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Noninvasive tear break up time

Ryan Lee, Sharon Yeo, Han Tun Aung, Louis Tong
BACKGROUND: It is difficult to standardize assessment of dry eye in different clinical settings. Increasingly, tear stability is recognized to be important for the definition and assessment of patients with dry eye. Recently, two commercially available instruments have been made available for objectively measuring noninvasive tear break-up time (NIBUT), as an indicator of tear stability: the Tomey RT-7000 Auto Refractor-Keratometer and Oculus Keratograph (K)5M. We aim to assess the agreement of NIBUT measurements using these modalities...
2016: Clinical Ophthalmology
Nery García-Porta, Laura Rico-Del-Viejo, Alba Martin-Gil, Gonzalo Carracedo, Jesus Pintor, José Manuel González-Méijome
Purpose. To compare the ocular surface symptoms and signs in an adult population of silicone-hydrogel (Si-Hy) contact lens (CL) wearers with another modality of CL wear, overnight orthokeratology (OK). Materials and Methods. This was a prospective and comparative study in which 31 myopic subjects were fitted with the same Si-Hy CL and 23 underwent OK treatment for 3 months. Dry eye questionnaire (DEQ) was filled in at the beginning of the study and then after 15 days, 1 month, and 3 months using each CL modality...
2016: BioMed Research International
Aysun Sanal Dogan, Mustafa Kosker, Nese Arslan, Canan Gurdal
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the interexaminer reliability of meibography evaluation and the impact of eyelid selection for the procedure. METHODS: Meibography images of 30 subjects' right eye, including both lids, were evaluated by three clinicians. Meibomian gland (MG) dropout was noted with respect to both percentage and grading (0-4). The examiners' (E1, E2, and E3) consistency was assessed by the intraclass correlation coefficient for MG loss percent and weighted kappa for grading...
July 27, 2016: Eye & Contact Lens
Ulrike Stahl, Nancy J Keir, Alan Landers, Lyndon W Jones
PURPOSE: To assess the impact of lens-free intervals of varying lengths on end-of-day comfort with soft contact lenses. METHODS: Twenty-five symptomatic lens wearers participated in this randomized, cross-over study involving nine individual 12-hour days: one spectacle (no lens) and eight lens wear days. On each lens wear day, lenses were worn bilaterally in 2-hour intervals, separated by lens-free (recovery) periods of 0, 30, 60, or 80 minutes (repeated throughout the day)...
August 2016: Optometry and Vision Science: Official Publication of the American Academy of Optometry
Tong Lin, Lan Gong
The aim of the study was to evaluate the morphological changes of meibomian glands (MGs) in primary blepharospasm (PBS) by in vivo laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM) and to investigate the correlations between clinical data of PBS and LSCM parameters of MGs. This prospective and case-control study recruited 30 consecutive PBS patients and 30 age- and gender-matched healthy controls. After questionnaire assessments of ocular surface disease index (OSDI), Jankovic rating scale, and blepharospasm disability index, all subjects underwent blink rate evaluation, tear film break-up time (TBUT), corneal fluorescein staining (CFS), Schirmer test, MG expressibility, meibum quality, MG dropout, and LSCM examination of the MGs...
June 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Alex Ilechie, Samuel Abokyi, Gifty Boateng, George Asumeng Koffuor
BACKGROUND: Preserved versus nonpreserved formulations for ophthalmic use have been well described in the literature although not specifically in the African population where beta blockers are frequently used as the first-line therapy due to economic and availability issues. This study sought to determine the effect of preserved and preservative-free Timolol eye drops on tear film stability in healthy black Africans. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixty healthy nondry eye subjects aged 19-25 years were randomly assigned into four groups (n = 15) and differently treated with eye drops of phosphate buffered saline (PBS), preservative-free timolol (PFT), benzalkonium chloride (BAK) only, and BAK-preserved timolol (BPT)...
March 2016: Nigerian Medical Journal: Journal of the Nigeria Medical Association
Luisa H Colorado, Yahya Alzahrani, Nicola Pritchard, Nathan Efron
PURPOSE: To investigate longitudinal changes in goblet cell density (GCD) in contact lens (CL) wearers who do and do not develop symptoms of dry eye (DE). METHODS: Sixty healthy individuals fitted with daily disposable hydrogel CLs and 23 age-balanced non-CL-wearing controls underwent assessment using the 5-item dry eye questionnaire, noninvasive tear film break-up time measurement, ocular surface assessment, and phenol red thread test evaluation. Laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM) and conjunctival impression cytology (CIC) were used to assess GCD at baseline and follow-up visits at 1 week and 1 and 6 months...
