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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660528/yield-of-colonoscopy-after-a-positive-result-from-a-fecal-immunochemical-test-oc-light
#1
Muhammad Alsayid, Maneesh H Singh, Rachel Issaka, Victoria Laleau, Lukejohn Day, Jeffrey Lee, James Allison, Ma Somsouk
BACKGROUND & AIMS: The fecal immunochemical test (FIT) is widely used in colorectal cancer (CRC) screening. The OC-Light FIT is 1 of 2 FITs recommended for CRC screening by the Preventive Services Task Force guidelines. However, little is known about its ability to detect CRC in large average-risk populations. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study of patients (50-75 years old) in the San Francisco Health Network who were screened for CRC by OC-Light FIT from August 2010 through June 2015...
April 13, 2018: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29505600/a20-upregulation-during-treated-hiv-disease-is-associated-with-intestinal-epithelial-cell-recovery-and-function
#2
Avantika S Chitre, Michael G Kattah, Yenny Y Rosli, Montha Pao, Monika Deswal, Steven G Deeks, Peter W Hunt, Mohamed Abdel-Mohsen, Luis J Montaner, Charles C Kim, Averil Ma, Ma Somsouk, Joseph M McCune
ClinicalTrials.gov Clinical Trial NCT00594880.
March 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470552/increased-hiv-1-transcriptional-activity-and-infectious-burden-in-peripheral-blood-and-gut-associated-cd4-t-cells-expressing-cd30
#3
Louise E Hogan, Joshua Vasquez, Kristen S Hobbs, Emily Hanhauser, Brandon Aguilar-Rodriguez, Rajaa Hussien, Cassandra Thanh, Erica A Gibson, Alexander B Carvidi, Louis C B Smith, Shahzada Khan, Martin Trapecar, Shomyseh Sanjabi, Ma Somsouk, Cheryl A Stoddart, Daniel R Kuritzkes, Steven G Deeks, Timothy J Henrich
HIV-1-infected cells persist indefinitely despite the use of combination antiretroviral therapy (ART), and novel therapeutic strategies to target and purge residual infected cells in individuals on ART are urgently needed. Here, we demonstrate that CD4+ T cell-associated HIV-1 RNA is often highly enriched in cells expressing CD30, and that cells expressing this marker considerably contribute to the total pool of transcriptionally active CD4+ lymphocytes in individuals on suppressive ART. Using in situ RNA hybridization studies, we show co-localization of CD30 with HIV-1 transcriptional activity in gut-associated lymphoid tissues...
February 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29380822/hospitalizations-for-autoimmune-hepatitis-disproportionately-affect-black-and-latino-americans
#4
Jason W Wen, Michael A Kohn, Robert Wong, Ma Somsouk, Mandana Khalili, Jacquelyn Maher, Michele M Tana
OBJECTIVES: The healthcare burden of autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) in the United States has not been characterized. We previously showed that AIH disproportionately affects people of color in a single hospital system. The current study aimed to determine whether the same disparity occurs nationwide. METHODS: We analyzed hospitalizations with a primary discharge diagnosis corresponding to the ICD-9 code for AIH in the National Inpatient Sample between 2008 and 2012...
