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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851851/multifunctional-involvement-of-a-c2h2-zinc-finger-protein-pbzfp-in-malaria-transmission-histone-modification-and-susceptibility-to-dna-damage-response
#1
Anusha M Gopalakrishnan, Ahmed S I Aly, L Aravind, Nirbhay Kumar
In sexually reproducing organisms, meiosis is an essential step responsible for generation of haploid gametes from diploid somatic cells. The quest for understanding regulatory mechanisms of meiotic recombination in Plasmodium led to identification of a gene encoding a protein that contains 11 copies of C2H2 zinc fingers (ZnF). Reverse genetic approaches were used to create Plasmodium berghei parasites either lacking expression of full-length Plasmodium berghei zinc finger protein (PbZfp) (knockout [KO]) or expressing PbZfp lacking C-terminal zinc finger region (truncated [Trunc])...
August 29, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803330/bime2-a-novel-gene-required-for-interhomolog-meiotic-recombination-in-the-protist-model-organism-tetrahymena
#2
Anura Shodhan, Maria Novatchkova, Josef Loidl
Meiotic recombination is initiated by DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). Most DSBs are converted into nonreciprocal exchanges (gene conversions) or crossovers (COs) between sister chromatids. Only a minority of DSBs are processed toward interhomolog COs, the precursors of the chiasmata that connect homologous chromosomes. Dmc1, the meiosis-specific paralog of the universal recombination protein Rad51, is required for interhomolog COs; in its absence, univalents are primarily formed. Here, we report a ciliate-specific novel meiotic gene, BIME2, which also promotes interhomolog crossing over...
August 12, 2017: Chromosome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797117/analysis-of-the-impact-of-the-absence-of-rad51-strand-exchange-activity-in-arabidopsis-meiosis
#3
Gunjita Singh, Olivier Da Ines, Maria Eugenia Gallego, Charles I White
The ploidy of eukaryote gametes must be halved to avoid doubling of numbers of chromosomes with each generation and this is carried out by meiosis, a specialized cell division in which a single chromosomal replication phase is followed by two successive nuclear divisions. With some exceptions, programmed recombination ensures the proper pairing and distribution of homologous pairs of chromosomes in meiosis and recombination defects thus lead to sterility. Two highly related recombinases are required to catalyse the key strand-invasion step of meiotic recombination and it is the meiosis-specific DMC1 which is generally believed to catalyse the essential non-sister chromatid crossing-over, with RAD51 catalysing sister-chromatid and non-cross-over events...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745000/sycp3-regulates-strand-invasion-activities-of-rad51-and-dmc1
#4
Wataru Kobayashi, Noriko Hosoya, Shinichi Machida, Kiyoshi Miyagawa, Hitoshi Kurumizaka
The synaptonemal complex is a higher-ordered proteinaceous architecture formed between homologous chromosomes. SYCP3 is a major component of the lateral/axial elements in the synaptonemal complex and is essential for meiotic recombination. Previous genetic studies showed that SYCP3 functions in meiotic homologous recombination biased to interhomologous chromosomes, by regulating the strand invasion activities of the RAD51 and DMC1 recombinases. However, the mechanism by which SYCP3 regulates RAD51- and DMC1-mediated strand invasion remains elusive...
September 2017: Genes to Cells: Devoted to Molecular & Cellular Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667173/a-time-for-promiscuity-in-a-eukaryotic-recombinase
#5
REVIEW
Maria Spies
The exchange of DNA strands between broken and intact molecules lies at the heart of fundamental cellular processes ranging from repairing DNA damage by homologous recombination to generation of genetic diversity during sexual reproduction. New work by Lee and colleagues utilizes the DNA curtain method, an elegant single-molecule technique, to demonstrate common and idiosyncratic features in the DNA strand exchange mechanisms of three RecA-family recombinases, bacterial RecA, and eukaryotic Rad51 and Dmc1 proteins...
