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middle-east respiratory syndrome

Wanbo Tai, Guangyu Zhao, Shihun Sun, Yan Guo, Yufei Wang, Xinrong Tao, Chien-Te K Tseng, Fang Li, Shibo Jiang, Lanying Du, Yusen Zhou
Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) coronavirus (MERS-CoV) was first identified in 2012, and it continues to threaten human health worldwide. No MERS vaccines are licensed for human use, reinforcing the urgency to develop safe and efficacious vaccines to prevent MERS. MERS-CoV spike protein forms a trimer, and its receptor-binding domain (RBD) serves as a vaccine target. Nevertheless, the protective efficacy of RBD in its native trimeric form has never been evaluated. In this study, a trimeric protein, RBD-Fd, was generated by fusing RBD with foldon trimerization motif...
October 14, 2016: Virology
D Ayoub, L R Lopetuso, F Chamseddine, A Dajani, K Lahiri, H Mahmoud, M S Miqdady, G Zirizzotti, M A Sultan, F Franceschi, A Gasbarrini
OBJECTIVE: Gastroenteritis represents with respiratory tract infection the most common infectious disease syndrome of humans in developing countries. Gut microbiota regional variation and dysbiosis play a crucial role in triggering and worsening this devastating GI disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS: With this manuscript, we want to explore and emphasize the critical aspect of acute gastroenteritis in Middle-East Countries and its correlation with the clinical aspect of gut microbiota modification and intestinal homeostasis...
September 2016: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Sarah Shalhoub, Ali S Omrani
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 12, 2016: BMJ: British Medical Journal
David H Kingsley
Viruses rapidly evolve and can emerge in unpredictable ways. Transmission pathways by which foodborne viruses may enter human populations and evolutionary mechanisms by which viruses can become virulent are discussed in this chapter. A majority of viruses emerge from zoonotic animal reservoirs, often by adapting and infecting intermediate hosts, such as domestic animals and livestock. Viruses that are known foodborne threats include hepatitis E virus, tick-borne encephalitis virus, enteroviruses, adenovirus, and astroviruses, among others...
August 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
Hainv Gao, Hangping Yao, Shigui Yang, Lanjuan Li
The Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is a novel zoonotic pathogen. In 2012, the infectious outbreak caused by MERS-CoV in Saudi Arabia has spread to more than 1600 patients in 26 countries, resulting in over 600 deaths.Without a travel history, few clinical and radiological features can reliably differentiate MERS from SARS. But in real world, comparing with SARS, MERS presents more vaguely defined epidemiology, more severe symptoms, and higher case fatality rate. In this review, we summarize the recent findings in the field of MERS-CoV, especially its molecular virology, interspecies mechanisms, clinical features, antiviral therapies, and the further investigation into this disease...
October 1, 2016: Frontiers of Medicine
M Malik, A A Elkholy, W Khan, S Hassounah, A Abubakar, N Tran Minh, P Mala
A literature review of publically available information was undertaken to summarize current understanding and gaps in knowledge about Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), including its origin, transmission, effective control measures and management. Major databases were searched and relevant published papers and reports during 2012-2015 were reviewed. Of the 2520 publications initially retrieved, 164 were deemed relevant. The collected results suggest that much remains to be discovered about MERS-CoV...
October 2, 2016: Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal, la Revue de Santé de la Méditerranée Orientale
A Abubakar, M Malik, R G Pebody, A A Elkholy, W Khan, A Bellos, P Mala
There are gaps in the knowledge about the burden of severe respiratory disease in the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR). This literature review was therefore conducted to describe the burden of epidemicand pandemic-prone acute respiratory infections (ARI) in the Region which may help in the development of evidence-based disease prevention and control policies. Relevant published and unpublished reports were identified from searches of various databases; 83 documents fulfilled the search criteria. The infections identified included: ARI, avian influenza A(H5N1), influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infection...
