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Ma somsouk

Lukejohn W Day, Lisa Lin, Ma Somsouk
BACKGROUND AND STUDY AIMS: Biliary and pancreatic diseases are common in the elderly; however, few studies have addressed the occurrence of adverse events in elderly patients undergoing endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). Our objective was to determine the incidence rates of specific adverse events in this group and calculate incidence rate ratios (IRRs) for selected comparison groups. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Bibliographical searches were conducted in Medline, EMBASE, and Cochrane library databases...
March 2014: Endoscopy International Open
Amandeep K Shergill, Erin E Conners, Kenneth R McQuaid, Sara Epstein, James C Ryan, Janak N Shah, John Inadomi, Ma Somsouk
BACKGROUND: The protective effect of colonoscopy against proximal colorectal cancer is variable and depends on the detection and complete removal of precancerous polyps. OBJECTIVE: To estimate the efficacy of colonoscopy in a medical center with open-access screening colonoscopy since 1998. DESIGN: Nested case-control study with incidence density sampling. SETTING: University-affiliated Veterans Affairs Medical Center...
September 2015: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy
Susanne von Stockenstrom, Lina Odevall, Eunok Lee, Elizabeth Sinclair, Peter Bacchetti, Maudi Killian, Lorrie Epling, Wei Shao, Rebecca Hoh, Terence Ho, Nuno R Faria, Philippe Lemey, Jan Albert, Peter Hunt, Lisa Loeb, Christopher Pilcher, Lauren Poole, Hiroyu Hatano, Ma Somsouk, Daniel Douek, Eli Boritz, Steven G Deeks, Frederick M Hecht, Sarah Palmer
BACKGROUND: The stability of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) reservoir and the contribution of cellular proliferation to the maintenance of the reservoir during treatment are uncertain. Therefore, we conducted a longitudinal analysis of HIV-1 in T-cell subsets in different tissue compartments from subjects receiving effective antiretroviral therapy (ART). METHODS: Using single-proviral sequencing, we isolated intracellular HIV-1 genomes derived from defined subsets of CD4(+) T cells from peripheral blood, gut-associated lymphoid tissue and lymph node tissue specimens from 8 subjects with virologic suppression during long-term ART at 2 time points (time points 1 and 2) separated by 7-9 months...
August 15, 2015: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Ma Somsouk, Richard M Dunham, Michelle Cohen, Rebecca Albright, Mohamed Abdel-Mohsen, Teri Liegler, Jeffrey Lifson, Michael Piatak, Robert Gorelick, Yong Huang, Yuaner Wu, Priscilla Y Hsue, Jeffrey N Martin, Steven G Deeks, Joseph M McCune, Peter W Hunt
UNLABELLED: The anti-inflammatory agent, mesalamine (5-aminosalicylic acid) has been shown to decrease mucosal inflammation in ulcerative colitis. The effect of mesalamine in HIV-infected individuals, who exhibit abnormal mucosal immune activation and microbial translocation (MT), has not been established in a placebo-controlled trial. We randomized 33 HIV-infected subjects with CD4 counts <350 cells/mm3 and plasma HIV RNA levels <40 copies/ml on antiretroviral therapy (ART) to add mesalamine vs...
2014: PloS One
Ma Somsouk, Jacob D Estes, Claire Deleage, Richard M Dunham, Rebecca Albright, John M Inadomi, Jeffrey N Martin, Steven G Deeks, Joseph M McCune, Peter W Hunt
OBJECTIVE: Microbial translocation and innate immune action characterize HIV infection. Continued gut mucosal dysfunction during treatment and its relationship to CD4 T-cell recovery has not been well described. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study was performed of antiretroviral therapy (ART)-suppressed (immunologic responders with CD4 > 500 cells/μl and immunologic nonresponders with CD4 < 350 cells/μl), untreated HIV-infected, and seronegative participants consenting to gut biopsies and a blood draw...