June 30, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28553302/transcriptome-analysis-of-floral-buds-deciphered-an-irregular-course-of-meiosis-in-polyploid-brassica-rapa
#6
Janeen Braynen, Yan Yang, Fang Wei, Gangqiang Cao, Gongyao Shi, Baoming Tian, Xiaowei Zhang, Hao Jia, Xiaochun Wei, Zhenzhen Wei
Polyploidy is a fundamental process in plant evolution. Understanding the polyploidy-associated effects on plant reproduction is essential for polyploid breeding program. In the present study, our cytological analysis firstly demonstrated that an overall course of meiosis was apparently distorted in the synthetic polyploid Brassica rapa in comparison with its diploid progenitor. To elucidate genetic basis of this irregular meiosis at a molecular level, the comparative RNA-seq analysis was further used to investigate differential genetic regulation of developing floral buds identified at meiosis between autotetraploid and diploid B...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501701/radb-acts-in-homologous-recombination-in-the-archaeon-haloferax-volcanii-consistent-with-a-role-as-recombination-mediator
#7
Kayleigh Wardell, Sam Haldenby, Nathan Jones, Susan Liddell, Greg H P Ngo, Thorsten Allers
Homologous recombination plays a central role in the repair of double-strand DNA breaks, the restart of stalled replication forks and the generation of genetic diversity. Regulation of recombination is essential since defects can lead to genome instability and chromosomal rearrangements. Strand exchange is a key step of recombination - it is catalysed by RecA in bacteria, Rad51/Dmc1 in eukaryotes and RadA in archaea. RadB, a paralogue of RadA, is present in many archaeal species. RadB has previously been proposed to function as a recombination mediator, assisting in RadA-mediated strand exchange...
July 2017: DNA Repair
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488736/inhibition-of-mtor-pathway-decreases-the-expression-of-pre-meiotic-and-meiotic-markers-throughout-postnatal-development-and-in-adult-testes-in-mice
#8
P Sahin, N E Gungor-Ordueri, C Celik-Ozenci
Rapamycin (mTOR inhibitor) has been reported to have negative effect on human male gonadal function. Previously, we showed that mTOR signalling molecules are expressed during early spermatogenesis in mice. The objective of this study was to investigate the role of mTOR signalling in meiosis both during the first wave of spermatogenesis and also during adult spermatogenesis. Day 5 post-partum mice were administered rapamycin and retinoic acid (RA; a Stra8 activator), and expression of p-p70S6K and Stra8 proteins was evaluated...
May 10, 2017: Andrologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476890/sequence-imperfections-and-base-triplet-recognition-by-the-rad51-reca-family-of-recombinases
#9
Ja Yil Lee, Justin B Steinfeld, Zhi Qi, YoungHo Kwon, Patrick Sung, Eric C Greene
Homologous recombination plays key roles in double-strand break repair, rescue, and repair of stalled replication forks and meiosis. The broadly conserved Rad51/RecA family of recombinases catalyzes the DNA strand invasion reaction that takes place during homologous recombination. We have established single-stranded (ss)DNA curtain assays for measuring individual base triplet steps during the early stages of strand invasion. Here, we examined how base triplet stepping by RecA, Rad51, and Dmc1 is affected by DNA sequence imperfections, such as single and multiple mismatches, abasic sites, and single nucleotide insertions...
June 30, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435519/gt198-psmc3ip-germline-variants-in-early-onset-breast-cancer-patients-from-hereditary-breast-and-ovarian-cancer-families
#10
Stephanie Schubert, Tim Ripperger, Melanie Rood, Anthony Petkidis, Winfried Hofmann, Hildegard Frye-Boukhriss, Marcel Tauscher, Bernd Auber, Ursula Hille-Betz, Thomas Illig, Brigitte Schlegelberger, Doris Steinemann
GT198, located 470 kb downstream of BRCA1, encodes for the nuclear PSMC3-interacting protein, which functions as co-activator of steroid hormone-mediated gene expression, and is involved in RAD51 and DMC1-mediated homologous recombination during DNA repair of double-strand breaks. Recently, germline variants in GT198 have been identified in hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC) patients, mainly in cases with early-onset. We screened a cohort of 166 BRCA1/2 mutation-negative HBOC patients, of which 56 developed early-onset breast cancer before the age of 36 years, for GT198 variants...