October 2, 2016: Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal, la Revue de Santé de la Méditerranée Orientale
H E El Bushra, M N Abdalla, H Al Arbash, Z Alshayeb, S Al-Ali, Z Al-Abdel Latif, H Al-Bahkit, O Abdalla, M Mohammed, H Al-Abdely, M Chahed, A L Lohiniva, A Bin Saeed
Between 19 April and 23 June 2015, 52 laboratory-confirmed cases of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome due to coronavirus (MERS) were reported from Al-Ahssa region, eastern Saudi Arabia. The first seven cases occurred in one family; these were followed by 45 cases in three public hospitals. The objectives of this investigation were to describe the epidemiological characteristic of the cluster and identify potential risk factors and control measures to be instituted to prevent further occurrence of MERS. We obtained the medical records of all confirmed cases, interviewed the members of the affected household and reviewed the actions taken by the health authorities...
October 2, 2016: Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal, la Revue de Santé de la Méditerranée Orientale
R J G Hulswit, C A M de Haan, B-J Bosch
Coronaviruses (CoVs) have a remarkable potential to change tropism. This is particularly illustrated over the last 15 years by the emergence of two zoonotic CoVs, the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)- and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS)-CoV. Due to their inherent genetic variability, it is inevitable that new cross-species transmission events of these enveloped, positive-stranded RNA viruses will occur. Research into these medical and veterinary important pathogens-sparked by the SARS and MERS outbreaks-revealed important principles of inter- and intraspecies tropism changes...
2016: Advances in Virus Research
L Enjuanes, S Zuñiga, C Castaño-Rodriguez, J Gutierrez-Alvarez, J Canton, I Sola
Virus vaccines have to be immunogenic, sufficiently stable, safe, and suitable to induce long-lasting immunity. To meet these requirements, vaccine studies need to provide a comprehensive understanding of (i) the protective roles of antiviral B and T-cell-mediated immune responses, (ii) the complexity and plasticity of major viral antigens, and (iii) virus molecular biology and pathogenesis. There are many types of vaccines including subunit vaccines, whole-inactivated virus, vectored, and live-attenuated virus vaccines, each of which featuring specific advantages and limitations...
2016: Advances in Virus Research
E Kindler, V Thiel, F Weber
Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) are the most severe coronavirus (CoV)-associated diseases in humans. The causative agents, SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV, are of zoonotic origin but may be transmitted to humans, causing severe and often fatal respiratory disease in their new host. The two coronaviruses are thought to encode an unusually large number of factors that allow them to thrive and replicate in the presence of efficient host defense mechanisms, especially the antiviral interferon system...
2016: Advances in Virus Research
Eu Suk Kim, Pyoeng Gyun Choe, Wan Beom Park, Hong Sang Oh, Eun Jung Kim, Eun Young Nam, Sun Hee Na, Moonsuk Kim, Kyoung Ho Song, Ji Hwan Bang, Sang Won Park, Hong Bin Kim, Nam Joong Kim, Myoung Don Oh
Clinical progression over time and cytokine profiles have not been well defined in patients with Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infection. We included 17 patients with laboratory-confirmed MERS-CoV during the 2015 outbreak in Korea. Clinical and laboratory parameters were collected prospectively. Serum cytokine and chemokine levels in serial serum samples were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. All patients presented with fever. The median time to defervescence was 18 days...
November 2016: Journal of Korean Medical Science
Abdullah M Assiri, Holly M Biggs, Glen R Abedi, Xiaoyan Lu, Abdulaziz Bin Saeed, Osman Abdalla, Mutaz Mohammed, Hail M Al-Abdely, Homoud S Algarni, Raafat F Alhakeem, Malak M Almasri, Ali A Alsharef, Randa Nooh, Dean D Erdman, Susan I Gerber, John T Watson
During July-August 2015, the number of cases of Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) reported from Saudi Arabia increased dramatically. We reviewed the 143 confirmed cases from this period and classified each based upon likely transmission source. We found that the surge in cases resulted predominantly (90%) from secondary transmission largely attributable to an outbreak at a single healthcare facility in Riyadh. Genome sequencing of MERS coronavirus from 6 cases demonstrated continued circulation of the recently described recombinant virus...
