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syphilis cns pcr

Mao Hagihara, Yuka Yamagishi, Hideo Kato, Yuichi Shibata, Arufumi Shiota, Daisuke Sakanashi, Hiroyuki Suematsu, Hiroki Watanabe, Nobuhiro Asai, Yusuke Koizumi, Tatsuro Furui, Seiichiro Takahashi, Koji Izumi, Hiroshige Mikamo
Frequency of Treponema pallidum invasion into cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) has not been clear at this present. Since it is impossible to culture T. pallidum in vitro at this present, we need molecular based-approach to detect it in CSF. Additionally, neurosyphilis is usually a late sequela, however it might result in asymptomatic neurosyphilis even at primary or secondary syphilis. This study was to reveal the frequency of T. pallidum invasion into CSF especially at primary or secondary syphilis with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
Geraldo Duarte, Antonio Fernandes Moron, Artur Timerman, César Eduardo Fernandes, Corintio Mariani Neto, Gutemberg Leão de Almeida Filho, Heron Werner Junior, Hilka Flavia Barra do Espírito Santo, João Alfredo Piffero Steibel, João Bortoletti Filho, Juvenal Barreto Borriello de Andrade, Marcelo Burlá, Marcos Felipe Silva de Sá, Newton Eduardo Busso, Paulo César Giraldo, Renato Augusto Moreira de Sá, Renato Passini Junior, Rosiane Mattar, Rossana Pulcineli Vieira Francisco
From the discovery of the Zika virus (ZIKV) in 1947 in Uganda (Africa), until its arrival in South America, it was not known that it would affect human reproductive life so severely. Today, damage to the central nervous system is known to be multiple, and microcephaly is considered the tip of the iceberg. Microcephaly actually represents the epilogue of this infection's devastating process on the central nervous system of embryos and fetuses. As a result of central nervous system aggression by the ZIKV, this infection brings the possibility of arthrogryposis, dysphagia, deafness and visual impairment...
May 2017: Revista Brasileira de Ginecologia e Obstetrícia
Rita Castro, Maria João Águas, Teresa Batista, Carlos Araújo, Kamal Mansinho, Filomena da Luz Martins Pereira
BACKGROUND: Laboratory diagnosis of neurosyphilis is complicated especially when it is asymptomatic, no single laboratory test result being appropriate to diagnose central nervous system infectivity caused by Treponema pallidum. Our objective was to evaluate two polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques for the detection of T. pallidum DNA in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients with syphilis. METHODS: One hundred twenty-four CSF samples from patients with reactive blood tests for syphilis were obtained...
September 2016: Journal of Clinical Laboratory Analysis
Minoru Oishi, Satoshi Kamei
Varicella zoster virus may cause vasculitis or vasculopathy, and positive polymerase chain reactions for varicella zoster virus deoxyribonucleic acid in the cerebrospinal fluid and/or the intrathecal synthesis of antibodies to the varicella zoster virus suggest these diagnoses. Meningovascular syphilis may involve the middle cerebral artery and basilar artery and may cause a stroke. Aspergillus is vasoinvasive and may cause hemorrhagic infarction by forming an intravascular thrombus.
March 2015: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
Tom Wong, Kevin Fonseca, Max A Chernesky, Richard Garceau, Paul N Levett, Bouchra Serhir
Neurosyphilis refers to infection of the central nervous system by Treponema pallidum, which may occur at any stage. Neurosyphilis has been categorized in many ways including early and late, asymptomatic versus symptomatic and infectious versus non-infectious. Late neurosyphilis primarily affects the central nervous system parenchyma, and occurs beyond early latent syphilis, years to decades after the initial infection. Associated clinical syndromes include general paresis, tabes dorsalis, vision loss, hearing loss and psychiatric manifestations...
January 2015: Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases & Medical Microbiology
Chiharu Yasuda, Kazumasa Okada, Norihiro Ohnari, Naoki Akamatsu, Sadatoshi Tsuji
A 35-years-old right-handed man admitted to our hospital with a worsening of dysarthria, left facial palsy and left hemiparesis for 2 days. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) was diagnosed when he was 28 years old. At that time, he also was treated for syphilis. After highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART) was introduced at the age of 35 years old, serum level of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) was not detected, but the number of CD4+ T cells was still less than 200/μl. He had no risk factors of atherosclerosis including hypertension, diabetes and hyperlipidemia...