February 2018: American Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352005/differential-expression-of-cd8-t-cell-cytotoxic-effector-molecules-in-blood-and-gastrointestinal-mucosa-in-hiv-1-infection
#5
Brenna E Kiniry, Peter W Hunt, Frederick M Hecht, Ma Somsouk, Steven G Deeks, Barbara L Shacklett
We previously reported that CD8+ T cells in human gastrointestinal mucosa exhibit reduced perforin expression and weak or impaired cytotoxic capacity compared with their counterparts in blood. Nevertheless, these cells degranulate and express cytokines and chemokines in response to cognate Ag. In addition to weak expression of perforin, earlier studies suggested differential regulation of perforin and granzymes (Gzms), with GzmA and B expressed by significantly higher percentages of mucosal CD8+ T cells than perforin...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330098/missed-opportunities-in-colorectal-cancer-prevention-in-patients-with-inadequate-bowel-preparations
#6
Rachel B Issaka, Maneesh H Singh, Carly Rachocki, Lukejohn W Day, Claire Horton, Ma Somsouk
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 9, 2018: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210625/evaluation-of-oral-serum-derived-bovine-immunoglobulins-in-hiv-infected-patients-with-chronic-idiopathic-diarrhea
#7
David M Asmuth, John E Hinkle, Anthony LaMarca, Carl J Fichtenbaum, Ma Somsouk, Netanya S Utay, Audrey L Shaw, Bryon W Petschow, Christopher J Detzel, Eric M Weaver
Objectives To evaluate serum-derived bovine immunoglobulin/protein isolate (SBI) for safety and impact on gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms in HIV patients with chronic idiopathic diarrhea. Methods A multi-center trial comprised of a double-blind, placebo (PBO)-controlled lead-in phase, (participants received PBO or SBI at 2.5 or 5.0 g BID for 4 weeks) followed by a 20-week, PBO-free phase (SBI at either 2.5 or 5.0 g BID). Participants included HIV-infected patients who were virologically suppressed with a history of chronic idiopathic diarrhea, defined as > 3 loose stools per day for ≥ 3 months without an identifiable cause...
November 2017: HIV Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208464/risk-factors-for-postpolypectomy-bleeding-in-patients-receiving-anticoagulation-or-antiplatelet-medications
#8
David Lin, Roy M Soetikno, Kenneth McQuaid, Chi Pham, Gilbert Doan, Shanshan Mou, Amandeep K Shergill, Ma Somsouk, Robert V Rouse, Tonya Kaltenbach
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Balancing the risks for thromboembolism and postpolypectomy bleeding in patients requiring anticoagulation and antiplatelet agents is challenging. We investigated the incidence and risk factors for postpolypectomy bleeding on anticoagulation, including heparin bridge and other antithrombotic therapy. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort and case control study at 2 tertiary-care medical centers from 2004 to 2012. Cases included male patients on antithrombotics with hematochezia after polypectomy...
December 6, 2017: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139476/detection-of-hiv-1-specific-gastrointestinal-tissue-resident-cd8-t-cells-in-chronic-infection
#9
Brenna E Kiniry, Shengbin Li, Anupama Ganesh, Peter W Hunt, Ma Somsouk, Pamela J Skinner, Steven G Deeks, Barbara L Shacklett
Tissue-resident memory (TRM ) CD8+ T-cells are non-recirculating, long-lived cells housed in tissues that can confer protection against mucosal pathogens. Human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) is a mucosal pathogen and the gastrointestinal tract is an important site of viral pathogenesis and transmission. Thus, CD8+ TRM cells may be an important effector subset for controlling HIV-1 in mucosal tissues. This study sought to determine the abundance, phenotype, and functionality of CD8+ TRM cells in the context of chronic HIV-1 infection...
November 15, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936485/a-randomized-controlled-trial-of-lisinopril-to-decrease-lymphoid-fibrosis-in-antiretroviral-treated-hiv-infected-individuals
#10
Leslie R Cockerham, Steven A Yukl, Kara Harvill, Ma Somsouk, Sunil K Joshi, Elizabeth Sinclair, Teri Liegler, Rebecca Hoh, Sophie Lyons, Peter W Hunt, Adam Rupert, Irini Sereti, David R Morcock, Ajantha Rhodes, Claire Emson, Marc K Hellerstein, Jacob D Estes, Sharon Lewin, Steven G Deeks, Hiroyu Hatano
BACKGROUND: In HIV infection, lymphoid tissue is disrupted by fibrosis. Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors have anti-fibrotic properties. We completed a pilot study to assess whether the addition of lisinopril to antiretroviral therapy (ART) reverses fibrosis of gut tissue, and whether this leads to reduction of HIV RNA and DNA levels. METHODS: Thirty HIV-infected individuals on ART were randomized to lisinopril at 20mg daily or matching placebo for 24 weeks...
