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middle east respiratory syndrome

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421366/two-deletion-variants-of-middle-east-respiratory-syndrome-coronavirus-found-in-a-patient-with-characteristic-symptoms
#1
Qian Xie, Yujuan Cao, Juan Su, Jie Wu, Xianbo Wu, Chengsong Wan, Mingliang He, Changwen Ke, Bao Zhang, Wei Zhao
Significant sequence variation of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS CoV) has never been detected since it was first reported in 2012. A MERS patient came from Korea to China in late May 2015. The patient was 44 years old and had symptoms including high fever, dry cough with a little phlegm, and shortness of breath, which are roughly consistent with those associated with MERS, and had had close contact with individuals with confirmed cases of MERS.After one month of therapy with antiviral, anti-infection, and immune-enhancing agents, the patient recovered in the hospital and was discharged...
April 18, 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420819/synonymous-and-biased-codon-usage-by-mers-cov-papain-like-and-3cl-proteases
#2
Mahmoud Kandeel, Abdallah Altaher
Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS CoV) is a recently evolved fatal respiratory disease that poses a concern for a global epidemic. MERS CoV encodes 2 proteases, 3C-like protease (3CLpro) and papain-like protease (PLpro). These proteases share in processing MERS CoV polyproteins at different sites to yield 16 nonstructural proteins. In this work, we provide evidence that MERS CoV 3CLpro and PLpro are subject to different genetic and evolutionary influences that shape the protein sequence, codon usage pattern, and codon usage bias...
April 18, 2017: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412285/middle-east-respiratory-syndrome-coronavirus-vaccines-current-status-and-novel-approaches
#3
REVIEW
Nisreen Ma Okba, V Stalin Raj, Bart L Haagmans
Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is a cause of severe respiratory infection in humans, specifically the elderly and people with comorbidities. The re-emergence of lethal coronaviruses calls for international collaboration to produce coronavirus vaccines, which are still lacking to date. Ongoing efforts to develop MERS-CoV vaccines should consider the different target populations (dromedary camels and humans) and the correlates of protection. Extending on our current knowledge of MERS, vaccination of dromedary camels to induce mucosal immunity could be a promising approach to diminish MERS-CoV transmission to humans...
April 13, 2017: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404682/comparison-of-the-eplex%C3%A2-respiratory-pathogen-panel-with-laboratory-developed-real-time-pcr-for-the-detection-of-respiratory-pathogens
#4
R H T Nijhuis, D Guerendiain, E C J Claas, K E Templeton
Infections of the respiratory tract can be caused by a diversity of pathogens, both viral and bacterial. Rapid microbiological diagnosis ensures appropriate antimicrobial therapy as well as effective implementation of isolation precautions. The ePlex® Respiratory Pathogen Panel (RP panel) is a novel molecular based assay, developed by GenMark Diagnostics Inc. (Carlsbad, California), to be performed within a single cartridge for the diagnosis of 25 respiratory pathogens (viral and bacterial). The objective of this study was to compare the performance of the RP panel with laboratory developed real-time PCR assays, using a variety of previously collected clinical respiratory specimens...
April 12, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397938/middle-east-respiratory-syndrome-in-children-dental-considerations
#5
Fares S Al-Sehaibany
As of January 2016, 1,633 laboratory-confirmed cases of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infection and 587 MERS-related deaths have been reported by the World Health Organization globally. Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus  may occur sporadically in communities or may be transmitted within families or hospitals. The number of confirmed MERS-CoV cases among healthcare workers has been increasing. Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus may also spread through aerosols generated during various dental treatments, resulting in transmission between patients and dentists...
April 2017: Saudi Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396467/offering-patients-more-how-the-west-africa-ebola-outbreak-can-shape-innovation-in-therapeutic-research-for-emerging-and-epidemic-infections
#6
REVIEW
Amanda M Rojek, Peter W Horby
Although, after an epidemic of over 28 000 cases, there are still no licensed treatments for Ebola virus disease (EVD), significant progress was made during the West Africa outbreak. The pace of pre-clinical development was exceptional and a number of therapeutic clinical trials were conducted in the face of considerable challenges. Given the on-going risk of emerging infectious disease outbreaks in an era of unprecedented population density, international travel and human impact on the environment it is pertinent to focus on improving the research and development landscape for treatments of emerging and epidemic-prone infections...
