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Christina Dai, David Weinstein
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March 21, 2018: JAMA Dermatology
Ibrahim Sayed-Ahmed, Juan Carlos Murillo, Pedro Monsalve, Jan Paul Ulloa, Maria P Fernandez, James Wong, George Elgart, Anat Galor, Sander R Dubovy, Carol L Karp
PURPOSE: Blue nevus is a melanocytic tumor that is commonly found in the skin. Extracutaneous presentations, including the ocular surface, are rare. As such, the purpose of this study was to characterize the clinical features and clinical course of congenital melanocytic tumor (blue nevus) of the conjunctiva. DESIGN: Retrospective, noncomparative case series. PARTICIPANTS: Twenty-one patients with 23 blue nevi of the ocular surface that were excised surgically between 2000 and 2016...
March 15, 2018: Ophthalmology
Ji-Yeon Lee, Su-Ja Oh
The retinal degeneration resulting from elevated intraocular pressure was evaluated through functional and morphological analyses, for better understanding of the pathophysiology of glaucoma. Ocular hypertension was induced via unilateral episcleral venous cauterization in rats. Experimental time was set at 1 and 3 days, and 1, 2, 4, and 8 weeks post-operation. Retinal function was analyzed using electroretinography. For morphological analysis, retinal tissues were processed for immunochemistry by using antibodies against the calcium-sensing receptor and calcium-binding proteins...
February 2018: Experimental Neurobiology
Kelly E Knickelbein, Mallory Stock, Sebastian E Carrasco, Christopher M Reilly, Mary E Lassaline
An 18-year-old American Miniature Horse mare was presented with a complaint of a scleral swelling affecting the right eye and a history of suspected trauma 6 weeks prior to evaluation. Clinical findings included severe blepharospasm, a bulbous swelling of the dorsotemporal bulbar conjunctiva, and phthisis bulbi. Ocular ultrasound was recommended but declined. Enucleation was elected for the blind, painful eye and was performed standing. Gross and histopathologic examinations of the globe were consistent with extrusion of the lens to the episcleral space, which is classified as a traumatic phacocele when associated with naturally occurring trauma...
March 8, 2018: Veterinary Ophthalmology
Yuan He, Huifeng Liu, Zhi Ji, Binliang Zhu
Purpose: To report a case of surgical interventions for a patient with relapsing polychondritis who presented with late ocular complications. Observations: A 44-year-old male was diagnosed to have relapsing polychondritis on the basis of recurrent acute auricular chondritis, deformity of the ear, saddle nose deformity and painful nasal chondritis, acute ocular inflammation with conjunctivitis, episcleritis and keratouveitis, laryngotracheal chondritis, erythema nodosum in the skin, a history of polyarthritis, and abnormal blood examination findings...
April 2017: American Journal of Ophthalmology Case Reports
Gonzalo Duarte, Rashel Cheja, Diana Pachón, Carolina Ramírez, Lourdes Arellanes
Purpose: To report two cases of eyeball tattoos with short-term post procedural complications. Observations: Case 1 is a 26-year-old Mexican man that developed orbital cellulitis and posterior scleritis 2 h after an eyeball tattoo. Patient responded satisfactorily to systemic antibiotic and corticosteroid treatment. Case 2 is a 17-year-old Mexican man that developed two sub-episcleral nodules in the ink injection sites immediately after the procedure. Conclusions and importance: Eyeball tattoos are performed by non-ophthalmic trained personnel...
April 2017: American Journal of Ophthalmology Case Reports
Silvio DI Staso, Luca Agnifili, Sara Cecannecchia, Angela DI Gregorio, Marco Ciancaglini
BACKGROUND/AIM: Prostaglandin analogues (PGAs) are a first-line medical treatment for glaucoma because of their powerful intraocular pressure (IOP) lowering effect, few systemic side-effects (SEs), and the once daily administration. Despite the high systemic safety profile, the chronic use of PGAs may induce periocular and ocular surface (OS)-related side effects, which affect a significant proportion of glaucomatous patients. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge about SEs of PGAs on periocular structures and OS, and their implications in clinical practice...
