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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350685/re-orchestration-of-blood-flow-by-micro-circulations
#1
P A R Meyer
Haemoglobin Video Imaging (HVI) demonstrates conjunctival and episcleral blood flow in man with the resolution of a single erythrocyte. A new method for establishing vessel hierarchy in micro-circulations is described, which recognises either delivery or drainage vessels and references vessel order to the capillary. These tools have been used to characterise blood flow.Anterior ciliary arteries show pulsatile variation in diameter. The episcleral arterial circle that they supply has functional apices with pulsatile flow reversal...
January 19, 2018: Eye
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333905/linear-nevus-sebaceous-syndrome-presenting-as-circumscribed-choroidal-hemangioma
#2
Jose J Echegaray, Rachel Chen, Claudine Bellerive, Arun D Singh
A 4-year-old female with a unilateral circumscribed choroidal hemangioma and secondary total exudative retinal detachment. A nasal skin scar-like lesion incised to confirm a histopathologic diagnosis of linear nevus sebaceous. Further imaging disclosed asymmetry of the lateral ventricle frontal horns, suggestive of the diagnosis of linear nevus sebaceous syndrome. The choroidal hemangioma was treated with I-125 episcleral brachytherapy (apical dose of 45 Gy). At 6 months post-radiation, the tumor showed regression with total resolution of exudative retinal detachment...
January 15, 2018: Ophthalmic Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305369/radius-maumenee-syndrome-a-rare-cause-of-glaucoma
#3
Sara Homem de Melo Marques, Cláudia Farinha, Amélia Martins, Pedro Faria
Case presentation of a 41-year-old woman with long-standing bilateral eye injection whose clinical findings included bilateral episcleral vessel engorgement and tortuosity, raised intraocular pressure with open iridocorneal angles and left optic disc cupping. All remaining objective examination was normal. She underwent cranial and orbits CT and CT-angiography scans which were unremarkable. Optical coherence tomography of the peripapillary nerve fibre layer and automated perimetry were compatible with advanced glaucomatous damage on the left eye...
January 5, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29296557/use-of-biodegradable-collagen-glycosaminoglycan-copolymer-matrix-implant-to-reduce-postoperative-fibrosis-in-strabismus-surgery
#4
Thiago Gonçalves Dos Santos Martins, Ana Luiza Fontes de Azevedo Costa, Antonio Carlos Centelhas, Diogo Gonçalves Dos Santos Martins
The occurrence of restrictive strabismus after conjunctival surgeries is widely described in the literature. Fibrosis causes adherence of the conjunctiva to the Tenon's capsule, intermuscular membrane, adipose orbital tissue, sclera, and extraocular muscle tissue. Fibrosis causes adherence of the conjunctiva to the Tenon's capsule, intermuscular membrane, adipose orbital tissue, sclera, and extraocular muscle tissue. We report a case of the use of a biodegradable collagen-glycosaminoglycan copolymer matrix implant (Ologen®) as an alternative adjuvant, used as a spacer to mechanically separate the subconjunctival and episcleral tissues to prevent fibrosis in a patient undergoing a surgical correction for a strabismus with a restrictive component due to previous surgeries of pterygium excision...
October 2017: Taiwan Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243035/systemic-lupus-erythematosus-and-ocular-involvement-an-overview
#5
REVIEW
Rosanna Dammacco
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a multisystem autoimmune disease of undefined etiology and with remarkably heterogeneous clinical features. Virtually any organ system can be affected, including the eye. SLE-related eye involvement can be diagnosed in approximately one-third of the patients and is usually indicative of disease activity. An early diagnosis and the adoption of suitable therapeutic measures are necessary to prevent sight-threatening consequences, especially in patients with juvenile SLE. Periocular lesions, such as eyelid involvement and orbital inflammation, are relatively rare and, in case of orbital masses, may require a biopsy control...
