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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423030/molecular-characterization-of-cryptosporidium-and-giardia-from-the-tasmanian-devil-sarcophilus-harrisii
#1
Liana F Wait, Samantha Fox, Sarah Peck, Michelle L Power
The Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisii) is a carnivorous marsupial found only in the wild in Tasmania, Australia. Tasmanian devils are classified as endangered and are currently threatened by devil facial tumour disease, a lethal transmissible cancer that has decimated the wild population in Tasmania. To prevent extinction of Tasmanian devils, conservation management was implemented in 2003 under the Save the Tasmanian Devil Program. This study aimed to assess if conservation management was altering the interactions between Tasmanian devils and their parasites...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366511/occurrence-and-molecular-characterization-of-hemoplasmas-in-domestic-dogs-and-wild-mammals-in-a-brazilian-wetland
#2
Keyla Carstens Marques de Sousa, Heitor Miraglia Herrera, Caroline Tostes Secato, André do Vale Oliveira, Filipe Martins Santos, Fabiana Lopes Rocha, Wanessa Teixeira Gomes Barreto, Gabriel Carvalho Macedo, Pedro Cordeiro Estrela de Andrade Pinto, Rosangela Zacarias Machado, Mirela Tinucci Costa, Marcos Rogério André
Hemotropic mycoplasmas are known to cause anemia in several mammalian species. The present work aimed to investigate the occurrence of Mycoplasma spp. in wild mammals, domestic dogs and their respective ectoparasites, in southern Pantanal region, central-western Brazil. Between August 2013 and March 2015, 31 Nasua nasua, 78 Cerdocyon thous, seven Leopardus pardalis, 42 dogs, 110 wild rodents, and 30 marsupials were trapped and ectoparasites (ticks and fleas) found parasitizing the animals were collected. Mammals and ectoparasites DNA samples were submitted to conventional PCR assays for Mycoplasma spp...
March 31, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28348050/differential-ifn-%C3%AE-and-tnf-%C3%AE-driven-cytokine-response-distinguishes-acute-infection-of-a-metatherian-host-with-toxoplasma-gondii-and-neospora-caninum
#3
Shannon L Donahoe, David N Phalen, Bronwyn M McAllan, Denis O'Meally, Milton M McAllister, John Ellis, Jan Šlapeta
Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum (both Apicomplexa) are closely related cyst-forming coccidian parasites that differ significantly in their host range and ability to cause disease. Unlike eutherian mammals, Australian marsupials (metatherian mammals) have long been thought to be highly susceptible to toxoplasmosis and neosporosis because of their historical isolation from the parasites. In this study, the carnivorous fat-tailed dunnart (Sminthopsis crassicaudata) was used as a disease model to investigate the immune response and susceptibility to infection of an Australian marsupial to T...
March 27, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291601/molecular-detection-of-hepatozoon-spp-in-domestic-dogs-and-wild-mammals-in-southern-pantanal-brazil-with-implications-in-the-transmission-route
#4
Keyla Carstens Marques de Sousa, Marina Pugnaghi Fernandes, Heitor Miraglia Herrera, Jyan Lucas Benevenute, Filipe Martins Santos, Fabiana Lopes Rocha, Wanessa Teixeira Gomes Barreto, Gabriel Carvalho Macedo, João Bosco Campos, Thiago Fernandes Martins, Pedro Cordeiro Estrela de Andrade Pinto, Darci Barros Battesti, Eliane Mattos Piranda, Paulo Henrique Duarte Cançado, Rosangela Zacarias Machado, Marcos Rogério André
Hepatozoon parasites comprise intracellular apicomplexan parasites transmitted to vertebrate animals by ingestion of arthropods definitive hosts. The present work aimed to investigate the occurrence of Hepatozoon spp. in wild animals, domestic dogs and their respective ectoparasites, in southern Pantanal region, central-western Brazil, by molecular techniques. Between August 2013 and March 2015, 31 coatis (Nasua nasua), 78 crab-eating foxes (Cerdocyon thous), seven ocelots (Leopardus pardalis), 42 dogs (Canis lupus familiaris), 110 wild rodents (77 Thichomys fosteri, 25 Oecomys mamorae, and 8 Clyomys laticeps), 30 marsupials (14 Thylamys macrurus, 11 Gracilinanus agilis, 4 Monodelphis domestica and 1 Didelphis albiventris), and 1582 ticks and 80 fleas collected from the sampled animals were investigated...