March 2018: In Vivo
Arash Kazemi, Jay W McLaren, Casey C Kopczynski, Theresa G Heah, Gary D Novack, Arthur J Sit
PURPOSE: Netarsudil, an inhibitor of Rho kinase and a norepinephrine transporter, has been shown to lower elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) in controlled studies of patients with open-angle glaucoma and ocular hypertension, and in healthy volunteers. The mechanism of this ocular hypotensive effect in humans is unknown. METHODS: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of netarsudil 0.02% on aqueous humor dynamics (AHD) parameters. In this double-masked, vehicle-controlled, paired-eye comparison study, 11 healthy volunteers received topical netarsudil ophthalmic solution 0...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Susan S Lee, James Burke, Jie Shen, Alexandra Almazan, Werhner Orilla, Patrick Hughes, Jane Zhang, Huajiang Li, Craig Struble, Paul E Miller, Michael R Robinson
OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of a bimatoprost sustained-release intracameral implant (Bimatoprost SR) on episcleral venous pressure (EVP) in normal dogs. METHODS: Normotensive beagle dogs were randomized to receive Bimatoprost SR 30 μg (n = 7) or sham injection (needle insertion only, n = 7) in one eye on day 1. EVP was measured with an episcleral venomanometer through day 65. Episcleral aqueous outflow vessels were identified using fluorescence imaging following intracameral injection of indocyanine green in one additional animal...
February 19, 2018: Veterinary Ophthalmology
Cristian Caimmi, Cynthia S Crowson, Wendy M Smith, Eric L Matteson, Ashima Makol
OBJECTIVE: Inflammatory ocular disease (IOD) is a rare but severe extraarticular manifestation of rheumatoid arthritis (ExRA) with high mortality. The aim of our study was to examine clinical characteristics of IOD in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and their effect on disease severity and outcomes in recent years. METHODS: A retrospective cohort of RA patients with IOD evaluated between 1996 and 2013 was assembled and compared to RA comparators without IOD and matched for age, sex, and disease duration...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Rheumatology
Amr Salama, Arwa Elsheikh, Richard Alweis
Episcleritis is the inflammation of the thin, loose, highly vascular connective tissue layer that lies between the conjunctiva and sclera. Incidence is less than 1/1000. It is more common in women and those between 40 and 50 years of age. Most cases are idiopathic. It is classified into simple and nodular. Most attacks resolve within 1-3 months. The nodular type tends to be more recurrent and painful. It presents with acute onset of redness, lacrimation, and photophobia. The diagnosis of is essentially clinical, and eye pain or tenderness should raise the concern for scleritis...
2018: Journal of Community Hospital Internal Medicine Perspectives
P A R Meyer
Haemoglobin Video Imaging (HVI) demonstrates conjunctival and episcleral blood flow in man with the resolution of a single erythrocyte. A new method for establishing vessel hierarchy in micro-circulations is described, which recognises either delivery or drainage vessels and references vessel order to the capillary. These tools have been used to characterise blood flow.Anterior ciliary arteries show pulsatile variation in diameter. The episcleral arterial circle that they supply has functional apices with pulsatile flow reversal...
January 19, 2018: Eye
Jose J Echegaray, Rachel Chen, Claudine Bellerive, Arun D Singh
A 4-year-old female with a unilateral circumscribed choroidal hemangioma and secondary total exudative retinal detachment. A nasal skin scar-like lesion incised to confirm a histopathologic diagnosis of linear nevus sebaceous. Further imaging disclosed asymmetry of the lateral ventricle frontal horns, suggestive of the diagnosis of linear nevus sebaceous syndrome. The choroidal hemangioma was treated with I-125 episcleral brachytherapy (apical dose of 45 Gy). At 6 months post-radiation, the tumor showed regression with total resolution of exudative retinal detachment...
January 15, 2018: Ophthalmic Genetics
Sara Homem de Melo Marques, Cláudia Farinha, Amélia Martins, Pedro Faria
Case presentation of a 41-year-old woman with long-standing bilateral eye injection whose clinical findings included bilateral episcleral vessel engorgement and tortuosity, raised intraocular pressure with open iridocorneal angles and left optic disc cupping. All remaining objective examination was normal. She underwent cranial and orbits CT and CT-angiography scans which were unremarkable. Optical coherence tomography of the peripapillary nerve fibre layer and automated perimetry were compatible with advanced glaucomatous damage on the left eye...