May 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Daniela Sonja Nosch, Heiko Pult, Julie Albon, Christine Purslow, Paul John Murphy
PURPOSE: To examine the possible role of corneal sensitivity and tear film quality in triggering a blink by investigating the relationship between blink rate, central corneal sensitivity threshold (CST), ocular surface temperature (OST), tear meniscus height (TMH), tear film quality (noninvasive tear break-up time [NIBUT]), and tear film lipid pattern under normal conditions. METHODS: Forty-two volunteers (average age, 27.76 ± 5.36 years; 11 males) with good ocular health (Ocular Surface Disease Index, <15...
May 2016: Optometry and Vision Science: Official Publication of the American Academy of Optometry
Iman M Eissa, Noha M Khalil, Heba A El-Gendy
Purpose. To assess the tear film quantity and correlate it with the quality and stability of the tear film in diabetics and compare them to age matched controls. Introduction. Diabetes affects tear film parameters in multiple ways. Poor metabolic control and neuropathy are postulated factors. To further understand how diabetes affects tear film parameters this study was conducted. Subjects and Methods. Tear meniscus height was measured by anterior segment OCT, along with tear thinning time, a subtype of noninvasive tear break-up time, and blinking rate per minute which were all recorded for 22 diabetic patients...
2016: Journal of Ophthalmology
Xiu Wang, Xiaoxiao Lu, Jun Yang, Ruihua Wei, Liyuan Yang, Shaozhen Zhao, Xilian Wang
Purpose. This study aims to evaluate dry eye and ocular surface conditions of myopic teenagers by using questionnaire and clinical examinations. Methods. A total of 496 eyes from 248 myopic teenagers (7-18 years old) were studied. We administered Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) questionnaire, slit-lamp examination, and Keratograph 5M. The patients were divided into 2 groups based on OSDI dry eye standard, and their ocular surfaces and meibomian gland conditions were evaluated. Results. The tear meniscus heights of the dry eye and normal groups were in normal range...
2016: Journal of Ophthalmology
Ali A Abusharha, E Ian Pearce, Raied Fagehi
PURPOSE: During everyday life, the tear film is exposed to a wide range of ambient temperatures. This study aims to investigate the effect of ambient temperature on tear film physiology. METHOD: A controlled environment chamber was used to create different ambient temperatures (5, 10, 15, 20, and 25°C) at a constant relative humidity of 40%. Subjects attended for two separate visits and were exposed to 25, 20, and 15°C at one visit and to 10 and 5°C at the other visit...
September 2016: Eye & Contact Lens
Shizuka Koh, Chikako Ikeda, Hisataka Fujimoto, Yoshinori Oie, Takeshi Soma, Naoyuki Maeda, Kohji Nishida
OBJECTIVES: To noninvasively investigate regional differences in tear film stability and meibomian glands in patients with aqueous-deficient dry eye. METHODS: Forty-nine dry eyes and 31 normal eyes were analyzed. A corneal topographer with a tear film scanning function was used for noninvasive tear film break-up time (NI-TFBUT) measurements and meibomian gland observations. The NI-TFBUT values and location of the first tear film break-up point were recorded in four quadrants...
July 2016: Eye & Contact Lens
I Careba, A Chiva, M Totir, E Ungureanu, Sinziana Gradinaru
RATIONALE: Among the most frequently encountered pathologies examined by the ophthalmologist is dry eye syndrome (DE), which can be discovered particularly in the elderly. The initial diagnosis of DE is of high importance, but also challenging. This is because the biochemical changes in the tear film often develop before any detectable signs. OBJECTIVE: In this study, the possible relationship between ocular symptomatology, tear volume and tear break-up time (TBUT) and lipocalin, lactoferrin and lysozyme concentrations in the tear film were explored in a group of symptomatic dry-eyed postmenopausal (PM) women compared to age-matched controls...