February 22, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213652/evaluating-stress-physiology-and-parasite-infection-parameters-in-the-translocation-of-critically-endangered-woylies-bettongia-penicillata
#5
Stephanie Hing, Amy S Northover, Edward J Narayan, Adrian F Wayne, Krista L Jones, Sarah Keatley, R C Andrew Thompson, Stephanie S Godfrey
Translocation can be stressful for wildlife. Stress may be important in fauna translocation because it has been suggested that it can exacerbate the impact of infectious disease on translocated wildlife. However, few studies explore this hypothesis by measuring stress physiology and infection indices in parallel during wildlife translocations. We analysed faecal cortisol metabolite (FCM) concentration and endoparasite parameters (nematodes, coccidians and haemoparasites) in a critically endangered marsupial, the woylie (Bettongia penicillata), 1-3 months prior to translocation, at translocation, and 6 months later...
February 17, 2017: EcoHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28173840/morphological-and-molecular-description-of-ixodes-woyliei-n-sp-ixodidae-with-consideration-for-co-extinction-with-its-critically-endangered-marsupial-host
#6
Amanda Ash, Aileen Elliot, Stephanie Godfrey, Halina Burmej, Mohammad Yazid Abdad, Amy Northover, Adrian Wayne, Keith Morris, Peta Clode, Alan Lymbery, R C Andrew Thompson
BACKGROUND: Taxonomic identification of ticks obtained during a longitudinal survey of the critically endangered marsupial, Bettongia penicillata Gray, 1837 (woylie, brush-tailed bettong) revealed a new species of Ixodes Latrielle, 1795. Here we provide morphological data for the female and nymphal life stages of this novel species (Ixodes woyliei n. sp.), in combination with molecular characterisation using the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene (cox1). In addition, molecular characterisation was conducted on several described Ixodes species and used to provide phylogenetic context...
February 7, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122598/novel-chlamydiales-genotypes-identified-in-ticks-from-australian-wildlife
#7
Delaney Burnard, Haylee Weaver, Amber Gillett, Joanne Loader, Cheyne Flanagan, Adam Polkinghorne
BACKGROUND: Members of the order Chlamydiales are known for their potential as human and veterinary bacterial pathogens. Despite this recognition, epidemiological factors such as routes of transmission are yet to be fully defined. Ticks are well known vectors for many other infections with several reports recently describing the presence of bacteria in the order Chlamydiales in these arthropods. Australian wildlife are hosts to an extensive range of tick species. Evidence is also growing that the marsupial hosts these ticks parasitise can also be infected by a number of bacteria in the order Chlamydiales, with at least one species, Chlamydia pecorum, posing a significant conservation threat...
January 26, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927910/validation-of-various-parasite-detection-tests-for-use-in-the-australian-marsupials-quenda-isoodon-obesulus-and-brushtail-possums-trichosurus-vulpecula
#8
Alison E Hillman, Amanda L Ash, Amanda R Kristancic, Aileen D Elliot, Alan J Lymbery, Ian D Robertson, R C Andrew Thompson
We aimed to validate the use of 1) the modified agglutination test and a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) protocol in detecting Toxoplasma gondii infection in quenda ( Isoodon obesulus) and brushtail possums ( Trichosurus vulpecula); 2) immunofluorescence microscopy of feces and a PCR and sequencing protocol in detecting Giardia spp. infection in quenda; and 3) a fecal flotation protocol in detecting gastrointestinal helminth infections of quenda. Quenda and brushtail possum carcasses, and samples from trapped quenda, were tested with 2 parasite detection tests per parasite, and results were modeled using Bayesian latent class analysis to estimate test sensitivity and specificity...
January 2017: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27827336/a-new-coccidian-parasite-of-the-boodie-bettongia-lesueur-mammalia-marsupialia-potoroidae-from-australia
#9
Frances Hulst, Leah F Kemp, Jan Slapeta
Four of 28 wild boodies or burrowing bettongs, Bettongia lesueur (Quoy et Gaimard) passed oocysts of species of Eimeria Schneider, 1875. The boodies are surviving on off-shore islands and in large predator-proof sanctuaries on the mainland where they were reintroduced. The boodie is a potoroid marsupial extinct from the mainland of Australia due to predation from red foxes and feral cats. Comparison with other species of the genus Eimeria indicates that the coccidium found represents a new species. Sporulated oocyst of Eimeria burdi sp...
