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Ehsan Saburi, Jalil Tavakol-Afshari, Sajjad Biglari, Yousef Mortazavi
In the constant battle against cancer cells, macrophages are of great importance. Their activation is achieved through various mechanisms such as Vitamin D binding protein (VDBP or Gc). After undergoing modifications via enzymes secreted by stimulated lymphocytes, VDBP is modified into Macrophages Activator Form/Factor (Gc-MAF). Some studies (particularly those focusing on cancer) have reported that an enzyme known as α-N-acetylgalactosaminidase (nagalase) facilitates the deglycosylation of Gc-MAF, which in turn inhibits the activation of macrophages...
November 2017: Journal of B.U.ON.: Official Journal of the Balkan Union of Oncology
Ehsan Saburi, Amin Saburi, Mostafa Ghanei
Immunotherapy has been used for years in many types of cancer therapy. Recently, cancer immunotherapy has focused on mechanisms which can enhance the development of cell-mediated immunity. Anticancer medications are administered to inhibit immunosuppressive factors such as nagalase enzyme, which is produced by neoplastic cells and destroys macrophage activating factor (Gc-MAF). Anti-neoplastics medications can also enhance immune-cell activity against tumors. Such medications show great potential in cancer immunotherapy using natural human mechanisms against neoplasms...
2017: Caspian Journal of Internal Medicine
Toshio Inui, Kentaro Kubo, Daisuke Kuchiike, Yoshihiro Uto, Takahito Nishikata, Norihiro Sakamoto, Martin Mette
BACKGROUND: Gc protein-derived macrophage-activating factor (GcMAF) immunotherapy has been steadily advancing over the last two decades. Oral colostrum macrophage-activating factor (MAF) produced from bovine colostrum has shown high macrophage phagocytic activity. GcMAF-based immunotherapy has a wide application for use in treating many diseases via macrophage activation or for use as supportive therapy. RESULTS: Three case studies demonstrate that oral colostrum MAF can be used for serious infection and chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) without adverse effects...
August 2015: Anticancer Research
Yongbing Zhao, Jinlong Yin, Haiyan Guo, Yuyu Zhang, Wen Xiao, Chen Sun, Jiayan Wu, Xiaobo Qu, Jun Yu, Xumin Wang, Jingfa Xiao
Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer (P. ginseng) is an important medicinal plant and is often used in traditional Chinese medicine. With next generation sequencing (NGS) technology, we determined the complete chloroplast genome sequences for four Chinese P. ginseng strains, which are Damaya (DMY), Ermaya (EMY), Gaolishen (GLS), and Yeshanshen (YSS). The total chloroplast genome sequence length for DMY, EMY, and GLS was 156,354 bp, while that for YSS was 156,355 bp. Comparative genomic analysis of the chloroplast genome sequences indicate that gene content, GC content, and gene order in DMY are quite similar to its relative species, and nucleotide sequence diversity of inverted repeat region (IR) is lower than that of its counterparts, large single copy region (LSC) and small single copy region (SSC)...
2014: Frontiers in Plant Science
Anne Jamet, Agnès B Jousset, Daniel Euphrasie, Paulette Mukorako, Alix Boucharlat, Alexia Ducousso, Alain Charbit, Xavier Nassif
The genus Neisseria includes both commensal and pathogenic species which are genetically closely related. However, only meningococcus and gonococcus are important human pathogens. Very few toxins are known to be secreted by pathogenic Neisseria species. Recently, toxins secreted via type V secretion system and belonging to the widespread family of contact-dependent inhibition (CDI) toxins have been described in numerous species including meningococcus. In this study, we analyzed loci containing the maf genes in N...
January 2015: PLoS Pathogens
V Edriss, B Guldbrandtsen, M S Lund, G Su
Genomic selection is a method to predict breeding values using genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers. High-quality marker data are necessary for genomic selection. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of marker-editing criteria on the accuracy of genomic predictions in the Nordic Holstein and Jersey populations. Data included 4429 Holstein and 1071 Jersey bulls. In total, 48,222 SNP for Holstein and 44,305 SNP for Jersey were polymorphic. The SNP data were edited based on (i) minor allele frequencies (MAF) with thresholds of no limit, 0...
April 2013: Journal of Animal Breeding and Genetics, Zeitschrift Für Tierzüchtung und Züchtungsbiologie
Suneil Malik, Lei Fu, David James Juras, Mohamed Karmali, Betty Y L Wong, Agnes Gozdzik, David E C Cole
The vitamin D binding protein (DBP) is the major plasma carrier for vitamin D and its metabolites, but it is also an actin scavenger, and is the precursor to the immunomodulatory protein, Gc-MAF. Two missense variants of the DBP gene - rs7041 encoding Asp432Glu and rs4588 encoding Thr436Lys - change the amino acid sequence and alter the protein function. They are common enough to generate population-wide constitutive differences in vitamin D status, based on assay of the serum metabolite, 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD)...