January 2, 2015: AIDS
Joyce L Sanchez, Peter W Hunt, Cavan S Reilly, Hiroyu Hatano, Gregory J Beilman, Alexander Khoruts, Jake S Jasurda, Ma Somsouk, Ann Thorkelson, Samuel Russ, Jodi Anderson, Steven G Deeks, Timothy W Schacker
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) replication causes lymphoid tissue (LT) fibrosis, which causes CD4(+) T-cell depletion. It is unknown whether people who spontaneously control HIV replication have LT fibrosis. We measured LT fibrosis and CD4(+) T cells in 25 HIV controllers, 10 noncontrollers, 45 HIV-positive individuals receiving therapy, and 10 HIV-negative individuals. Controllers had significant LT fibrosis and CD4(+) T-cell depletion, similar to noncontrollers, but the so-called Berlin patient (in whom HIV infection was cured) had near normal LT...
April 1, 2015: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Susan P Ribeiro, Jeffrey M Milush, Edecio Cunha-Neto, Esper G Kallas, Jorge Kalil, Ma Somsouk, Peter W Hunt, Steven G Deeks, Douglas F Nixon, Devi SenGupta
UNLABELLED: Memory stem T cells (T(SCM)) constitute a long-lived, self-renewing lymphocyte population essential for the maintenance of functional immunity. The hallmarks of HIV-1 pathogenesis are CD4(+) T cell depletion and abnormal cellular activation. We investigated the impact of HIV-1 infection on the T(SCM) compartment, as well as any protective role these cells may have in disease progression, by characterizing this subset in a cohort of 113 subjects with various degrees of viral control on and off highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART)...
December 2014: Journal of Virology
Sergio Serrano-Villar, Talia Sainz, Sulggi A Lee, Peter W Hunt, Elizabeth Sinclair, Barbara L Shacklett, April L Ferre, Timothy L Hayes, Ma Somsouk, Priscilla Y Hsue, Mark L Van Natta, Curtis L Meinert, Michael M Lederman, Hiroyu Hatano, Vivek Jain, Yong Huang, Frederick M Hecht, Jeffrey N Martin, Joseph M McCune, Santiago Moreno, Steven G Deeks
A low CD4/CD8 ratio in elderly HIV-uninfected adults is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. A subset of HIV-infected adults receiving effective antiretroviral therapy (ART) fails to normalize this ratio, even after they achieve normal CD4+ T cell counts. The immunologic and clinical characteristics of this clinical phenotype remain undefined. Using data from four distinct clinical cohorts and three clinical trials, we show that a low CD4/CD8 ratio in HIV-infected adults during otherwise effective ART (after CD4 count recovery above 500 cells/mm3) is associated with a number of immunological abnormalities, including a skewed T cell phenotype from naïve toward terminally differentiated CD8+ T cells, higher levels of CD8+ T cell activation (HLADR+CD38+) and senescence (CD28- and CD57+CD28-), and higher kynurenine/tryptophan ratio...
May 2014: PLoS Pathogens
Samir Gupta, Daniel A Sussman, Chyke A Doubeni, Daniel S Anderson, Lukejohn Day, Amar R Deshpande, B Joseph Elmunzer, Adeyinka O Laiyemo, Jeanette Mendez, Ma Somsouk, James Allison, Taft Bhuket, Zhuo Geng, Beverly B Green, Steven H Itzkowitz, Maria Elena Martinez
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a leading cause of cancer mortality worldwide. CRC incidence and mortality can be reduced through screening. However, in the United States, screening participation remains suboptimal, particularly among underserved populations such as the uninsured, recent immigrants, and racial/ethnic minority groups. Increasing screening rates among underserved populations will reduce the US burden of CRC. In this commentary focusing on underserved populations, we highlight the public health impact of CRC screening, list key challenges to screening the underserved, and review promising approaches to boost screening rates...
April 2014: Journal of the National Cancer Institute
Lukejohn W Day, Derrick Siao, John M Inadomi, Ma Somsouk
BACKGROUND AND STUDY AIMS: Demand for endoscopic procedures worldwide has increased while the number of physicians trained to perform endoscopy has remained relatively constant. The objective of this study was to characterize non-physician performance of lower and upper endoscopic procedures. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Bibliographical searches were conducted in Medline, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library databases. Studies were included where patients underwent flexible sigmoidoscopy, colonoscopy, or upper endoscopy done by a non-physician (nurse, nurse practitioner, physician assistant) and outcome measures were reported (detection of polyps, adenomas, cancer, and/or adverse events)...