January 2017: Genes & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423184/the-differentiated-and-conserved-roles-of-swi5-sfr1-in-homologous-recombination
#11
REVIEW
Bilge Argunhan, Yasuto Murayama, Hiroshi Iwasaki
Homologous recombination (HR) is the process whereby two DNA molecules that share high sequence similarity are able to recombine to generate hybrid DNA molecules. Throughout evolution, the ability of HR to identify highly similar DNA sequences has been adopted for numerous biological phenomena including DNA repair, meiosis, telomere maintenance, ribosomal DNA amplification and immunological diversity. Although Rad51 and Dmc1 are the key proteins that promote HR in mitotic and meiotic cells, respectively, accessory proteins that allow Rad51 and Dmc1 to effectively fulfil their functions have been identified in all examined model systems...
July 2017: FEBS Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319194/genome-wide-analysis-of-brain-and-gonad-transcripts-reveals-changes-of-key-sex-reversal-related-genes-expression-and-signaling-pathways-in-three-stages-of-monopterus-albus
#12
Wei Chi, Yu Gao, Qing Hu, Wei Guo, Dapeng Li
BACKGROUND: The natural sex reversal severely affects the sex ratio and thus decreases the productivity of the rice field eel (Monopterus albus). How to understand and manipulate this process is one of the major issues for the rice field eel stocking. So far the genomics and transcriptomics data available for this species are still scarce. Here we provide a comprehensive study of transcriptomes of brain and gonad tissue in three sex stages (female, intersex and male) from the rice field eel to investigate changes in transcriptional level during the sex reversal process...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297563/spermatogenesis-associated-22-is-required-for-dna-repair-and-synapsis-of-homologous-chromosomes-in-mouse-germ-cells
#13
E Hays, N Majchrzak, V Daniel, Z Ferguson, S Brown, K Hathorne, S La Salle
Analysis of the N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU)-induced repro42 mutation previously identified spermatogenesis associated 22 (Spata22) as a gene required for meiotic progression and fertility in both male and female mice, but its specific contribution to the process was unclear. Here, we report on a novel, null allele of Spata22 (Spata22(Gt) ) and confirm its requirement for germ cell development. Similar to repro42 mutant mice, histological and mating analyses indicate that gametogenesis is profoundly affected in Spata22(Gt/Gt) males and females, resulting in infertility...
March 2017: Andrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249986/coordination-of-double-strand-break-repair-and-meiotic-progression-in-yeast-by-a-mek1-ndt80-negative-feedback-loop
#14
Evelyn Prugar, Cameron Burnett, Xiangyu Chen, Nancy M Hollingsworth
During meiosis, homologous chromosomes are physically connected by crossovers and sister chromatid cohesion. Interhomolog crossovers are generated by the highly regulated repair of programmed double strand breaks (DSBs). The meiosis-specific kinase Mek1 is critical for this regulation. Mek1 downregulates the mitotic recombinase Rad51, indirectly promoting interhomolog strand invasion by the meiosis-specific recombinase Dmc1. Mek1 also promotes the formation of crossovers that are distributed throughout the genome by interference and is the effector kinase for a meiosis-specific checkpoint that delays entry into Meiosis I until DSBs have been repaired...
May 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213303/diethylstilbestrol-flutamide-and-their-combination-impaired-the-spermatogenesis-of-male-adult-zebrafish-through-disrupting-hpg-axis-meiosis-and-apoptosis
#15
Pan Yin, Ying-Wen Li, Qi-Liang Chen, Zhi-Hao Liu
Both diethylstilbestrol (DES, an environmental estrogen) and flutamide (FLU, an anti-androgen) are found to impair spermatogenesis by disrupting hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis and altering androgen levels through different mechanisms/modes of action in fish with poorly understood underlying mechanisms. Furthermore, it is not known whether and how a combined exposure of DES and FLU has a stronger effect than the compounds alone. In this study, male zebrafish adults were exposed to DES, FLU and their combination (DES+FLU) for 30days, and their effects on histological structure and sperm count in testis, androgen level in plasma, as well as the mRNA levels of genes involved in HPG axis, meiotic regulation and apoptosis were analyzed...