January 2013: Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences
Béatris Mastelic, Arun T Kamath, Paola Fontannaz, Chantal Tougne, Anne-Françoise Rochat, Elodie Belnoue, Christophe Combescure, Floriane Auderset, Paul-Henri Lambert, Fabienne Tacchini-Cottier, Claire-Anne Siegrist
Follicular Th (T(FH)) cells have emerged as a new Th subset providing help to B cells and supporting their differentiation into long-lived plasma cells or memory B cells. Their differentiation had not yet been investigated following neonatal immunization, which elicits delayed and limited germinal center (GC) responses. We demonstrate that neonatal immunization induces CXCR5(high)PD-1(high) CD4(+) T(FH) cells that exhibit T(FH) features (including Batf, Bcl6, c-Maf, ICOS, and IL-21 expression) and are able to migrate into the GCs...
December 15, 2012: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
Takashi Maehara, Masafumi Moriyama, Hitoshi Nakashima, Katsuhisa Miyake, Jun-Nosuke Hayashida, Akihiko Tanaka, Shouichi Shinozaki, Yoshiaki Kubo, Seiji Nakamura
OBJECTIVES: Interleukin (IL)-21 is mainly produced by CD4 T helper (Th) cells including Th2, Th17 and follicular helper T (Tfh) cells. Recent studies have reported that IL-21 is involved in the formation of germinal centres (GCs) and class switching of IgG4. It has been suggested that IgG4-related dacryoadenitis and sialoadenitis (IgG4-DS), so-called Mikulicz's disease (MD), is distinct from Sjögren's syndrome (SS) and shows a high frequency of GC formation in salivary glands. In this study the expression of IL-21 in IgG4-DS and SS patients was examined...
December 2012: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases
Yoshihiro Uto, Syota Yamamoto, Hirotaka Mukai, Noriko Ishiyama, Ryota Takeuchi, Yoshinori Nakagawa, Keiji Hirota, Hiroshi Terada, Shinya Onizuka, Hitoshi Hori
BACKGROUND: The 1f1f subtype of the group-specific component (Gc) protein is converted into Gc protein-derived macrophage-activating factor (GcMAF) by enzymatic processing with β-galactosidase and sialidase. We previously demonstrated that preGc(1f1f)MAF, a full Gc(1f1f) protein otherwise lacking a galactosyl moiety, can be converted to GcMAF by treatment with mouse peritoneal fluid. Here, we investigated the effects of the β-galactosidase-treated 1s1s and 22 subtypes of Gc protein (preGc(1s1s)MAF and preGc₂₂MAF) on the phagocytic activation of mouse peritoneal macrophages...
June 2012: Anticancer Research
Hui Shi, Xiaofang Yu, Qian Li, Xinhua Ye, Yanqin Gao, Jianhua Ma, Jinluo Cheng, Ying Lu, Wencong Du, Juan Du, Qing Ye, Xu Zhao, Ling Zhou
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Polymorphisms in peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ) and retinoid X receptor-α (RXR-α) gene may alter metabolic syndrome (MetS) risks by increasing or decreasing the human adiponectin promoter activity in cells. To test this statement, three potentially functional SNPs of PPAR-γ and four SNPs of RXR-α with minor allele frequency (MAF) ≥0.05 in the Chinese Han population were identified from NCBI dbSNPs database to evaluate their associations with MetS...
April 2012: Archives of Medical Research
Yoshihiro Uto, Syota Yamamoto, Ryota Takeuchi, Yoshinori Nakagawa, Keiji Hirota, Hiroshi Terada, Shinya Onizuka, Eiji Nakata, Hitoshi Hori
BACKGROUND: The 1f1f subtype of the Gc protein (Gc(1f1f) protein) was converted into Gc-derived macrophage-activating factor (GcMAF) by enzymatic processing in the presence of β-galactosidase of an activated B-cell and sialidase of a T-cell. We hypothesized that preGc(1f1f)MAF, the only Gc(1f1f) protein lacking galactose, can be converted to GcMAF in vivo because sialic acid is cleaved by residual sialidase. Hence, we investigated the effect of preGc(1f1f)MAF on the phagocytic activation of mouse peritoneal macrophages...
July 2011: Anticancer Research
Evi Debruyne, Marijn Speeckaert, Yannick Vande Weygaerde, Joris Delanghe
BACKGROUND: Gc-globulin is a polymorphic protein with three phenotypes: Gc 1-1, Gc 2-1 and Gc 2-2. Deglycosylation of Gc-globulin results in a Gc-macrophage activating factor (Gc-MAF). This study investigated the potential of MAF as a tumour marker and the influence of Gc-phenotypes on serum MAF-concentrations. METHODS: Gc-phenotype of 98 healthy individuals and 60 cancer patients was determined. MAF-levels of healthy individuals and cancer patients were analysed according to their Gc-phenotype using a Helix pomatia agglutinin-based ELISA...