October 20, 2016: Folia Parasitologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27769655/microorganisms-in-ticks-acari-ixodidae-collected-on-marsupials-and-rodents-from-santa-catarina-paran%C3%A3-and-mato-grosso-do-sul-states-brazil
#10
Carolina Moreira Blanco, Bernardo Rodrigues Teixeira, Alexandro Guterres da Silva, Renata Carvalho de Oliveira, Liana Strecht, Maria Ogrzewalska, Elba Regina S de Lemos
Information about tick fauna and monitoring of pathogen prevalences in ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) in various habitat types can enhance knowledge about the epidemiology of tick-borne pathogens in Brazil. This work shows the results of a study of tick parasitism of wild rodents and marsupials collected in seven localities in the southern part of Brazil, within Atlantic Forest and Cerrado biomes. A total of 61 ticks were collected from small mammals, and after identification to the species level, the ticks were individually tested for the presence of bacteria of the genera Rickettsia, Borrelia, family Anaplasmataceae, and protozoa of the genus Babesia...
January 2017: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27692317/lungworm-heterostrongylus-heterostrongylus-travassos-1925-from-the-black-eared-opossum-in-south-america-morphologic-histopathological-and-phylogenetic-aspects
#11
Sócrates Fraga da Costa Neto, Raquel de Oliveira Simões, Éster Maria Mota, Roberto do Val Vilela, Eduardo José Lopes Torres, Helene Santos Barbosa, Rosana Gentile, Arnaldo Maldonado Junior
Nematode parasites of the cardiopulmonary system of livestock and pet animals have been receiving attention due to the pathogenic effects they produce in the course of the infection. However, parasitism in wild animals by metastrongilid nematodes has been neglected, resulting in potential risk to wildlife. Heterostrongylus heterostrongylus is the etiological agent of bronchial pneumonia in the black-eared opossum, Didelphis aurita, a widely distributed marsupial frequently reported to inhabit areas from wild environments to peri-urban spaces...
September 15, 2016: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27658817/host-specificity-in-parasitic-plants-perspectives-from-mistletoes
#12
REVIEW
Desale Y Okubamichael, Megan E Griffiths, David Ward
Host specificity has been investigated for centuries in mistletoes, viruses, insects, parasitoids, lice and flukes, yet it is poorly understood. Reviewing the numerous studies on mistletoe host specificity may contribute to our understanding of these plants and put into context the dynamics at work in root parasitic plants and animal parasites. The mechanisms that determine host specificity in mistletoes are not as well documented and understood as those in other groups of parasites. To rectify this, we synthesized the available literature and analyzed data compiled from herbaria, published monographs and our own field studies in South Africa...
2016: AoB Plants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27638730/pharyngostrongylus-thylogale-n-sp-nematoda-strongylida-from-the-stomachs-of-macropodid-marsupials-defined-by-morphological-and-molecular-criteria
#13
Neil B Chilton, Florence Huby-Chilton, Robin B Gasser, Anson V Koehler, Ian Beveridge
Pharyngostrongylus thylogale n. sp. (Nematoda: Strongylida) is described from the stomach of the red-legged pademelon, Thylogale stigmatica (Gould) (Marsupialia: Macropodidae) from north-eastern Queensland and Papua New Guinea, having formerly been confused with P. iota Johnston & Mawson, 1939. Pharyngostrongylus thylogale n. sp. differs from all congeners in having 12 labial crown elements rather than eight or 16. Pharyngostrongylus iota was found in T. stigmatica, but only in southern Queensland and northern New South Wales, in the subspecies T...
October 2016: Systematic Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27468038/klossiella-dulcis-n-sp-apicomplexa-klossiellidae-in-the-kidneys-of-petaurus-breviceps-marsupialia-petauridae
#14
Maria Ardiaca, Mark D Bennett, Andres Montesinos, Carles Juan-Sallés, Mario Soriano-Navarro
Two cases of renal klossiellosis were diagnosed by histopathology in pet sugar gliders (Petaurus breviceps). In both cases, parasites were associated with tubular dilation and mild interstitial nephritis. Rare schizonts were seen in the proximal convoluted renal tubular epithelium, whereas all other life cycle stages were found within distal convoluted tubule cells or the urinary space of the structures distal to the loop of Henle. Conventional optical and transmission electron microscopies were used to assess the life stages of the parasite...
June 2016: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27395568/helminth-parasites-of-australasian-monotremes-and-marsupials
#15
David M Spratt, Ian Beveridge
This work includes all published records, to April 2015, of the helminths occurring in Australasian monotremes and marsupials, with due regard for synonymy and an attempt to include life history studies, pathological observations and epidemiology. It also contains all unpublished records known to us and referrable, by accession numbers, to curated collections in Australia and overseas. Information is presented by host family, genus, species, sub-species or chromosome race and includes the names of all host species from which no parasites have been recorded...
