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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541799/limited-engraftment-of-donor-microbiome-via-one-time-fecal-microbial-transplantation-in-treated-hiv-infected-individuals
#1
Ivan Vujkovic-Cvijin, Rachel L Rutishauser, Montha Pao, Peter W Hunt, Susan V Lynch, Joseph M McCune, Ma Somsouk
BACKGROUND: Many HIV-infected individuals on antiretroviral therapy (ART) exhibit persistent systemic inflammation, which predicts morbidity and mortality. ART-treated subjects concurrently exhibit marked compositional alterations in the gut bacterial microbiota and the degree of dysbiosis correlates with systemic inflammation. Whether interventions to modulate the microbiome can affect systemic inflammation is unknown. METHODS: An open-label fecal microbial transplantation (FMT) was delivered by colonoscopy to asymptomatic HIV-infected ART-suppressed individuals without antibiotic pre-treatment...
May 25, 2017: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453847/human-immunodeficiency-virus-persistence-and-t-cell-activation-in-blood-rectal-and-lymph-node-tissue-in-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infected-individuals-receiving-suppressive-antiretroviral-therapy
#2
MULTICENTER STUDY
Gabriela Khoury, Rémi Fromentin, Ajantha Solomon, Wendy Hartogensis, Marisela Killian, Rebecca Hoh, Ma Somsouk, Peter W Hunt, Valerie Girling, Elizabeth Sinclair, Peter Bacchetti, Jenny L Anderson, Frederick M Hecht, Steven G Deeks, Paul U Cameron, Nicolas Chomont, Sharon R Lewin
Background.: Immune activation and inflammation remain elevated in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) and may contribute to HIV persistence. Methods.: Using flow cytometry expression of CD38, HLA-DR and PD-1 were measured in blood (n = 48), lymph node (LN; n = 9), and rectal tissue (n = 17) from virally suppressed individuals. Total and integrated HIV DNA, 2-LTR circles, and cell-associated unspliced HIV RNA were quantified...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241080/replication-of-cmv-in-the-gut-of-hiv-infected-individuals-and-epithelial-barrier-dysfunction
#3
Ekaterina Maidji, Ma Somsouk, Jose M Rivera, Peter W Hunt, Cheryl A Stoddart
Although invasive cytomegalovirus (CMV) disease is uncommon in the era of antiretroviral therapy (ART), asymptomatic CMV coinfection is nearly ubiquitous in HIV infected individuals. While microbial translocation and gut epithelial barrier dysfunction may promote persistent immune activation in treated HIV infection, potentially contributing to morbidity and mortality, it has been unclear whether CMV replication in individuals with no symptoms of CMV disease might play a role in this process. We hypothesized that persistent CMV replication in the intestinal epithelium of HIV/CMV-coinfected individuals impairs gut epithelial barrier function...
February 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207890/mucosal-stromal-fibroblasts-markedly-enhance-hiv-infection-of-cd4-t-cells
#4
Jason A Neidleman, Joseph C Chen, Nargis Kohgadai, Janis A Müller, Anders Laustsen, Karthiga Thavachelvam, Karen S Jang, Christina M Stürzel, Jennifer J Jones, Christina Ochsenbauer, Avantika Chitre, Ma Somsouk, Maurice M Garcia, James F Smith, Ruth M Greenblatt, Jan Münch, Martin R Jakobsen, Linda C Giudice, Warner C Greene, Nadia R Roan
Understanding early events of HIV transmission within mucosal tissues is vital for developing effective prevention strategies. Here, we report that primary stromal fibroblasts isolated from endometrium, cervix, foreskin, male urethra, and intestines significantly increase HIV infection of CD4+ T cells-by up to 37-fold for R5-tropic HIV and 100-fold for X4-tropic HIV-without themselves becoming infected. Fibroblasts were more efficient than dendritic cells at trans-infection and mediate this response in the absence of the DC-SIGN and Siglec-1 receptors...
February 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174123/urgent-colonoscopy-in-patients-with-lower-gi-bleeding-a%C3%A2-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#5
REVIEW
Abdul M Kouanda, Ma Somsouk, Justin L Sewell, Lukejohn W Day
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Lower GI bleeding (LGIB) is a common cause of morbidity and mortality. Colonoscopy is indicated in all hospitalized patients with LGIB, yet the time frame for performing colonoscopy remains unclear. Prior studies of outcomes in urgent versus elective colonoscopy have yielded conflicting results and were often underpowered. Our study objective was to compare several outcomes between urgent and elective colonoscopy in patients hospitalized for LGIB. METHODS: Systematic review and meta-analysis were performed on studies that compared urgent and elective colonoscopy in patients with LGIB...