November 2011: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: CCLM
C Y Chen, I Misztal, I Aguilar, A Legarra, W M Muir
Phenotypic data on BW and breast meat area were available on up to 287,614 broilers. A total of 4,113 birds were genotyped for 57,636 SNP. Data were analyzed by a single-step genomic BLUP (ssGBLUP), which accounts for all phenotypic, pedigree, and genomic information. The genomic relationship matrix (G) in ssGBLUP was constructed using either equal (0.5; GEq) or current (GC) allele frequencies, and with all SNP or with SNP with minor allele frequencies (MAF) below multiple thresholds (0.1, 0.2, 0.3, and 0.4) ignored...
September 2011: Journal of Animal Science
Michelle A Linterman, Carola G Vinuesa
Follicular helper T cells have recently emerged as a separate CD4(+) T helper lineage specialised in provision of help to B cells. They develop independently from Th1, Th2 and Th17 cells and are critical for humoral immunity, including the generation of long-lived and high affinity plasma cells and memory cells crucial for long-term protection against infections. A stepwise differentiation programme has emerged in which T cell receptor (TCR) signalling strength, CD28-mediated costimulation, B cell-derived inducible costimulator ligand signals, induction of c-maf and actions of cytokines, including interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-21, lead to upregulation of the transcriptional repressor B cell lymphoma 6 (Bcl-6) that drives T follicular helper (Tfh) cell differentiation...
June 2010: Seminars in Immunopathology
Hirofumi Kurokawa, Hozumi Motohashi, Shinji Sueno, Momoko Kimura, Hiroaki Takagawa, Yousuke Kanno, Masayuki Yamamoto, Toshiyuki Tanaka
Maf transcription factors constitute a family of the basic region-leucine zipper (bZip) factors and recognize unusually long DNA motifs (13 or 14 bp), termed the Maf recognition element (MARE). The MARE harbors extended GC sequences on each side of its core motif, which is similar to TRE or CRE (7 or 8 bp) recognized by the AP1 and CREB/ATF families, respectively. To ascertain the structural basis governing the acquirement of such unique DNA recognition, we determined the crystal structure of the MafG-DNA complex...
December 2009: Molecular and Cellular Biology
Laura Scaramuzzo, Giulio Maccauro, Barbara Rossi, Laura Messuti, Nicola Maffulli, Carlo Ambrogio Logroscino
Pain is the main symptom of acetabular osteolysis from metastatic carcinoma, and it is frequently associated with pathologic fractures. Radiotherapy alone usually is not effective for pain control, and it does not allow weight bearing. Surgical procedures requiring an aggressive approach and consequently high morbidity are rarely indicated in patients with multiple metastases. Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) has been widely used in oncologic and spinal surgery as a bone filler. We evaluated the functional results of percutaneous injection of PMMA in 20 patients (24 acetabula) with acetabular osteolysis from metastatic carcinoma...
August 2009: Acta Orthopaedica Belgica
Yue Fang, Joyce B J van Meurs, Pascal Arp, Johannes P T van Leeuwen, Albert Hofman, Huibert A P Pols, André G Uitterlinden
Osteoporosis is a bone disease leading to an increased fracture risk. It is considered a complex multifactorial genetic disorder with interaction of environmental and genetic factors. As a candidate gene for osteoporosis, we studied vitamin D binding protein (DBP, or group-specific component, Gc), which binds to and transports vitamin D to target tissues to maintain calcium homeostasis through the vitamin D endocrine system. DBP can also be converted to DBP-macrophage activating factor (DBP-MAF), which mediates bone resorption by directly activating osteoclasts...
August 2009: Calcified Tissue International
Koichi Miyaki, Htay Lwin, Katsunori Masaki, Yixuan Song, Yoshimitsu Takahashi, Masaaki Muramatsu, Takeo Nakayama
This cross-sectional study investigated the relationship between the aminolevulinate dehydrogenase (ALAD) genotype and blood lead levels among 101 Japanese workers. Blood lead concentration measurement, biomarkers, and genotyping were performed. The minor allele frequency (MAF) for ALAD (ALAD2) was 0.08. Although the blood lead level in the subjects with heterozygous GC genotype was significantly higher than those with homozygous GG genotype, there were no significant differences for hemoglobin, hematocrit, serum and urinary ALA levels among genotypes...
March 2009: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Gareth Gerrard, Terry D Butters, Kanagasabai Ganeshaguru, Atul B Mehta
Malignant B-cells from most chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) patients over-express MDR1 encoded P-glycoprotein (P-gp) multidrug efflux pump. Inhibition of glucosylceramide (GC) synthesis has been shown in cell lines to correlate with the expression and function of P-gp and sensitise cancer cells to cytotoxic agents. We investigated the hypothesis that reducing intracellular GC levels will reduce P-gp expression in malignant cells from CLL patients. We studied the ability of glucosylceramide synthase (GCS) inhibitors N-butyl-deoxygalactonojirimycin (OGB-1) and N-nonyl-deoxygalactonojirimycin (OGB-2) to sensitise CLL cells to conventional cytotoxic drug 2-chlorodeoxyadenosine (CdA) and the cytostatic drugs chlorambucil and fludarabine...
May 1, 2009: European Journal of Pharmacology
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