May 26, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394582/multiplex-paper-based-colorimetric-dna-sensor-using-pyrrolidinyl-peptide-nucleic-acid-induced-agnps-aggregation-for-detecting-mers-cov-mtb-and-hpv-oligonucleotides
#7
Prinjaporn Tee-Ngam, Weena Siangproh, Adisorn Tuantranont, Tirayut Vilaivan, Orawon Chailapakul, Charles S Henry
The development of simple fluorescent and colorimetric assays that enable point-of-care DNA and RNA detection has been a topic of significant research because of the utility of such assays in resource limited settings. The most common motifs utilize hybridization to a complementary detection strand coupled with a sensitive reporter molecule. Here, apaper-based colorimetric assay for DNA detection based on pyrrolidinyl peptide nucleic acid (acpcPNA)-induced nanoparticle aggregationis reported as an alternative to traditional colorimetric approaches...
April 10, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390872/the-role-of-epidermal-growth-factor-receptor-egfr-signaling-in-sars-coronavirus-induced-pulmonary-fibrosis
#8
REVIEW
Thiagarajan Venkataraman, Matthew B Frieman
Many survivors of the 2003 outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) developed residual pulmonary fibrosis with increased severity seen in older patients. Autopsies of patients that died from SARS also showed fibrosis to varying extents. Pulmonary fibrosis can be occasionally seen as a consequence to several respiratory viral infections but is much more common after a SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV) infection. Given the threat of future outbreaks of severe coronavirus disease, including Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), it is important to understand the mechanisms responsible for pulmonary fibrosis, so as to support the development of therapeutic countermeasures and mitigate sequelae of infection...
April 5, 2017: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389142/efficacy-of-antibody-based-therapies-against-middle-east-respiratory-syndrome-coronavirus-mers-cov-in-common-marmosets
#9
Neeltje van Doremalen, Darryl Falzarano, Tianlei Ying, Emmie de Wit, Trenton Bushmaker, Friederike Feldmann, Atsushi Okumura, Yanping Wang, Dana P Scott, Patrick W Hanley, Heinz Feldmann, Dimiter S Dimitrov, Vincent J Munster
Cases of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) continue to be identified and with a lack of effective clinical treatment and no preventative strategies, treatment using convalescent plasma or monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) is a potential quick route to an intervention. Passive immunotherapy via either convalescent plasma or mAbs has proven to be effective for other infectious agents. Following infection with MERS-CoV, common marmosets were treated with high titer hyperimmune plasma or the mAb m336, at 6 and 48 h post inoculation...
April 5, 2017: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385465/middle-east-respiratory-syndrome-risk-perception-among-students-at-a-university-in-south-korea-2015
#10
Seongwoo Yang, Sung-Il Cho
BACKGROUND: The 2015 Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) outbreak in South Korea was a serious threat to public health, and was exacerbated by the inappropriate responses of major institutions and the public. This study examined the sources of confusion during the MERS outbreak and identified the factors that can affect people's behavior. METHODS: An online survey of the risk perception of university students in South Korea was performed after the epidemic had peaked...
April 3, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382915/risk-factors-for-mers-coronavirus-infection-in-dromedary-camels-in-burkina-faso-ethiopia-and-morocco-2015
#11
Eve Miguel, Véronique Chevalier, Gelagay Ayelet, Med Nadir Ben Bencheikh, Hiver Boussini, Daniel Kw Chu, Ikhlass El Berbri, Ouaffa Fassi-Fihri, Bernard Faye, Getnet Fekadu, Vladimir Grosbois, Bryan Cy Ng, Ranawaka Apm Perera, T Y So, Amadou Traore, François Roger, Malik Peiris
Understanding Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) transmission in dromedary camels is important, as they consitute a source of zoonotic infection to humans. To identify risk factors for MERS-CoV infection in camels bred in diverse conditions in Burkina Faso, Ethiopia and Morocco, blood samples and nasal swabs were sampled in February-March 2015. A relatively high MERS-CoV RNA rate was detected in Ethiopia (up to 15.7%; 95% confidence interval (CI): 8.2-28.0), followed by Burkina Faso (up to 12...