February 4, 2017: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28170046/hiv-persistence-and-t-cell-activation-in-blood-rectal-and-lymph-node-tissue-in-hiv-infected-individuals-receiving-suppressive-art
#6
Gabriela Khoury, Rémi Fromentin, Ajantha Solomon, Wendy Hartogensis, Marisela Killian, Rebecca Hoh, Ma Somsouk, Peter W Hunt, Valerie Girling, Elizabeth Sinclair, Peter Bacchetti, Jenny L Anderson, Frederick M Hecht, Steven G Deeks, Paul U Cameron, Nicolas Chomont, Sharon R Lewin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 7, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154400/inadequate-utilization-of-diagnostic-colonoscopy-following-abnormal-fit-results-in-an-integrated-safety-net-system
#7
Rachel B Issaka, Maneesh H Singh, Sachiko M Oshima, Victoria J Laleau, Carly D Rachocki, Ellen H Chen, Lukejohn W Day, Urmimala Sarkar, Ma Somsouk
OBJECTIVES: The effectiveness of stool-based colorectal cancer (CRC) screening is contingent on colonoscopy completion in patients with an abnormal fecal immunochemical test (FIT). Understanding system and patient factors affecting follow-up of abnormal screening tests is essential to optimize care for high-risk cohorts. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study was conducted in an integrated safety-net system comprised of 11 primary-care clinics and one Gastroenterology referral unit and included patients 50-75 years, with a positive FIT between April 2012 and February 2015...
February 2017: American Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26134610/adverse-events-in-older-patients-undergoing-ercp-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#8
Lukejohn W Day, Lisa Lin, Ma Somsouk
BACKGROUND AND STUDY AIMS: Biliary and pancreatic diseases are common in the elderly; however, few studies have addressed the occurrence of adverse events in elderly patients undergoing endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). Our objective was to determine the incidence rates of specific adverse events in this group and calculate incidence rate ratios (IRRs) for selected comparison groups. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Bibliographical searches were conducted in Medline, EMBASE, and Cochrane library databases...
March 2014: Endoscopy International Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25936449/protective-association-of-colonoscopy-against-proximal-and-distal-colon-cancer-and-patterns-in-interval-cancer
#9
Amandeep K Shergill, Erin E Conners, Kenneth R McQuaid, Sara Epstein, James C Ryan, Janak N Shah, John Inadomi, Ma Somsouk
BACKGROUND: The protective effect of colonoscopy against proximal colorectal cancer is variable and depends on the detection and complete removal of precancerous polyps. OBJECTIVE: To estimate the efficacy of colonoscopy in a medical center with open-access screening colonoscopy since 1998. DESIGN: Nested case-control study with incidence density sampling. SETTING: University-affiliated Veterans Affairs Medical Center...
September 2015: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25712966/longitudinal-genetic-characterization-reveals-that-cell-proliferation-maintains-a-persistent-hiv-type-1-dna-pool-during-effective-hiv-therapy
#10
Susanne von Stockenstrom, Lina Odevall, Eunok Lee, Elizabeth Sinclair, Peter Bacchetti, Maudi Killian, Lorrie Epling, Wei Shao, Rebecca Hoh, Terence Ho, Nuno R Faria, Philippe Lemey, Jan Albert, Peter Hunt, Lisa Loeb, Christopher Pilcher, Lauren Poole, Hiroyu Hatano, Ma Somsouk, Daniel Douek, Eli Boritz, Steven G Deeks, Frederick M Hecht, Sarah Palmer
BACKGROUND: The stability of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) reservoir and the contribution of cellular proliferation to the maintenance of the reservoir during treatment are uncertain. Therefore, we conducted a longitudinal analysis of HIV-1 in T-cell subsets in different tissue compartments from subjects receiving effective antiretroviral therapy (ART). METHODS: Using single-proviral sequencing, we isolated intracellular HIV-1 genomes derived from defined subsets of CD4(+) T cells from peripheral blood, gut-associated lymphoid tissue and lymph node tissue specimens from 8 subjects with virologic suppression during long-term ART at 2 time points (time points 1 and 2) separated by 7-9 months...
August 15, 2015: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25545673/the-immunologic-effects-of-mesalamine-in-treated-hiv-infected-individuals-with-incomplete-cd4-t-cell-recovery-a-randomized-crossover-trial
#11
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Ma Somsouk, Richard M Dunham, Michelle Cohen, Rebecca Albright, Mohamed Abdel-Mohsen, Teri Liegler, Jeffrey Lifson, Michael Piatak, Robert Gorelick, Yong Huang, Yuaner Wu, Priscilla Y Hsue, Jeffrey N Martin, Steven G Deeks, Joseph M McCune, Peter W Hunt
UNLABELLED: The anti-inflammatory agent, mesalamine (5-aminosalicylic acid) has been shown to decrease mucosal inflammation in ulcerative colitis. The effect of mesalamine in HIV-infected individuals, who exhibit abnormal mucosal immune activation and microbial translocation (MT), has not been established in a placebo-controlled trial. We randomized 33 HIV-infected subjects with CD4 counts <350 cells/mm3 and plasma HIV RNA levels <40 copies/ml on antiretroviral therapy (ART) to add mesalamine vs...