January 5, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
Thiago Gonçalves Dos Santos Martins, Ana Luiza Fontes de Azevedo Costa, Antonio Carlos Centelhas, Diogo Gonçalves Dos Santos Martins
The occurrence of restrictive strabismus after conjunctival surgeries is widely described in the literature. Fibrosis causes adherence of the conjunctiva to the Tenon's capsule, intermuscular membrane, adipose orbital tissue, sclera, and extraocular muscle tissue. Fibrosis causes adherence of the conjunctiva to the Tenon's capsule, intermuscular membrane, adipose orbital tissue, sclera, and extraocular muscle tissue. We report a case of the use of a biodegradable collagen-glycosaminoglycan copolymer matrix implant (Ologen®) as an alternative adjuvant, used as a spacer to mechanically separate the subconjunctival and episcleral tissues to prevent fibrosis in a patient undergoing a surgical correction for a strabismus with a restrictive component due to previous surgeries of pterygium excision...
October 2017: Taiwan Journal of Ophthalmology
Rosanna Dammacco
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a multisystem autoimmune disease of undefined etiology and with remarkably heterogeneous clinical features. Virtually any organ system can be affected, including the eye. SLE-related eye involvement can be diagnosed in approximately one-third of the patients and is usually indicative of disease activity. An early diagnosis and the adoption of suitable therapeutic measures are necessary to prevent sight-threatening consequences, especially in patients with juvenile SLE. Periocular lesions, such as eyelid involvement and orbital inflammation, are relatively rare and, in case of orbital masses, may require a biopsy control...
December 14, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Medicine
Ke Zhu, Meng-Lu Zhang, Shu-Ting Liu, Xue-Yan Li, Shu-Min Zhong, Fang Li, Ge-Zhi Xu, Zhongfeng Wang, Yanying Miao
Purpose: Ghrelin, a natural ligand for the growth hormone secretagogue receptor type 1a (GHSR-1a), may protect retinal neurons against glaucomatous injury. We therefore characterized the underlying mechanism of the ghrelin/GHSR-1a-mediated neuroprotection with a rat chronic intraocular hypertension (COH) model. Methods: The rat COH model was produced by blocking episcleral veins. A combination of immunohistochemistry, Western blot, TUNEL assay, and retrograde labeling of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) was used...
December 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
M A Özer, Z Erişgin, S Özen, Y Tekelioğlu, S Takır
We investigated the possible neuroprotectant and intraocular pressure (IOP) lowering effects of intravitreous injection of sodium hydrosulfide (NaSH) in a rodent model of experimental glaucoma. Glaucoma currently is treated by controlling IOP using medications and/or surgery. These methods are not entirely adequate for all patients. We divided 24 rats into three groups. For the control group, the right eye was treated with intravitreous saline. For the glaucoma group, ocular hypertension was induced by photocoagulating three episcleral veins and the limbal plexus of the right eye using an argon laser, then saline was injected into the vitreous of these eyes during the third week...
December 7, 2017: Biotechnic & Histochemistry: Official Publication of the Biological Stain Commission
Lingdan Dong, Xianglin Cheng, Long Zhou, Yanhong Hu
Erythropoietin-producing hepatocyte receptor B (EphB)/ephrinB reverse signaling has been revealed to be activated in chronic ocular hypertension (COH) by increasing the apoptosis of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). However, the exact mechanism is not well understood. The present study investigated the involvement of Ca2+ channels in the apoptosis of RGCs induced by EphB/ephrinB reverse signaling in a rat CHO model, which was established by cauterizing 3 out of the 4 episcleral veins. The expression levels of four voltage‑gated Ca2+ channel subunits (Cav3...
February 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
Lingdan Dong, Yanhong Hu, Long Zhou, Xianglin Cheng
Microglial activation and the release of pro‑inflammatory cytokines occur during early glaucoma. However, the exact mechanism underlying the initiation of the microglial activation process remains unclear. Thus, the present study investigated the potential role of a purine receptor subtype, the P2X purinoceptor 7 (P2X7) receptor, during microglial activation in the retinal tissues of a rat chronic ocular hypertension (COH) model. This was achieved by cauterizing 3 of the 4 episcleral veins. Microglial activation and caspase‑1 upregulation were observed in COH rat retinas by immunohistochemical and western blotting techniques...
February 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
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