2017: Pathogens & Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882052/an-optimized-and-validated-method-for-isolation-and-characterization-of-lymphocytes-from-hiv-human-gut-biopsies
#11
Martin Trapecar, Shahzada Khan, Nadia R Roan, Tsui-Hua Chen, Sushama Telwatte, Monika Deswal, Montha Pao, Ma Somsouk, Steven G Deeks, Peter W Hunt, Steven Yukl, Shomyseh Sanjabi
The gastrointestinal (GI) tract harbors most of the body's immune cells and is also a major HIV reservoir in ART-treated patients. To achieve a cure, most HIV-infected cells must be identified and eliminated. While obtaining gut biopsies is a relatively noninvasive method of sampling relevant tissue for monitoring HIV activity, immune cell isolation from these limited tissue samples has proven to be challenging. Enzymatic tissue digestion is required for maximal immune cell isolation from gut biopsies. However, these enzymatic digestions can also be detrimental for preservation of cellular surface markers that are required for accurate identification of various subsets of leukocytes...
November 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782046/circulating-loxl2-levels-reflect-severity-of-intestinal-fibrosis-and-galt-cd4-t-lymphocyte-depletion-in-treated-hiv-infection
#12
Sophie Seang, Anoma Somasunderam, Maitreyee Nigalye, Ma Somsouk, Timoty W Schacker, Joyce L Sanchez, Peter W Hunt, Netanya S Utay, Jordan E Lake
BACKGROUND: Incomplete immune reconstitution may occur despite successful antiretroviral therapy (ART). Gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) fibrosis may contribute via local CD4(+) T lymphocyte depletion, intestinal barrier disruption, microbial translocation, and immune activation. METHODS: In a cross-sectional analysis, we measured circulating fibrosis biomarker levels on cryopreserved plasma from adult HIV-infected (HIV+) SCOPE study participants on suppressive ART who also had fibrosis quantification on recto-sigmoid biopsies...
2017: Pathogens & Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541799/limited-engraftment-of-donor-microbiome-via-one-time-fecal-microbial-transplantation-in-treated-hiv-infected-individuals
#13
Ivan Vujkovic-Cvijin, Rachel L Rutishauser, Montha Pao, Peter W Hunt, Susan V Lynch, Joseph M McCune, Ma Somsouk
Many HIV-infected individuals on antiretroviral therapy (ART) exhibit persistent systemic inflammation, which predicts morbidity and mortality. ART-treated subjects concurrently exhibit marked compositional alterations in the gut bacterial microbiota and the degree of dysbiosis correlates with systemic inflammation. Whether interventions to modulate the microbiome can affect systemic inflammation is unknown. An open-label fecal microbial transplantation (FMT) was delivered by colonoscopy to asymptomatic HIV-infected ART-suppressed individuals without antibiotic pre-treatment...
September 3, 2017: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453847/human-immunodeficiency-virus-persistence-and-t-cell-activation-in-blood-rectal-and-lymph-node-tissue-in-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infected-individuals-receiving-suppressive-antiretroviral-therapy
#14
MULTICENTER STUDY
Gabriela Khoury, Rémi Fromentin, Ajantha Solomon, Wendy Hartogensis, Marisela Killian, Rebecca Hoh, Ma Somsouk, Peter W Hunt, Valerie Girling, Elizabeth Sinclair, Peter Bacchetti, Jenny L Anderson, Frederick M Hecht, Steven G Deeks, Paul U Cameron, Nicolas Chomont, Sharon R Lewin
Background: Immune activation and inflammation remain elevated in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) and may contribute to HIV persistence. Methods: Using flow cytometry expression of CD38, HLA-DR and PD-1 were measured in blood (n = 48), lymph node (LN; n = 9), and rectal tissue (n = 17) from virally suppressed individuals. Total and integrated HIV DNA, 2-LTR circles, and cell-associated unspliced HIV RNA were quantified...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241080/replication-of-cmv-in-the-gut-of-hiv-infected-individuals-and-epithelial-barrier-dysfunction
#15
Ekaterina Maidji, Ma Somsouk, Jose M Rivera, Peter W Hunt, Cheryl A Stoddart
Although invasive cytomegalovirus (CMV) disease is uncommon in the era of antiretroviral therapy (ART), asymptomatic CMV coinfection is nearly ubiquitous in HIV infected individuals. While microbial translocation and gut epithelial barrier dysfunction may promote persistent immune activation in treated HIV infection, potentially contributing to morbidity and mortality, it has been unclear whether CMV replication in individuals with no symptoms of CMV disease might play a role in this process. We hypothesized that persistent CMV replication in the intestinal epithelium of HIV/CMV-coinfected individuals impairs gut epithelial barrier function...