May 2014: Endoscopy
Ma Somsouk, Katherine To'o, Mujtaba Ali, Eric Vittinghoff, Benjamin M Yeh, Judy Yee, Alex Monto, John M Inadomi, Rizwan Aslam
PURPOSE: Endoscopy is recommended to screen for esophageal varices in patients with cirrhosis. The objective of this study was to identify features on abdominal CT imaging associated variceal hemorrhage (VH). METHODS: A case-control study was performed among patients with cirrhosis who had a CT scan. Consecutive patients who experienced VH were included as cases, and patients without VH served as controls. Two radiologists recorded the maximal esophageal varix diameter in addition to other measures of portal hypertension at CT...
April 2014: Abdominal Imaging
Steven A Yukl, Elizabeth Sinclair, Ma Somsouk, Peter W Hunt, Lorrie Epling, Maudi Killian, Valerie Girling, Peilin Li, Diane V Havlir, Steven G Deeks, Joseph K Wong, Hiroyu Hatano
We compared different techniques for measuring gut HIV reservoirs and assessed for HIV in non-CD4 T cells. HIV DNA levels were similar when measured from rectal biopsies and isolated rectal cells, while HIV RNA tended to be higher in rectal cells. HIV DNA levels in total rectal cells were greater than those predicted from levels in sorted CD4 T cells, suggesting a reservoir in non-CD4 T cells, and HIV DNA was detected in sorted myeloid cells (7/7 subjects).
January 28, 2014: AIDS
Lina Josefsson, Susanne von Stockenstrom, Nuno R Faria, Elizabeth Sinclair, Peter Bacchetti, Maudi Killian, Lorrie Epling, Alice Tan, Terence Ho, Philippe Lemey, Wei Shao, Peter W Hunt, Ma Somsouk, Will Wylie, Daniel C Douek, Lisa Loeb, Jeff Custer, Rebecca Hoh, Lauren Poole, Steven G Deeks, Frederick Hecht, Sarah Palmer
The source and dynamics of persistent HIV-1 during long-term combinational antiretroviral therapy (cART) are critical to understanding the barriers to curing HIV-1 infection. To address this issue, we isolated and genetically characterized HIV-1 DNA from naïve and memory T cells from peripheral blood and gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) from eight patients after 4-12 y of suppressive cART. Our detailed analysis of these eight patients indicates that persistent HIV-1 in peripheral blood and GALT is found primarily in memory CD4(+) T cells [CD45RO(+)/CD27((+/-))]...
December 17, 2013: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Hiroyu Hatano, Ma Somsouk, Elizabeth Sinclair, Kara Harvill, Lee Gilman, Michelle Cohen, Rebecca Hoh, Peter W Hunt, Jeffrey N Martin, Joseph K Wong, Steven G Deeks, Steven A Yukl
OBJECTIVES: HIV-infected controllers have provided novel insights into mechanisms of viral control. We investigated the degree to which HIV DNA and RNA are present in gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) of controllers. DESIGN: Cross-sectional cohort study. METHODS: Colorectal biopsy pieces were obtained from five untreated noncontrollers, five ART-suppressed patients, and nine untreated controllers. RESULTS: Rectal HIV DNA was lower in controllers (median 496 copies/10(6) CD4 T cells) than in untreated noncontrollers (117483 copies/10(6) CD4+ T cells, P = 0...
September 10, 2013: AIDS
Hiroyu Hatano, Steven A Yukl, April L Ferre, Erin H Graf, Ma Somsouk, Elizabeth Sinclair, Mohamed Abdel-Mohsen, Teri Liegler, Kara Harvill, Rebecca Hoh, Sarah Palmer, Peter Bacchetti, Peter W Hunt, Jeffrey N Martin, Joseph M McCune, Russell P Tracy, Michael P Busch, Una O'Doherty, Barbara L Shacklett, Joseph K Wong, Steven G Deeks
The study of HIV-infected "controllers" who are able to maintain low levels of plasma HIV RNA in the absence of antiretroviral therapy (ART) may provide insights for HIV cure and vaccine strategies. Despite maintaining very low levels of plasma viremia, controllers have elevated immune activation and accelerated atherosclerosis. However, the degree to which low-level replication contributes to these phenomena is not known. Sixteen asymptomatic controllers were prospectively treated with ART for 24 weeks. Controllers had a statistically significant decrease in ultrasensitive plasma and rectal HIV RNA levels with ART...