2015: Journal of Medicine and Life
J A Ebeigbe, P N Ebeigbe
BACKGROUND: A stable tear film with normal flow is essential for preserving a clear cornea. When the tear film becomes insufficient to support the surface of the eye due to a lack of production of tears or a decrease in stability of tears, dry eye syndrome (DES) occurs. DES is a common disorder of the tear film. It affects a significant percentage of the population, especially women. The onset of dry eye is very common during menopause and may result from the loss of hormonal support...
September 2014: African Journal of Medicine and Medical Sciences
Stephanie M Cox, Kelly K Nichols, Jason J Nichols
PURPOSE: To determine the repeatability and agreement between the noninvasive Keratograph tear break-up time (NIK-BUT) as measured by the Oculus Keratograph 4 and fluorescein tear break-up time (FBUT). METHODS: Sixty subjects were recruited for two study visits separated by 7 (± 2) days. At each visit, three NIK-BUT measures and FBUT measures were obtained. Each NIK-BUT measure from the Keratograph included a first and an average NIK-BUT. The means of the measures obtained, first NIK-BUT, and average NIK-BUT and FBUT were calculated for each visit...
September 2015: Optometry and Vision Science: Official Publication of the American Academy of Optometry
Krista I Kinard, A Gordon Smith, J Robinson Singleton, Margaret K Lessard, Bradley J Katz, Judith E A Warner, Alison V Crum, Mark D Mifflin, Kevin C Brennan, Kathleen B Digre
BACKGROUND: We used in vivo corneal confocal microscopy to investigate structural differences in the sub-basal corneal nerve plexus in chronic migraine patients and a normal population. We used a validated questionnaire and tests of lacrimal function to determine the prevalence of dry eye in the same group of chronic migraine patients. Activation of the trigeminal system is involved in migraine. Corneal nociceptive sensation is mediated by trigeminal axons that synapse in the gasserian ganglion and the brainstem, and serve nociceptive, protective, and trophic functions...
April 2015: Headache
Jennifer P Craig, Yen-Heng Chen, Philip R K Turnbull
PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect of intense pulsed light (IPL) applied to the periocular area for meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD) in a prospective, double-masked, placebo-controlled, paired-eye study. METHODS: Twenty-eight participants underwent IPL treatment, with homogeneously sequenced light pulses delivered to one eye and placebo treatment to the partner control eye at 1, 15, and 45 days following baseline (BL) evaluation. Lipid layer grade (LLG), noninvasive tear break-up time (NIBUT), tear evaporation rate (TER), tear meniscus height (TMH), and subjective symptom score using visual analogue scales (VAS) were compared with BL and control values at each visit...
March 2015: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Kara L Menzies, Sruthi Srinivasan, C Lisa Prokopich, Lyndon Jones
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate meibomian gland dropout and lipid layer thickness (LLT) in patients with and without Sjögren's syndrome dry eye (SS). METHODS: We recruited 11 participants with SS (males/females [M/F], 1:10; mean age = 56.0 ± 9.1 years) and 10 control subjects without dry eye (M/F, 3:7; mean age = 58.5 ± 4.7 years). All participants completed the Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) questionnaire. The LLT was assessed using the Tearscope Plus based on the appearance of the lipid layer...
February 2015: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Alejandro J Aguilar, Maria I Marquez, Paula A Albera, Jorge L Tredicce, Alejandro Berra
PURPOSE: To evaluate the ability of Systane(®) Balance (SYSB) administered four times per day for 4 weeks to increase noninvasive tear film break-up time (NITFBUT) over baseline compared with a saline (SAL) control in patients with lipid-deficient dry eye (DE). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients aged ≥18 years with DE and evidence of meibomian gland dysfunction (ie, abnormal gland expression and missing meibomian glands) were included in this randomized, parallel-group, controlled, investigator-masked comparison study...
2014: Clinical Ophthalmology
David Finis, Claudia König, Jasmin Hayajneh, Maria Borrelli, Stefan Schrader, Gerd Geerling
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the 6-month effect of a single automated thermodynamic treatment (LipiFlow) and implications of meibomian gland atrophy on treatment efficacy 6 months after application. METHODS: We analyzed the data of 26 subjects with meibomian gland dysfunction before and 6 months after treatment. Investigated parameters included subjective symptoms, lipid layer thickness, meibomian gland assessment, tear osmolarity, corneal and conjunctival staining, lid margin parallel conjunctival folds, Schirmer test values, bulbar redness, tear meniscus height, meibomian gland atrophy, and noninvasive tear break-up time...
December 2014: Cornea
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