February 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207890/mucosal-stromal-fibroblasts-markedly-enhance-hiv-infection-of-cd4-t-cells
#16
Jason A Neidleman, Joseph C Chen, Nargis Kohgadai, Janis A Müller, Anders Laustsen, Karthiga Thavachelvam, Karen S Jang, Christina M Stürzel, Jennifer J Jones, Christina Ochsenbauer, Avantika Chitre, Ma Somsouk, Maurice M Garcia, James F Smith, Ruth M Greenblatt, Jan Münch, Martin R Jakobsen, Linda C Giudice, Warner C Greene, Nadia R Roan
Understanding early events of HIV transmission within mucosal tissues is vital for developing effective prevention strategies. Here, we report that primary stromal fibroblasts isolated from endometrium, cervix, foreskin, male urethra, and intestines significantly increase HIV infection of CD4+ T cells-by up to 37-fold for R5-tropic HIV and 100-fold for X4-tropic HIV-without themselves becoming infected. Fibroblasts were more efficient than dendritic cells at trans-infection and mediate this response in the absence of the DC-SIGN and Siglec-1 receptors...
February 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174123/urgent-colonoscopy-in-patients-with-lower-gi-bleeding-a%C3%A2-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#17
REVIEW
Abdul M Kouanda, Ma Somsouk, Justin L Sewell, Lukejohn W Day
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Lower GI bleeding (LGIB) is a common cause of morbidity and mortality. Colonoscopy is indicated in all hospitalized patients with LGIB, yet the time frame for performing colonoscopy remains unclear. Prior studies of outcomes in urgent versus elective colonoscopy have yielded conflicting results and were often underpowered. Our study objective was to compare several outcomes between urgent and elective colonoscopy in patients hospitalized for LGIB. METHODS: Systematic review and meta-analysis were performed on studies that compared urgent and elective colonoscopy in patients with LGIB...
July 2017: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28170046/hiv-persistence-and-t-cell-activation-in-blood-rectal-and-lymph-node-tissue-in-hiv-infected-individuals-receiving-suppressive-art
#18
Gabriela Khoury, Rémi Fromentin, Ajantha Solomon, Wendy Hartogensis, Marisela Killian, Rebecca Hoh, Ma Somsouk, Peter W Hunt, Valerie Girling, Elizabeth Sinclair, Peter Bacchetti, Jenny L Anderson, Frederick M Hecht, Steven G Deeks, Paul U Cameron, Nicolas Chomont, Sharon R Lewin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 7, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154400/inadequate-utilization-of-diagnostic-colonoscopy-following-abnormal-fit-results-in-an-integrated-safety-net-system
#19
Rachel B Issaka, Maneesh H Singh, Sachiko M Oshima, Victoria J Laleau, Carly D Rachocki, Ellen H Chen, Lukejohn W Day, Urmimala Sarkar, Ma Somsouk
OBJECTIVES: The effectiveness of stool-based colorectal cancer (CRC) screening is contingent on colonoscopy completion in patients with an abnormal fecal immunochemical test (FIT). Understanding system and patient factors affecting follow-up of abnormal screening tests is essential to optimize care for high-risk cohorts. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study was conducted in an integrated safety-net system comprised of 11 primary-care clinics and one Gastroenterology referral unit and included patients 50-75 years, with a positive FIT between April 2012 and February 2015...
February 2017: American Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26134610/adverse-events-in-older-patients-undergoing-ercp-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#20
Lukejohn W Day, Lisa Lin, Ma Somsouk
BACKGROUND AND STUDY AIMS: Biliary and pancreatic diseases are common in the elderly; however, few studies have addressed the occurrence of adverse events in elderly patients undergoing endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). Our objective was to determine the incidence rates of specific adverse events in this group and calculate incidence rate ratios (IRRs) for selected comparison groups. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Bibliographical searches were conducted in Medline, EMBASE, and Cochrane library databases...
March 2014: Endoscopy International Open
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