2013: PLoS Pathogens
Richard M Dunham, Ivan Vujkovic-Cvijin, Steven A Yukl, Mara J Broadhurst, Pʼng Loke, Rebecca G Albright, Joseph K Wong, Michael M Lederman, Ma Somsouk, Peter W Hunt, Jeffrey N Martin, Steven G Deeks, Joseph M McCune
OBJECTIVE: Persistent systemic inflammation is associated with the inability of some HIV-infected patients to normalize circulating CD4 T-cell levels after years of suppressive antiretroviral therapy. In this study, we sought to understand whether such systemic inflammation is also associated with detectable signs of inflammation in biopsies from the rectosigmoid colon. DESIGN: Immunologic and virological parameters were studied in the peripheral blood and in rectosigmoid colon biopsies from individuals with viral suppression for at least 2 years and with peripheral CD4 T-cell levels of <350 cells per cubic millimeter (immunologic nonresponders, n = 18) or >500 cells per cubic millimeter (immunologic responders, n = 16)...
February 1, 2014: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Derrick Siao, Ma Somsouk
Helicobacter pylori has been causally linked to a number of diseases, including peptic ulcer disease, gastric adenocarcinoma, mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma, and dyspepsia. It is the most prevalent bacterial pathogen in humans, and while the overall prevalence in the United States is about 30 %, the distribution is heterogeneous amongst different ethnic groups. Recent immigrants from high prevalence areas such as Korea, Japan, and China bear an increased burden of its disease and complications. There is clear evidence that treatment of H...
March 2014: Journal of General Internal Medicine
Ivan Vujkovic-Cvijin, Richard M Dunham, Shoko Iwai, Michael C Maher, Rebecca G Albright, Mara J Broadhurst, Ryan D Hernandez, Michael M Lederman, Yong Huang, Ma Somsouk, Steven G Deeks, Peter W Hunt, Susan V Lynch, Joseph M McCune
Progressive HIV infection is characterized by dysregulation of the intestinal immune barrier, translocation of immunostimulatory microbial products, and chronic systemic inflammation that is thought to drive progression of disease to AIDS. Elements of this pathologic process persist despite viral suppression during highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), and drivers of these phenomena remain poorly understood. Disrupted intestinal immunity can precipitate dysbiosis that induces chronic inflammation in the mucosa and periphery of mice...
July 10, 2013: Science Translational Medicine
Peter W Hunt, Nancy S Shulman, Timothy L Hayes, Viktor Dahl, Ma Somsouk, Nicholas T Funderburg, Bridget McLaughlin, Alan L Landay, Oluwatoyin Adeyemi, Lee E Gilman, Brian Clagett, Benigno Rodriguez, Jeffrey N Martin, Timothy W Schacker, Barbara L Shacklett, Sarah Palmer, Michael M Lederman, Steven G Deeks
The CCR5 inhibitor maraviroc has been hypothesized to decrease T-cell activation in HIV-infected individuals, but its independent immunologic effects have not been established in a placebo-controlled trial. We randomized 45 HIV-infected subjects with CD4 counts <350 cells per mm(3) and plasma HIV RNA levels <48 copies per mL on antiretroviral therapy (ART) to add maraviroc vs placebo to their regimen for 24 weeks followed by 12 weeks on ART alone. Compared with placebo-treated subjects, maraviroc-treated subjects unexpectedly experienced a greater median increase in % CD38+HLA-DR+ peripheral blood CD8+ T cells at week 24 (+2...
June 6, 2013: Blood
Chanda Ho, Rachel Kornfield, Eric Vittinghoff, John Inadomi, Hal Yee, Ma Somsouk
OBJECTIVES: We examined colorectal cancer (CRC) stage at presentation and mortality in a vulnerable population compared with nationally representative data. METHODS: CRC cases were identified from San Francisco General Hospital (SFGH) and the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) database. RESULTS: Fifty-five percent of the SFGH cohort presented with advanced disease, compared with 44% of the SEER cohort. Increased risk of advanced stage at presentation at SFGH compared with SEER was most evident among blacks and Asians...
April 2013: American Journal of Gastroenterology
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