April 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178517/meiotic-knockdown-and-complementation-reveals-essential-role-of-rad51-in-mouse-spermatogenesis
#16
Jieqiong Dai, Oleg Voloshin, Svetlana Potapova, R Daniel Camerini-Otero
Meiotic homologous recombination (HR) is important for proper chromosomal segregation during gametogenesis and facilitates evolutionary adaptation via genomic reshuffling. In most eukaryotes, HR is mediated by two recombinases, the ubiquitous RAD51 and the meiosis-specific DMC1. The role of RAD51 in mammalian meiosis is unclear and study of its function is limited due to embryonic lethality of RAD51 knockouts. Here, we developed an in vivo meiotic knockdown and protein complementation system to study RAD51 during mouse spermatogenesis...
February 7, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986806/repair-of-meiotic-dna-breaks-and-homolog-pairing-in-mouse-meiosis-requires-a-minichromosome-maintenance-mcm-paralog
#17
Adrian J McNairn, Vera D Rinaldi, John C Schimenti
The mammalian Mcm-domain containing 2 (Mcmdc2) gene encodes a protein of unknown function that is homologous to the minichromosome maintenance family of DNA replication licensing and helicase factors. Drosophila melanogaster contains two separate genes, the Mei-MCMs, which appear to have arisen from a single ancestral Mcmdc2 gene. The Mei-MCMs are involved in promoting meiotic crossovers by blocking the anticrossover activity of BLM helicase, a function presumably performed by MSH4 and MSH5 in metazoans. Here, we report that MCMDC2-deficient mice of both sexes are viable but sterile...
February 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974736/hed1-promotes-meiotic-crossover-formation-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#18
Yoon-Ju Kong, Jeong-Hwan Joo, Keun Pil Kim, Soogil Hong
Homologous recombination occurs between homologous chromosomes and is significantly involved in programmed double-strand break (DSB) repair. Activation of two recombinases, Rad51 and Dmc1, is essential for an interhomolog bias during meiosis. Rad51 participates in both mitotic and meiotic recombination, and its strand exchange activity is regulated by an inhibitory factor during meiosis. Thus, activities of Rad51 and Dmc1 are coordinated to promote homolog bias. It has been reported that Hed1, a meiosis-specific protein in budding yeast, regulates Rad51-dependent recombination activity...
February 28, 2017: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883312/time-course-analysis-of-gene-expression-during-the-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-hypoxic-response
#19
Nasrine Bendjilali, Samuel MacLeon, Gurmannat Kalra, Stephen D Willis, A K M Nawshad Hossian, Erica Avery, Olivia Wojtowicz, Mark J Hickman
Many cells experience hypoxia, or low oxygen, and respond by dramatically altering gene expression. In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, genes that respond are required for many oxygen-dependent cellular processes, such as respiration, biosynthesis, and redox regulation. To more fully characterize the global response to hypoxia, we exposed yeast to hypoxic conditions, extracted RNA at different times, and performed RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) analysis. Time-course statistical analysis revealed hundreds of genes that changed expression by up to 550-fold...
January 5, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27820601/scai-promotes-dna-double-strand-break-repair-in-distinct-chromosomal-contexts
#20
Rebecca Kring Hansen, Andreas Mund, Sara Lund Poulsen, Maria Sandoval, Karolin Klement, Katerina Tsouroula, Maxim A X Tollenaere, Markus Räschle, Rebeca Soria, Stefan Offermanns, Thomas Worzfeld, Robert Grosse, Dominique T Brandt, Björn Rozell, Matthias Mann, Francesca Cole, Evi Soutoglou, Aaron A Goodarzi, Jeremy A Daniel, Niels Mailand, Simon Bekker-Jensen
DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are highly cytotoxic DNA lesions, whose accurate repair by non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) or homologous recombination (HR) is crucial for genome integrity and is strongly influenced by the local chromatin environment. Here, we identify SCAI (suppressor of cancer cell invasion) as a 53BP1-interacting chromatin-associated protein that promotes the functionality of several DSB repair pathways in mammalian cells. SCAI undergoes prominent enrichment at DSB sites through dual mechanisms involving 53BP1-dependent recruitment to DSB-surrounding chromatin and 53BP1-independent accumulation at resected DSBs...
December 2016: Nature Cell Biology
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