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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342451/tert-promoter-mutations-in-telomere-biology
#1
REVIEW
Barbara Heidenreich, Rajiv Kumar
Telomere repeats at chromosomal ends, critical to genome integrity, are maintained through an elaborate network of proteins and pathways. Shelterin complex proteins shield telomeres from induction of DNA damage response to overcome end protection problem. A specialized ribonucleic protein, telomerase, maintains telomere homeostasis through repeat addition to counter intrinsic shortcomings of DNA replication that leads to gradual sequence shortening in successive mitoses. The biogenesis and recruitment of telomerase composed of telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) subunit and an RNA component, takes place through the intricate machinery that involves an elaborate number of molecules...
January 2017: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340313/linkage-between-mitochondrial-genome-alterations-telomere-length-and-aging-population
#2
Egija Zole, Krista Zadinane, Liana Pliss, Renate Ranka
We studied telomere length (TL) and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number variations in individuals from Latvian Caucasian population in different age groups. We showed a positive correlation between TL and mtDNA copy number in individuals of up to 90 years of age; however, this correlation was not observed in the 90-100 years age group. While TL shortened with age and mtDNA content decreased with increasing age, in this study it was observed that mtDNA copy number in nonagenarians was slightly higher than in the 60-89 years age group...
March 24, 2017: Mitochondrial DNA. Part A. DNA Mapping, Sequencing, and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339618/telomere-length-oxidative-stress-inflammation-and-bdnf-levels-in-siblings-of-patients-with-bipolar-disorder-implications-for-accelerated-cellular-aging
#3
Mirela Paiva Vasconcelos-Moreno, Gabriel Rodrigo Fries, Carolina Gubert, Bárbara Tietböhl Martins Quadros Dos Santos, Adam Fijtman, Juliana Sartori, Pamela Ferrari, Lucas Kich Grun, Mariana Migliorini Parisi, Fátima Theresinha Costa Rodrigues Guma, Florencia Maria Barbé-Tuana, Flávio Kapczinski, Adriane Ribeiro Rosa, Lakshmi N Yatham, Marcia Kauer-Sant'Anna
Background: Growing evidence supports the existence of neurobiological trait abnormalities in individuals at genetic risk for bipolar disorder. The aim of this study was to examine potential differences in brain-derived neurotrophic factor, cytokines, oxidative stress, and telomere length markers between patients with bipolar disorder, their siblings, and healthy controls. Methods: Thirty-six patients with bipolar disorder type I, 39 siblings, and 44 healthy controls were assessed...
January 30, 2017: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338837/associations-of-leukocyte-telomere-length-with-aerobic-and-muscular-fitness-in-young-adults
#4
Dylan M Williams, Jessica L Buxton, Marko T Kantomaa, Tuija H Tammelin, Alexandra I F Blakemore, Marjo-Riitta Järvelin
Decline in both telomere length and physical fitness over the life course may contribute to increased risk of several chronic diseases. The relationship between telomere length and aerobic and muscular fitness is not well characterized. We examined whether there are cross-sectional associations of mean relative leukocyte telomere length (LTL) with objective measures of aerobic fitness, muscle strength, and muscle endurance, using data on 31-year-old participants of the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 (n = 4,952-5,205, varying by exposure-outcome analysis)...
March 1, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338779/telomere-length-and-ccl11-levels-are-associated-with-gray-matter-volume-and-episodic-memory-performance-in-schizophrenia-evidence-of-pathological-accelerated-aging
#5
Leticia Sanguinetti Czepielewski, Raffael Massuda, Bruna Panizzutti, Lucas Kich Grun, Florencia María Barbé-Tuana, Antonio Lucio Teixeira, Deanna M Barch, Clarissa S Gama
Schizophrenia (SZ) is associated with increased somatic morbidity and mortality, in addition to cognitive impairments similar to those seen in normal aging, which may suggest that pathological accelerated aging occurs in SZ. Therefore, we aim to evaluate the relationships of age, telomere length (TL), and CCL11 (aging and inflammatory biomarkers, respectively), gray matter (GM) volume and episodic memory performance in individuals with SZ compared to healthy controls (HC). One hundred twelve participants (48 SZ and 64 HC) underwent clinical and memory assessments, structural MRI, and had their peripheral blood drawn for biomarkers analysis...
February 22, 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338178/the-involvement-of-senescence-induced-by-the-telomere-shortness-in-the-decline-of-osteogenic-differentiation-in-bmscs
#6
C Li, G-J Wei, L Xu, J-S Rong, S-Q Tao, Y-S Wang
OBJECTIVE: BMSC (Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells) is an important seed cell for the repair of bone and cartilage defect in the tissue engineering. The proliferation rate and differentiation capacity of BMSCs from the old donors were less than that from young donors; however, the related mechanism remained unclear. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sprague Dawley (SD) rats BMSCs were cultured and treated. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and continual passage of BMSCs were performed to induce senescence...