December 14, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222553/ghrelin-attenuates-retinal-neuronal-autophagy-and-apoptosis-in-an-experimental-rat-glaucoma-model
#6
Ke Zhu, Meng-Lu Zhang, Shu-Ting Liu, Xue-Yan Li, Shu-Min Zhong, Fang Li, Ge-Zhi Xu, Zhongfeng Wang, Yanying Miao
Purpose: Ghrelin, a natural ligand for the growth hormone secretagogue receptor type 1a (GHSR-1a), may protect retinal neurons against glaucomatous injury. We therefore characterized the underlying mechanism of the ghrelin/GHSR-1a-mediated neuroprotection with a rat chronic intraocular hypertension (COH) model. Methods: The rat COH model was produced by blocking episcleral veins. A combination of immunohistochemistry, Western blot, TUNEL assay, and retrograde labeling of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) was used...
December 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215307/effects-of-intravitreous-sodium-hydrosulfide-on-intraocular-pressure-and-retinopathy-in-ocular-hypertensive-rats
#7
M A Özer, Z Erişgin, S Özen, Y Tekelioğlu, S Takır
We investigated the possible neuroprotectant and intraocular pressure (IOP) lowering effects of intravitreous injection of sodium hydrosulfide (NaSH) in a rodent model of experimental glaucoma. Glaucoma currently is treated by controlling IOP using medications and/or surgery. These methods are not entirely adequate for all patients. We divided 24 rats into three groups. For the control group, the right eye was treated with intravitreous saline. For the glaucoma group, ocular hypertension was induced by photocoagulating three episcleral veins and the limbal plexus of the right eye using an argon laser, then saline was injected into the vitreous of these eyes during the third week...
December 7, 2017: Biotechnic & Histochemistry: Official Publication of the Biological Stain Commission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207174/calcium-channels-are-involved-in-ephb-ephrinb-reverse-signaling%C3%A2-induced-apoptosis-in-a-rat-chronic-ocular-hypertension-model
#8
Lingdan Dong, Xianglin Cheng, Long Zhou, Yanhong Hu
Erythropoietin-producing hepatocyte receptor B (EphB)/ephrinB reverse signaling has been revealed to be activated in chronic ocular hypertension (COH) by increasing the apoptosis of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). However, the exact mechanism is not well understood. The present study investigated the involvement of Ca2+ channels in the apoptosis of RGCs induced by EphB/ephrinB reverse signaling in a rat CHO model, which was established by cauterizing 3 out of the 4 episcleral veins. The expression levels of four voltage‑gated Ca2+ channel subunits (Cav3...
November 27, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207073/p2x7-receptor-antagonist-protects-retinal-ganglion-cells-by-inhibiting-microglial-activation-in-a-rat-chronic-ocular-hypertension-model
#9
Lingdan Dong, Yanhong Hu, Long Zhou, Xianglin Cheng
Microglial activation and the release of pro‑inflammatory cytokines occur during early glaucoma. However, the exact mechanism underlying the initiation of the microglial activation process remains unclear. Thus, the present study investigated the potential role of a purine receptor subtype, the P2X purinoceptor 7 (P2X7) receptor, during microglial activation in the retinal tissues of a rat chronic ocular hypertension (COH) model. This was achieved by cauterizing 3 of the 4 episcleral veins. Microglial activation and caspase‑1 upregulation were observed in COH rat retinas by immunohistochemical and western blotting techniques...
November 22, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201477/a-case-of-advanced-glaucoma-with-increased-episcleral-venous-pressure-in-a-17-year-old-with-eisenmenger-syndrome
#10
Leanne Grech, Adrian Mifsud, Maryanne Caruana, Francis Carbonaro
Eisenmenger syndrome refers to reversal of shunt and central cyanosis due to pulmonary hypertension induced by congenital heart disease with a large systemic-to-pulmonary shunt. We report a case of a 17-year-old man with Eisenmenger syndrome who presented with gradual deterioration in visual acuity and was diagnosed with advanced secondary open angle glaucoma. There have been reports of patients suffering from thrombosis due to hyperviscosity associated with this syndrome; however, to our knowledge, the association of secondary open angle glaucoma with Eisenmenger syndrome has not yet been documented...