March 30, 2017: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378546/clinical-and-epidemiologic-characteristics-of-spreaders-of-middle-east-respiratory-syndrome-coronavirus-during-the-2015-outbreak-in-korea
#12
Chang Kyung Kang, Kyoung Ho Song, Pyoeng Gyun Choe, Wan Beom Park, Ji Hwan Bang, Eu Suk Kim, Sang Won Park, Hong Bin Kim, Nam Joong Kim, Sung Il Cho, Jong Koo Lee, Myoung Don Oh
Nosocomial transmission is an important characteristic of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infection. Risk factors for transmission of MERS-CoV in healthcare settings are not well defined. During the Korean outbreak in 2015, 186 patients had laboratory-confirmed MERS-CoV infection. Those suspected as a source of viral transmission were categorized into the spreader groups (super-spreader [n = 5] and usual-spreader [n = 10]) and compared to the non-spreader group (n = 171). Body temperature of ≥ 38...
May 2017: Journal of Korean Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377531/further-evidence-for-bats-as-the-evolutionary-source-of-middle-east-respiratory-syndrome-coronavirus
#13
S J Anthony, K Gilardi, V D Menachery, T Goldstein, B Ssebide, R Mbabazi, I Navarrete-Macias, E Liang, H Wells, A Hicks, A Petrosov, D K Byarugaba, K Debbink, K H Dinnon, T Scobey, S H Randell, B L Yount, M Cranfield, C K Johnson, R S Baric, W I Lipkin, J A K Mazet
The evolutionary origins of Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) coronavirus (MERS-CoV) are unknown. Current evidence suggests that insectivorous bats are likely to be the original source, as several 2c CoVs have been described from various species in the family Vespertilionidae Here, we describe a MERS-like CoV identified from a Pipistrellus cf. hesperidus bat sampled in Uganda (strain PREDICT/PDF-2180), further supporting the hypothesis that bats are the evolutionary source of MERS-CoV. Phylogenetic analysis showed that PREDICT/PDF-2180 is closely related to MERS-CoV across much of its genome, consistent with a common ancestry; however, the spike protein was highly divergent (46% amino acid identity), suggesting that the two viruses may have different receptor binding properties...
April 4, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373583/sex-based-differences-in-susceptibility-to-severe-acute-respiratory-syndrome-coronavirus-infection
#14
Rudragouda Channappanavar, Craig Fett, Matthias Mack, Patrick P Ten Eyck, David K Meyerholz, Stanley Perlman
Pathogenic human coronaviruses (CoVs), such as the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-CoV and the Middle East respiratory syndrome-CoV, cause acute respiratory illness. Epidemiological data from the 2002-2003 SARS epidemic and recent Middle East respiratory syndrome outbreak indicate that there may be sex-dependent differences in disease outcomes. To investigate these differences, we infected male and female mice of different age groups with SARS-CoV and analyzed their susceptibility to the infection...
April 3, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364363/preface-emerging-viruses-from-early-detection-to-intervention
#15
Giuseppe Ippolito, Giovanni Rezza
In the last decades, several viruses emerged, as the consequence of cross-species passage from animal reservoirs to human being. Emerging infections always represent a significant challenge for public health system as knowledge about specific pathogens are generally little while and no/few effective interventions are available. In this volume we explored special aspects of emerging infectious diseases including: the application of the theory of focality of diseases to infective syndrome; the human-animal inter-face focusing on influenza; the role of bats as main reservoir of emerging and novel human pathogens; Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) epidemiology and clinical presentation; immediate impact on human health of the last Zika virus outbreak occurred in Pacific Ocean and the Americas; the role and potential application of animal models for the study of emerging infections, to improve disease knowledge and for developing therapeutic drugs during ongoing outbreak...
April 1, 2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351702/effects-of-operational-decisions-on-the-diffusion-of-epidemic-disease-a-system-dynamics-modeling-of-the-mers-cov-outbreak-in-south-korea
#16
Nina Shin, Taewoo Kwag, Sangwook Park, Yon Hui Kim
We evaluated the nosocomial outbreak of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) Coronavirus (CoV) in the Republic of Korea, 2015, from a healthcare operations management perspective. Establishment of healthcare policy in South Korea provides patients' freedom to select and visit multiple hospitals. Current policy enforces hospitals preference for multi-patient rooms to single-patient rooms, to lower financial burden. Existing healthcare systems tragically contributed to 186 MERS outbreak cases, starting from single "index patient" into three generations of secondary infections...