2013: Rinshō Shinkeigaku, Clinical Neurology
Judith Miklossy
It is established that chronic spirochetal infection can cause slowly progressive dementia, brain atrophy and amyloid deposition in late neurosyphilis. Recently it has been suggested that various types of spirochetes, in an analogous way to Treponema pallidum, could cause dementia and may be involved in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Here, we review all data available in the literature on the detection of spirochetes in AD and critically analyze the association and causal relationship between spirochetes and AD following established criteria of Koch and Hill...
2011: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Sergio Monteiro de Almeida, Archana Bhatt, Patricia K Riggs, Janis Durelle, Deborah Lazzaretto, Jennifer Marquie-Beck, Allen McCutchan, Scott Letendre, Ronald Ellis
Syphilis is a frequent coinfection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Whereas systemic syphilis infection increases plasma HIV RNA levels (viral load; VL), effects of syphilis on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) VL are unknown. We hypothesized that intrathecal immune activation in neurosyphilis would selectively increase CSF VL in coinfected patients. In this study, HIV-infected research subjects (N = 225) were categorized into three groups based on serum rapid plasma reagin (RPR), microhemaglutination for Treponema pallidum (MHA-TP) MHA-TP, and CSF VDRL: 23 with neurosyphilis (NS+; reactive serum RPR and MHA-TP and positive CSF VDRL); 42 with systemic syphilis but not neurosyphilis (Syph+; reactive serum RPR and MHA-TP; negative CSF VDRL), and 160 without syphilis (Syph-; nonreactive serum RPR)...
February 2010: Journal of Neurovirology
Sophia R Sharfstein, Shadab Ahmed, Mohammed Q Islam, Mamoun I Najjar, Vladimir Ratushny
BACKGROUND: Moyamoya disease is an occlusion of the terminal portion of internal carotid arteries and proximal portion of middle and anterior cerebral arteries of unknown origin. Moyamoya syndrome is associated with meningitis, tuberculosis, syphilis, head trauma, head irradiation, brain tumor, von Recklinghausen's disease, tuberous sclerosis, Marfan syndrome, sickle cell anemia, arteriosclerosis, hypertension, and oral contraceptive use. To our knowledge, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) as a cause of moyamoya syndrome has not been reported in an adult population...
November 2007: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
Karen L Roos
The questions most often asked of my residents and myself are the following: (1) How do you interpret the cerebrospinal fluid white blood cell count and polymerase chain reaction results when the lumbar puncture has been traumatic? (2) Does the older adult with a serum sample that tests positive by the Venereal Disease Research Laboratory test need spinal fluid analysis for neurosyphilis, and which of those syphilis tests can become nonreactive even though the patient is never treated? (3) Do you give steroids to patients with bacterial meningitis? (4) What do you do for the patient with cryptococcal meningitis who develops a spastic gait? (5) Are all cases of transverse myelitis "idiopathic"? and (6) When does the patient who has had a stroke need spinal fluid analysis to rule out an infectious etiology? This is how we answer these questions...
March 2002: Seminars in Neurology
Ian C Michelow, George D Wendel, Michael V Norgard, Fiker Zeray, N Kristine Leos, Rajiha Alsaadi, Pablo J Sánchez
BACKGROUND: Identification of infants with Treponema pallidum infection of the central nervous system remains challenging. METHODS: We used rabbit-infectivity testing of the cerebrospinal fluid to detect T. pallidum infection of the central nervous system in infants born to mothers with syphilis. The results were compared with those of clinical, radiographic, and conventional laboratory evaluations; IgM immunoblotting of serum and cerebrospinal fluid; polymerase-chain-reaction (PCR) assay testing of serum or blood and cerebrospinal fluid; and rabbit-infectivity testing of serum or blood...