2017: Case Reports in Ophthalmological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190824/comparison-of-laser-and-circumlimbal-suture-induced-elevation-of-intraocular-pressure-in-albino-cd-1-mice
#11
Hsin-Hua Liu, Liwei Zhang, Meng Shi, Lu Chen, John G Flanagan
Animal models of ocular hypertension are important tools for glaucoma studies. Both acute transient models and chronic models of ocular hypertension may be useful to investigate specific aspects of neurodegeneration. In this study, we compare the intraocular pressure (IOP) and inner retinal changes induced by 1) laser photocoagulation of both episcleral veins and limbal vessels and 2) circumlimbal suture in CD-1 mice. The suture group is divided into 3 subgroups depending on the level of the immediate IOP spike (acute > 55 mmHg or chronic < 55 mmHg) and time period of monitoring (7 or 28 days)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190023/assessment-of-aqueous-humor-dynamics-in-the-rodent-by-constant-flow-infusion
#12
J Cameron Millar, Tien N Phan, Iok-Hou Pang
Mice and rats are being increasingly used in glaucoma research and much useful data have been generated from them. One aspect of using these animals for this purpose involves assessment of aqueous humor dynamics. Several techniques have been described in the literature for the determination of one or more of these parameters in rodents, in both living animals and eyes perfused ex vivo. Here, we describe the practical details for a technique for the determination of all principal parameters of aqueous humor dynamics (intraocular pressure (IOP), aqueous humor formation rate (Fin), uveoscleral outflow rate (Fu), aqueous outflow facility (C), and episcleral venous pressure (Pe)) in the living rat and mouse eye, in a single experimental session...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190016/ocular-hypertension-glaucoma-in-minipigs-episcleral-veins-cauterization-and-microbead-occlusion-methods
#13
Elena Vecino, Haritz Urcola, Alejando Bayon, Sansar C Sharma
Two methods to induce elevation of the intraocular pressure (experimental glaucoma) are described in the present chapter. The first method is based on increasing the post-trabecular resistance to aqueous outflow by cauterizing the episcleral veins (EVC). This method allows the observation of ultrastructural changes in the trabecular meshwork (TM) without interfering with any structure within the eye such as TM, ciliary body, and/or the Retina. The second method is the multiple injection of microbeads into the anterior chamber, as a pre and intra-trabecular method that induce secondary effects on the TM cells...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165409/-mo-dified-scleral-buckling-for-additional-fixation-of-the-retina-with-endovitreal-magnetic-implant-experimental-study
#14
E G Kazimirova, V V Shiryaev, P V Lyskin, E Yu Kramarenko
Scleral buckling (SB) has been regaining its popularity in the treatment of retinal detachments. On large clinical material, it has been proved to be the technique of choice in phakic patients with retinal detachment of moderate severity. A combined procedure that incorporates features of episcleral as well as intravitreal surgeries has also become widely used. Aim - to investigate the prospects for increasing technical potential of SB, particularly, to investigate the possibility of additional atraumatic mechanical fixation of the retina from within the vitreous cavity...
2017: Vestnik Oftalmologii
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135941/the-small-heat-shock-protein-%C3%AE-crystallin-b-shows-neuroprotective-properties-in-a-glaucoma-animal-model
#15
Fabian Anders, Aiwei Liu, Carolina Mann, Julia Teister, Jasmin Lauzi, Solon Thanos, Franz H Grus, Norbert Pfeiffer, Verena Prokosch
Glaucoma is a neurodegenerative disease that leads to irreversible retinal ganglion cell (RGC) loss and is one of the main causes of blindness worldwide. The pathogenesis of glaucoma remains unclear, and novel approaches for neuroprotective treatments are urgently needed. Previous studies have revealed significant down-regulation of α-crystallin B as an initial reaction to elevated intraocular pressure (IOP), followed by a clear but delayed up-regulation, suggesting that this small heat-shock protein plays a pathophysiological role in the disease...