March 27, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28348219/mouse-adapted-mers-coronavirus-causes-lethal-lung-disease-in-human-dpp4-knockin-mice
#17
Kun Li, Christine L Wohlford-Lenane, Rudragouda Channappanavar, Jung-Eun Park, James T Earnest, Thomas B Bair, Amber M Bates, Kim A Brogden, Heather A Flaherty, Tom Gallagher, David K Meyerholz, Stanley Perlman, Paul B McCray
The Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) emerged in Saudi Arabia in 2012, caused by a zoonotically transmitted coronavirus (CoV). Over 1,900 cases have been reported to date, with ∼36% fatality rate. Lack of autopsies from MERS cases has hindered understanding of MERS-CoV pathogenesis. A small animal model that develops progressive pulmonary manifestations when infected with MERS-CoV would advance the field. As mice are restricted to infection at the level of DPP4, the MERS-CoV receptor, we generated mice with humanized exons 10-12 of the mouse Dpp4 locus...
March 27, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333616/cross-sectional-surveillance-of-middle-east-respiratory-syndrome-coronavirus-mers-cov-in-dromedary-camels-and-other-mammals-in-egypt-august-2015-to-january-2016
#18
Mohamed Ali, Rabeh El-Shesheny, Ahmed Kandeil, Mahmoud Shehata, Basma Elsokary, Mokhtar Gomaa, Naglaa Hassan, Ahmed El Sayed, Ahmed El-Taweel, Heba Sobhy, Folorunso Oludayo Fasina, Gwenaelle Dauphin, Ihab El Masry, Abebe Wossene Wolde, Peter Daszak, Maureen Miller, Sophie VonDobschuetz, Emma Gardner, Subhash Morzaria, Juan Lubroth, Yilma Jobre Makonnen
A cross-sectional study was conducted in Egypt to determine the prevalence of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in imported and resident camels and bats, as well as to assess possible transmission of the virus to domestic ruminants and equines. A total of 1,031 sera, 1,078 nasal swabs, 13 rectal swabs, and 38 milk samples were collected from 1,078 camels in different types of sites. In addition, 145 domestic animals and 109 bats were sampled. Overall, of 1,031 serologically-tested camels, 871 (84...
March 16, 2017: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332641/the-sample-of-choice-for-detecting-middle-east-respiratory-syndrome-coronavirus-in-asymptomatic-dromedary-camels-using-real-time-reversetranscription-polymerase-chain-reaction
#19
K A Mohran, E A B Farag, C B E Reusken, V S Raj, M M Lamers, S D Pas, J Voermans, S L Smits, M M Alhajri, F Alhajri, H E Al-Romaihi, H Ghobashy, M M El-Maghraby, S H S Al Dhahiry, N Al-Mawlawi, A M El-Sayed, M Al-Thani, S A Al-Marri, B L Haagmans, M P G Koopmans
The newly identified Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), which causes severe respiratory disease, particularly in people with comorbidities, requires further investigation. Studies in Qatar and elsewhere have provided evidence that dromedary camels are a reservoir for the virus, but the exact modes of transmission of MERS-CoV to humans remain unclear. In February 2014, an assessment was made of the suitability and sensitivity of different types of sample for the detection of MERSCoV by real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for three gene targets: UpE (upstream of the E gene), the N (nucleocapsid) gene and open reading frame (ORF) 1a...
December 2016: Revue Scientifique et Technique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322710/surveillance-and-testing-for-middle-east-respiratory-syndrome-coronavirus-saudi-arabia-april-2015-february-2016
#20
Abdulaziz A Bin Saeed, Glen R Abedi, Abdullah G Alzahrani, Iyad Salameh, Fatima Abdirizak, Raafat Alhakeem, Homoud Algarni, Osman A El Nil, Mutaz Mohammed, Abdullah M Assiri, Hail M Alabdely, John T Watson, Susan I Gerber
Saudi Arabia has reported >80% of the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) cases worldwide. During April 2015-February 2016, Saudi Arabia identified and tested 57,363 persons (18.4/10,000 residents) with suspected MERS-CoV infection; 384 (0.7%) tested positive. Robust, extensive, and timely surveillance is critical for limiting virus transmission.
April 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
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