June 15, 2016: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27330983/detection-of-cryptic-species-of-rugopharynx-nematoda-strongylida-from-the-stomachs-of-australian-macropodid-marsupials
#16
Neil B Chilton, Florence Huby-Chilton, Anson V Koehler, Robin B Gasser, Ian Beveridge
Sequences of the internal transcribed spacers of nuclear ribosomal DNA (ITS-1 and ITS-2) were determined for species of the genus Rugopharynx and Rugonema labiatum, nematodes from the stomachs of macropodid marsupials. Phylogenetic analyses of the aligned sequence data were conducted. The relationships provided molecular support for all species currently recognised, some of which are based on minor morphological differences and on multilocus enzyme electrophoretic data, but also indicated that additional, cryptic species exist within the genus...
August 2016: International Journal for Parasitology. Parasites and Wildlife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27307171/mothocya-renardi-bleeker-1857-crustacea-isopoda-cymothoidae-parasitising-strongylura-leiura-bleeker-belonidae-off-the-malabar-coast-of-india-redescription-occurrence-and-life-cycle
#17
Aneesh Panakkool-Thamban, Sudha Kappalli, Helna Ameri Kottarathil, Anilkumar Gopinathan
Mothocya renardi (Bleeker, 1857), a protandrically hermaphroditic cymothoid, parasitising the banded needle fish Strongylura leiura (Bleeker) from the Malabar Coast, India is redescribed and morphological data for different life-cycle stages [male, transitional and ovigerous female, larvae (pre-manca and manca) and juvenile] are provided. Mothocya renardi exhibited strict oligoxenous host specificity by infesting only S. leiura and showed high prevalence levels (reaching up to 92%). The life-cycle of M. renardi comprises three major phases (marsupial phase, free living phase and infestive phase)...
July 2016: Systematic Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27031460/serologic-evidence-of-the-exposure-of-small-mammals-to-spotted-fever-rickettsia-and-rickettsia-bellii-in-minas-gerais-brazil
#18
Marcella Gonçalves Coelho, Vanessa do Nascimento Ramos, Jean Ezequiel Limongi, Elba Regina Sampaio de Lemos, Alexandro Guterres, Sócrates Fraga da Costa Neto, Tatiana Rozental, Cibele Rodrigues Bonvicino, Paulo Sérgio D'Andrea, Jonas Moraes-Filho, Marcelo Bahia Labruna, Matias Pablo Juan Szabó
INTRODUCTION: Sources of pathogenic Rickettsia in wildlife are largely unknown in Brazil. In this work, potential tick vectors and seroreactivity of small mammals against four spotted-fever group Rickettsia (R. rickettsii, R. parkeri, R. amblyommii and R. rhipicephali) and Rickettsia bellii from peri-urban areas of Uberlândia, a major town in Brazil, are described for the first time. METHODOLOGY: Small mammals were captured and blood samples collected. Ticks were collected from the surface of the host and the environment and posteriorly identified...
March 31, 2016: Journal of Infection in Developing Countries
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26970295/first-report-of-trypanosoma-vegrandis-in-koalas-phascolarctos-cinereus
#19
Amanda Barbosa, Jill Austen, Amber Gillett, Kristin Warren, Andrea Paparini, Peter Irwin, Una Ryan
The present study describes the first report of Trypanosoma vegrandis in koalas using morphology and sequence analysis of the 18S rRNA gene. The prevalence of T. vegrandis in koalas was 13.6% (6/44). It is likely that the small size of T. vegrandis (<10μm in length), coupled with the difficulties in amplifying DNA of this parasite in mixed infections using trypanosome generic primers, are the reason why this organism has not been identified in koalas until now. This study highlights the importance of further research comprising a larger sample size to determine the prevalence of T...
August 2016: Parasitology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26944624/evaluation-of-next-generation-sequencing-for-the-analysis-of-eimeria-communities-in-wildlife
#20
Elke T Vermeulen, Matthew J Lott, Mark D B Eldridge, Michelle L Power
Next-generation sequencing (NGS) techniques are well-established for studying bacterial communities but not yet for microbial eukaryotes. Parasite communities remain poorly studied, due in part to the lack of reliable and accessible molecular methods to analyse eukaryotic communities. We aimed to develop and evaluate a methodology to analyse communities of the protozoan parasite Eimeria from populations of the Australian marsupial Petrogale penicillata (brush-tailed rock-wallaby) using NGS. An oocyst purification method for small sample sizes and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) protocol for the 18S rRNA locus targeting Eimeria was developed and optimised prior to sequencing on the Illumina MiSeq platform...
May 2016: Journal of Microbiological Methods
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