November 14, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114841/effect-of-cromakalim-prodrug-1-cklp1-on-aqueous-humor-dynamics-and-feasibility-of-combination-therapy-with-existing-ocular-hypotensive-agents
#16
Uttio Roy Chowdhury, Tommy A Rinkoski, Cindy K Bahler, J Cameron Millar, Jacques A Bertrand, Bradley H Holman, Joseph M Sherwood, Darryl R Overby, Kristen L Stoltz, Peter I Dosa, Michael P Fautsch
Purpose: Cromakalim prodrug 1 (CKLP1) is a water-soluble ATP-sensitive potassium channel opener that has shown ocular hypotensive properties in ex vivo and in vivo experimental models. To determine its mechanism of action, we assessed the effect of CKLP1 on aqueous humor dynamics and in combination therapy with existing ocular hypotensive agents. Methods: Outflow facility was assessed in C57BL/6 mice by ex vivo eye perfusions and by in vivo constant flow infusion following CKLP1 treatment...
November 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102674/protective-effects-of-biodegradable-collagen-implants-on-thinned-sclera-after-strabismus-surgery-a-paired-eye-study
#17
Tae Keun Yoo, Sueng-Han Han, Jinu Han
PURPOSE: To determine the efficacy of a biodegradable Ologen (Aeon Astron Europe BV, Leiden, The Netherlands) collagen matrix in reducing the blue color change due to exposed thinned sclera after strabismus surgery. METHODS: Fourteen patients with intermittent exotropia undergoing symmetric bilateral lateral rectus recession surgery were included in this prospective, randomized, paired-eye controlled study. In each patient, Ologen was implanted at the original rectus insertion site in one randomly selected eye; the other eye underwent conventional surgery...
November 1, 2017: Journal of AAPOS: the Official Publication of the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074388/functional-assessment-of-the-aqueous-humour-distal-outflow-pathways-in-bovine-eyes-using-time-of-flight-magnetic-resonance-tomography
#18
Thomas Wecker, Christian van Oterendorp, Wilfried Reichardt
The major part of the aqueous humor leaves the eye through the "conventional outflow pathway", consisting of the trabecular meshwork, Schlemm's canal, collector channels, an intrasceral plexus and the episcleral veins. While the trabecular meshwork is well characterized, little is known about anatomical and functional features of the peripheral outflow tract beyond Schlemm's canal. The emergence of minimally-invasive glaucoma surgery directly targeting the outflow resistance in the trabecular meshwork has elicited growing interest in these structures...
October 23, 2017: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29071267/uveal-melanoma-cell-seeding-after-transretinal-tumor-biopsy
#19
Konrad R Koch, Ahmed M Hishmi, Monika Ortmann, Ludwig M Heindl
BACKGROUND/AIMS: To report a case and the histopathology of uveal melanoma cell seeding following transretinal tumor biopsy for a suspected uveal lesion. METHODS: Interventional case report. RESULTS: A 66-year-old male presented with a pigmented perilimbal episcleral lesion overlying an intraocular mass at the pars plana, 3.5 years after transretinal biopsy and ruthenium plaque brachytherapy for a choroidal melanoma at the posterior pole. The patient underwent enucleation of the eye...
September 2017: Ocular Oncology and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066280/implantation-and-testing-of-a-novel-episcleral-pressure-transducer-a-new-approach-to-telemetric-intraocular-pressure-monitoring
#20
Siegfried Mariacher, Martina Ebner, José Hurst, Peter Szurman, Kai Januschowski
Measurement of intraocular pressure (IOP) is an essential tool in monitoring glaucoma. Single IOP assessments during clinical routine examinations represent punctual values and are not able to identify IOP fluctuations and spikes. Telemetric IOP measurements are able to monitor IOP during the day and night, and are location-independent. Six telemetric episcleral IOP sensors were investigated after minimally invasive subconjunctival implantation in 6 eyes of 6 New-Zealand-White rabbits. Three of the 4 edges of the implant were fixated intrasclerally with non-absorbable sutures...
October 21, 2017: Experimental Eye Research
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