2014: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25387317/gut-epithelial-barrier-and-systemic-inflammation-during-chronic-hiv-infection
#12
Ma Somsouk, Jacob D Estes, Claire Deleage, Richard M Dunham, Rebecca Albright, John M Inadomi, Jeffrey N Martin, Steven G Deeks, Joseph M McCune, Peter W Hunt
OBJECTIVE: Microbial translocation and innate immune action characterize HIV infection. Continued gut mucosal dysfunction during treatment and its relationship to CD4 T-cell recovery has not been well described. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study was performed of antiretroviral therapy (ART)-suppressed (immunologic responders with CD4 > 500 cells/μl and immunologic nonresponders with CD4 < 350 cells/μl), untreated HIV-infected, and seronegative participants consenting to gut biopsies and a blood draw...
January 2, 2015: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25344521/lymphoid-fibrosis-occurs-in-long-term-nonprogressors-and-persists-with-antiretroviral-therapy-but-may-be-reversible-with-curative-interventions
#13
Joyce L Sanchez, Peter W Hunt, Cavan S Reilly, Hiroyu Hatano, Gregory J Beilman, Alexander Khoruts, Jake S Jasurda, Ma Somsouk, Ann Thorkelson, Samuel Russ, Jodi Anderson, Steven G Deeks, Timothy W Schacker
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) replication causes lymphoid tissue (LT) fibrosis, which causes CD4(+) T-cell depletion. It is unknown whether people who spontaneously control HIV replication have LT fibrosis. We measured LT fibrosis and CD4(+) T cells in 25 HIV controllers, 10 noncontrollers, 45 HIV-positive individuals receiving therapy, and 10 HIV-negative individuals. Controllers had significant LT fibrosis and CD4(+) T-cell depletion, similar to noncontrollers, but the so-called Berlin patient (in whom HIV infection was cured) had near normal LT...
April 1, 2015: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25253339/the-cd8%C3%A2-%C2%BA-memory-stem-t-cell-t-scm-subset-is-associated-with-improved-prognosis-in-chronic-hiv-1-infection
#14
Susan P Ribeiro, Jeffrey M Milush, Edecio Cunha-Neto, Esper G Kallas, Jorge Kalil, Ma Somsouk, Peter W Hunt, Steven G Deeks, Douglas F Nixon, Devi SenGupta
UNLABELLED: Memory stem T cells (T(SCM)) constitute a long-lived, self-renewing lymphocyte population essential for the maintenance of functional immunity. The hallmarks of HIV-1 pathogenesis are CD4(+) T cell depletion and abnormal cellular activation. We investigated the impact of HIV-1 infection on the T(SCM) compartment, as well as any protective role these cells may have in disease progression, by characterizing this subset in a cohort of 113 subjects with various degrees of viral control on and off highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART)...
December 2014: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24831517/hiv-infected-individuals-with-low-cd4-cd8-ratio-despite-effective-antiretroviral-therapy-exhibit-altered-t-cell-subsets-heightened-cd8-t-cell-activation-and-increased-risk-of-non-aids-morbidity-and-mortality
#15
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Sergio Serrano-Villar, Talia Sainz, Sulggi A Lee, Peter W Hunt, Elizabeth Sinclair, Barbara L Shacklett, April L Ferre, Timothy L Hayes, Ma Somsouk, Priscilla Y Hsue, Mark L Van Natta, Curtis L Meinert, Michael M Lederman, Hiroyu Hatano, Vivek Jain, Yong Huang, Frederick M Hecht, Jeffrey N Martin, Joseph M McCune, Santiago Moreno, Steven G Deeks
A low CD4/CD8 ratio in elderly HIV-uninfected adults is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. A subset of HIV-infected adults receiving effective antiretroviral therapy (ART) fails to normalize this ratio, even after they achieve normal CD4+ T cell counts. The immunologic and clinical characteristics of this clinical phenotype remain undefined. Using data from four distinct clinical cohorts and three clinical trials, we show that a low CD4/CD8 ratio in HIV-infected adults during otherwise effective ART (after CD4 count recovery above 500 cells/mm3) is associated with a number of immunological abnormalities, including a skewed T cell phenotype from naïve toward terminally differentiated CD8+ T cells, higher levels of CD8+ T cell activation (HLADR+CD38+) and senescence (CD28- and CD57+CD28-), and higher kynurenine/tryptophan ratio...