June 6, 2002: New England Journal of Medicine
C M Marra, C D Castro, L Kuller, A C Dukes, A Centurion-Lara, W R Morton, S A Lukehart
OBJECTIVES: To establish a model of CNS invasion by Treponema pallidum and to use it to investigate the immune mechanisms responsible for clearance. METHODS: Four macaques were intrathecally inoculated with 0.6 to 2.1 x 10(8) T. pallidum and underwent clinical examinations and blood and CSF collections every 1 to 2 weeks for 12 to 13 weeks. The following were determined: serum Venereal Disease Research Laboratory (VDRL) and microhemagglutination-T. pallidum reactivities, CSF-VDRL, CSF white blood cell (WBC) count, and the presence of viable T...
October 1998: Neurology
P J Sánchez, G D Wendel, E Grimprel, M Goldberg, M Hall, O Arencibia-Mireles, J D Radolf, M V Norgard
IgM immunoblotting and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were evaluated for use in diagnosing congenital syphilis, and the prevalence of central nervous system (CNS) invasion by Treponema pallidum during congenital infection was examined. The results of rabbit infectivity testing (RIT) on serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of 19 infants born to mothers with untreated early syphilis were compared with results of PCR and IgM immunoblotting. Seven infants had clinical evidence of congenital syphilis supported by positive serum IgM immunoblot (7/7), PCR (6/7), and RIT (3/3)...
January 1993: Journal of Infectious Diseases
P C Johnson, M A Farnie
Syphilis remains an important public health problem of growing proportions despite effective means of prevention and therapy. Clinical staging is difficult. The diagnosis is complicated by the lack of an easy culture method. History, clinical findings, and the detection of spirochetes in tissue serve as the basis for diagnosis. Simple nontreponemal tests are available for screening, and more difficult treponemal tests are used for confirmation. False-positive test results are more common with the reaginic tests but are also seen with the specific antitreponemal tests...
January 1994: Dermatologic Clinics
K Y Chung, M G Lee, J B Lee
To find out if polymerase chain reaction could be used as a diagnostic tool for detecting neurosyphilis, we have applied the PCR for the detection of Treponema pallidum DNA in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of syphilis patients. The results of the PCR of the CSF in 26 patients with at various stages of illness were compared with the results of other conventional tests used in the WHO criteria. T. pallidum was detected in the CSF of patients at all stages of syphilis, which indicates that they invade the central nervous system from the early stages of infection...
June 1994: Yonsei Medical Journal
J J Halperin
Lyme disease is a multisystem infectious disease with frequent nervous system involvement. It affects peripheral nerves, the meningeal lining of the central nervous system (CNS), and the CNS parenchyma, but the underlying pathophysiology remains unclear. Considerable data suggest that dividing Lyme neuroborreliosis into early and late disease stages, as has been done with syphilis--the other well-known spirochetosis that affects the nervous system--lacks pathophysiologic validity. Early CNS seeding has been demonstrated, however, and lymphocytic meningitis and facial paralysis tend to occur relatively early in infection, although radiculoneuropathy and cranial neuropathies may also occur later...
April 24, 1995: American Journal of Medicine
P E Hay, J R Clarke, D Taylor-Robinson, D Goldmeier
The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to detect Treponema pallidum DNA in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients with and without syphilis. The CSF from 10 of 19 patients with positive serological tests for syphilis who were being investigated for late syphilis were treponemal DNA-positive. In contrast, the CSF from only one of 30 patients with no known history of syphilis was DNA-positive. CSF from 28 HIV-positive patients was also tested. Fourteen of these patients had central nervous system (CNS) disease and seven were DNA-positive, whereas none of the 14 without CNS disease were DNA-positive...
December 1990: Genitourinary Medicine
J M Burstain, E Grimprel, S A Lukehart, M V Norgard, J D Radolf
We have developed a sensitive assay for Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum (T. pallidum), the agent of veneral syphilis, based upon the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). A 658-bp portion of the gene encoding the 47-kDa membrane immunogen was amplified, and the PCR products were probed by DNA-DNA hybridization with a 496-bp fragment internal to the amplitifed DNA. The assay detected approximately 0.01 pg of purified T. pallidum DNA, and positive results were obtained routinely from suspensions of treponemes calculated to contain 10 or more organism and from some suspensions calculated to contain a single organism...
January 1991: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
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