviour risk has been well documented. Personality traits and suicidal behaviour are partially genetically determined and personality has been described as an endophenotype of suicidal behaviour. The aim of this study was to investigate a possible association between personality traits with suicidal behaviour and selected serotonergic gene polymorphisms. METHODS: In the study we included 156 patients meeting DSM-IV criteria for bipolar disorder (BP) and 93 healthy controls...
August 30, 2016: Acta Neuropsychiatrica
Keiko Komoto, Sawako Okamoto, Miki Hamada, Naoya Obana, Mami Samori, Tomoaki Imamura
BACKGROUND: Reports of food-related incidents, such as cows infected with bovine spongiform encephalopathy (2001) and the Fukushima nuclear accident (2011), engendered significant fear among Japanese consumers and led to multiple farmer suicides, even when no actual health damage occurred. The growing availability of genetically modified (GM) food is occurring against this backdrop of concern about food safety. Consumers need information to assess risk and make informed purchasing decisions...
August 29, 2016: Interactive Journal of Medical Research
Ikrame Amara, Elodie Pramil, Catherine Senamaud-Beaufort, Audrey Devillers, Rodney Macedo, Géraldine Lescaille, Johanne Seguin, Eric Tartour, François M Lemoine, Philippe Beaune, Isabelle de Waziers
Gene-directed enzyme pro-drug therapy (GDEPT) consists of expressing, in tumor cells, a suicide gene which converts a pro-drug into cytotoxic metabolites, in situ. In a previous work, we demonstrated that the combination of the suicide gene CYP2B6TM-RED (a fusion of a triple mutant of CYP2B6 with NADPH cytochrome P450 reductase) and cyclophosphamide (CPA) constituted a powerful treatment for solid tumors. In this work, we investigated the use of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) as cellular vehicles for the delivery of our suicide gene...
October 10, 2016: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
Marina Bučić, Peter Pregelj, Tomaž Zupanc, Alja Videtič Paska
OBJECTIVE: Suicidal behavior is a complex phenomenon, an outcome of both environmental and genetic factors. In the present study, we looked for a potential association between suicide and the reelin gene as reelin has been associated previously with several psychiatric disorders, including depression. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analyzed three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the reelin gene, rs2965087, rs7341475, and rs362691, in a population of 483 suicide victims and 332 healthy controls, all Caucasians...
October 2016: Psychiatric Genetics
Barbara Conradt, Yi-Chun Wu, Ding Xue
Programmed cell death is an integral component of Caenorhabditis elegans development. Genetic and reverse genetic studies in C. elegans have led to the identification of many genes and conserved cell death pathways that are important for the specification of which cells should live or die, the activation of the suicide program, and the dismantling and removal of dying cells. Molecular, cell biological, and biochemical studies have revealed the underlying mechanisms that control these three phases of programmed cell death...
August 2016: Genetics
Emyr Lloyd-Evans, Luke Haslett
Lysosomal storage diseases and diseases of ageing share many features both at the physiological level and with respect to the mechanisms that underlie disease pathogenesis. Although the exact pathophysiology is not exactly the same, it is astounding how many similar pathways are altered in all of these diseases. The aim of this review is to provide a summary of the shared disease mechanisms, outlining the similarities and differences and how genetics, insight into rare diseases and functional research has changed our perspective on the causes underlying common diseases of ageing...
August 8, 2016: Ageing Research Reviews
Beatriz Corona-Miranda, Mariela Hernández-Sánchez, Paula Lomba-Acevedo
INTRODUCTION Suicide is a health problem influenced by biological, genetic, psychological, social and economic factors. It is responsible for 50% of violent deaths in the male population, worldwide, and 71% in the female. In the Americas, 65,000 deaths by suicide occur every year. It is the ninth most frequent cause of death in Cuba, and third among people aged 10-19. OBJECTIVE Characterize the epidemiology of suicide in Cuba from 1987 to 2014. METHODS A retrospective descriptive study was conducted. The information comprised all records of death by suicide from January 1, 1987 to December 31, 2014, in the Cuban Ministry of Public Health's National Statistics Division database...
July 2016: MEDICC Review
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