September 2016: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
Mohammad-Abdul Baseer, Shahzeb-Hasan Ansari, Sultan-Saleh AlShamrani, Abdul-Rahman Alakras, Raif Mahrous, Abdul-Majeed Alenazi
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to determine knowledge, attitude and practice of airborne and droplet isolation precautions among Dental Health Professionals (DHPs) (dental students, interns, practitioners and auxiliaries) during the outbreak of MERS (Middle East Respiratory Syndrome), corona virus infection in Riyadh city, Saudi Arabia. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 406 dental health professionals (DHPs) working in selected dental facilities in Riyadh city, Saudi Arabia during the outbreak of MERS (April-June 2013)...
October 2016: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Dentistry
Ji Yeon Lee, Gayeon Kim, Dong-Gyun Lim, Hyeon-Gun Jee, Yunyoung Jang, Joon-Sung Joh, Ina Jeong, Yeonjae Kim, Eunhee Kim, Bum Sik Chin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 4, 2016: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
Canping Huang, Jianxun Qi, Guang-Wen Lu, Qihui Wang, Yuan Yuan, Ying Wu, Yanfang Zhang, Jinghua Yan, George F Gao
The suggested bat-origin for Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) has revitalized the studies on other bat-derived coronaviruses for the interspecies transmission potential. Bat coronavirus (BatCoV) HKU9 is an important betacoronavirus (betaCoV) that is phylogenetically affiliated to the same genus as MERS-CoV. The bat-surveillance data indicated that BatCoV HKU9 has been widely spreading and circulating in bats. This highlights the necessity of characterizing the virus for its potential of crossing species barriers...
October 3, 2016: Biochemistry
Canping Huang, William J Liu, Wen Xu, Tao Jin, Yingze Zhao, Jingdong Song, Yi Shi, Wei Ji, Hao Jia, Yongming Zhou, Honghua Wen, Honglan Zhao, Huaxing Liu, Hong Li, Qihui Wang, Ying Wu, Liang Wang, Di Liu, Guang Liu, Hongjie Yu, Edward C Holmes, Lin Lu, George F Gao
The emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) in 2002 and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in 2012 has generated enormous interest in the biodiversity, genomics and cross-species transmission potential of coronaviruses, especially those from bats, the second most speciose order of mammals. Herein, we identified a novel coronavirus, provisionally designated Rousettus bat coronavirus GCCDC1 (Ro-BatCoV GCCDC1), in the rectal swab samples of Rousettus leschenaulti bats by using pan-coronavirus RT-PCR and next-generation sequencing...
September 2016: PLoS Pathogens
Jianping Sha, Yuan Li, Xiaowen Chen, Yan Hu, Yajin Ren, Xingyi Geng, Zhiruo Zhang, Shelan Liu
Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) was first isolated in 2012. The largest known outbreak outside the Middle East occurred in South Korea in 2015. As of 29 June 2016, 1769 laboratory-confirmed cases (630 deaths; 35.6 % case fatality rate [CFR]) had been reported from 26 countries, particularly in the Middle East. However, the CFR for hospital outbreaks was higher than that of family clusters in the Middle East and Korea. Here, we compared the mortality rates for 51 nosocomial outbreaks in the Middle East and one outbreak of MERS-CoV in South Korea...
September 23, 2016: Archives of Virology
Damon J A Toth, Windy D Tanner, Karim Khader, Adi V Gundlapalli
We quantify outbreak risk after importations of Middle East respiratory syndrome outside the Arabian Peninsula. Data from 31 importation events show strong statistical support for lower transmissibility after early transmission generations. Our model projects the risk of ≥10, 100, and 500 transmissions as 11%, 2%, and 0.02%, and ≥1, 2, 3, and 4 generations as 23%, 14%, 0.9%, and 0.05%, respectively. Our results suggest tempered risk of large, long-lasting outbreaks with appropriate control measures.
September 2016: Epidemics
Justin J O'Hagan, Cristina Carias, Jessica M Rudd, Huong T Pham, Yonat Haber, Nicki Pesik, Martin S Cetron, Manoj Gambhir, Susan I Gerber, David L Swerdlow
Using data from travelers to 4 countries in the Middle East, we estimated 3,250 (95% CI 1,300-6,600) severe cases of Middle East respiratory syndrome occurred in this region during September 2012-January 2016. This number is 2.3-fold higher than the number of laboratory-confirmed cases recorded in these countries.
October 2016: Emerging Infectious Diseases
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