May 2014: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24681602/challenges-and-possible-solutions-to-colorectal-cancer-screening-for-the-underserved
#16
REVIEW
Samir Gupta, Daniel A Sussman, Chyke A Doubeni, Daniel S Anderson, Lukejohn Day, Amar R Deshpande, B Joseph Elmunzer, Adeyinka O Laiyemo, Jeanette Mendez, Ma Somsouk, James Allison, Taft Bhuket, Zhuo Geng, Beverly B Green, Steven H Itzkowitz, Maria Elena Martinez
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a leading cause of cancer mortality worldwide. CRC incidence and mortality can be reduced through screening. However, in the United States, screening participation remains suboptimal, particularly among underserved populations such as the uninsured, recent immigrants, and racial/ethnic minority groups. Increasing screening rates among underserved populations will reduce the US burden of CRC. In this commentary focusing on underserved populations, we highlight the public health impact of CRC screening, list key challenges to screening the underserved, and review promising approaches to boost screening rates...
April 2014: Journal of the National Cancer Institute
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24627086/non-physician-performance-of-lower-and-upper-endoscopy-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#17
REVIEW
Lukejohn W Day, Derrick Siao, John M Inadomi, Ma Somsouk
BACKGROUND AND STUDY AIMS: Demand for endoscopic procedures worldwide has increased while the number of physicians trained to perform endoscopy has remained relatively constant. The objective of this study was to characterize non-physician performance of lower and upper endoscopic procedures. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Bibliographical searches were conducted in Medline, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library databases. Studies were included where patients underwent flexible sigmoidoscopy, colonoscopy, or upper endoscopy done by a non-physician (nurse, nurse practitioner, physician assistant) and outcome measures were reported (detection of polyps, adenomas, cancer, and/or adverse events)...
May 2014: Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24366107/esophageal-varices-on-computed-tomography-and-subsequent-variceal-hemorrhage
#18
Ma Somsouk, Katherine To'o, Mujtaba Ali, Eric Vittinghoff, Benjamin M Yeh, Judy Yee, Alex Monto, John M Inadomi, Rizwan Aslam
PURPOSE: Endoscopy is recommended to screen for esophageal varices in patients with cirrhosis. The objective of this study was to identify features on abdominal CT imaging associated variceal hemorrhage (VH). METHODS: A case-control study was performed among patients with cirrhosis who had a CT scan. Consecutive patients who experienced VH were included as cases, and patients without VH served as controls. Two radiologists recorded the maximal esophageal varix diameter in addition to other measures of portal hypertension at CT...
April 2014: Abdominal Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24322272/a-comparison-of-methods-for-measuring-rectal-hiv-levels-suggests-that-hiv-dna-resides-in-cells-other-than-cd4-t-cells-including-myeloid-cells
#19
Steven A Yukl, Elizabeth Sinclair, Ma Somsouk, Peter W Hunt, Lorrie Epling, Maudi Killian, Valerie Girling, Peilin Li, Diane V Havlir, Steven G Deeks, Joseph K Wong, Hiroyu Hatano
We compared different techniques for measuring gut HIV reservoirs and assessed for HIV in non-CD4 T cells. HIV DNA levels were similar when measured from rectal biopsies and isolated rectal cells, while HIV RNA tended to be higher in rectal cells. HIV DNA levels in total rectal cells were greater than those predicted from levels in sorted CD4 T cells, suggesting a reservoir in non-CD4 T cells, and HIV DNA was detected in sorted myeloid cells (7/7 subjects).
January 28, 2014: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24277811/the-hiv-1-reservoir-in-eight-patients-on-long-term-suppressive-antiretroviral-therapy-is-stable-with-few-genetic-changes-over-time
#20
MULTICENTER STUDY
Lina Josefsson, Susanne von Stockenstrom, Nuno R Faria, Elizabeth Sinclair, Peter Bacchetti, Maudi Killian, Lorrie Epling, Alice Tan, Terence Ho, Philippe Lemey, Wei Shao, Peter W Hunt, Ma Somsouk, Will Wylie, Daniel C Douek, Lisa Loeb, Jeff Custer, Rebecca Hoh, Lauren Poole, Steven G Deeks, Frederick Hecht, Sarah Palmer
The source and dynamics of persistent HIV-1 during long-term combinational antiretroviral therapy (cART) are critical to understanding the barriers to curing HIV-1 infection. To address this issue, we isolated and genetically characterized HIV-1 DNA from naïve and memory T cells from peripheral blood and gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) from eight patients after 4-12 y of suppressive cART. Our detailed analysis of these eight patients indicates that persistent HIV-1 in peripheral blood and GALT is found primarily in memory CD4(+) T cells [CD45RO(+)/CD27((+/-))]...
December 17, 2013: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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