March 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334750/ctc1-mediated-c-strand-fill-in-is-an-essential-step-in-telomere-length-maintenance
#7
Xuyang Feng, Shih-Jui Hsu, Christopher Kasbek, Mary Chaiken, Carolyn M Price
To prevent progressive telomere shortening as a result of conventional DNA replication, new telomeric DNA must be added onto the chromosome end. The de novo DNA synthesis involves elongation of the G-rich strand of the telomere by telomerase. In human cells, the CST complex (CTC1-STN1-TEN1) also functions in telomere replication. CST first aids in duplication of the telomeric dsDNA. Then after telomerase has extended the G-rich strand, CST facilitates fill-in synthesis of the complementary C-strand. Here, we analyze telomere structure after disruption of human CTC1 and demonstrate that functional CST is essential for telomere length maintenance due to its role in mediating C-strand fill-in...
February 23, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330827/intrauterine-exposure-to-maternal-stress-alters-bdnf-iv-dna-methylation-and-telomere-length-in-the-brain-of-adult-rat-offspring
#8
Jennifer Blaze, Arun Asok, Kristyn Borrelli, Christina Tulbert, Justin Bollinger, April E Ronca, Tania L Roth
DNA methylation (addition of methyl groups to cytosines which normally represses gene transcription) and changes in telomere length (TTAGGG repeats on the ends of chromosomes) are two molecular modifications that result from stress and could contribute to the long-term effects of intrauterine exposure to maternal stress on offspring behavior. Here, we measured methylation of DNA associated with the Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (Bdnf) gene, a gene important in development and plasticity, and telomere length in the brains of adult rat male and female offspring whose mothers were exposed to unpredictable and variable stressors throughout gestation...
March 19, 2017: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329670/telomere-length-cutaneous-beta-human-papillomavirus-infection-and-cutaneous-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#9
Shalaka Hampras, Michael Pawlita, Massimo Tommasino, Jong Park, Pearlie Burnette, Neil Fenske, Basil Cherpelis, Dana Rollison
BackgroundCutaneous beta-human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and telomere length have both been associated with cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). We examined the interaction between telomere length and beta-HPV in association with SCC.MethodsA subset of SCC cases and controls, enrolled in a previously conducted case-control study (2007-2008) at the University of South Florida and Moffitt Cancer Center, for whom data was available on telomere length and a) beta-HPV serology (135 cases and 201 controls), b) beta-HPV DNA in eyebrow hairs (EB) (130 SCC cases and 195 controls) and c) beta-HPV DNA in SCC tumors (117 cases), were included in the present analyses...
September 15, 2016: Dermatology Online Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329413/physical-activity-muscular-strength-and-polypharmacy-among-older-multimorbid-persons-results-from-the-kora-age-study
#10
K A Volaklis, B Thorand, A Peters, M Halle, M Heier, B Strasser, U Amann, K H Ladwig, H Schulz, W Koenig, C Meisinger
The purpose of this study was to examine if physical activity (PA) and muscular strength (MS) are related to polypharmacy. Our cross-sectional analysis was based on 711 patients with multimorbidity (ΜΜΒ), aged 65-94 years, who participated in the KORA-Age study. Participants underwent a face to face interview and extensive physical examinations including anthropometric measurements, registration of chronic diseases, determination of health-related behaviors (smoking, alcohol intake, physical activity, etc), collection of blood samples and measurement of hand-grip strength...
March 22, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329327/association-of-accelerometer-measured-physical-activity-with-leukocyte-telomere-length-among-older-women
#11
Aladdin H Shadyab, Michael J LaMonte, Charles Kooperberg, Alexander P Reiner, Cara L Carty, Todd M Manini, Lifang Hou, Chongzhi Di, Andrea Z LaCroix
Background: Previous studies on physical activity and telomere length have relied largely upon self-reported physical activity data, and few studies have examined older adults. The association of objectively measured physical activity with leukocyte telomere length (LTL) is currently unknown. Methods: In this study, we examined cross-sectional associations between accelerometer-measured total, light, and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and LTL, measured using Southern blot...
March 9, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327364/telomere-length-analysis-in-down-syndrome-birth
#12
Pranami Bhaumik, Mandar Bhattacharya, Priyanka Ghosh, Sujoy Ghosh, Subrata Kumar Dey
Human reproductive fitness depends upon telomere chemistry. Maternal age, meiotic nondisjunction error and telomere length of mother of trisomic child are someway associated. Reports exhibiting maternal inheritance of telomere length in Down syndrome child are very scanty. To investigate this, we collected peripheral blood from 170 mothers of Down syndrome child and 186 age matched mothers of euploid child with their newly born babies. Telomere length was measured by restriction digestion - southern blotting technique...
March 19, 2017: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324507/using-protein-fragment-complementation-assays-pca-and-peptide-arrays-to-study-telomeric-protein-protein-interactions
#13
Wenbin Ma, Ok-Hee Lee, Hyeung Kim, Zhou Songyang
Studying protein-protein interactions is critical to our understanding of signaling pathways. Telomere Interactome is assembled around telomeres and consists of proteins and factors from diverse pathways. Dissecting how this protein network contributes to telomere protection and length regulation requires the elucidation of the complex and dynamic interactions between the proteins within the interactome. Here, we focus on three assays, Bi-molecular Fluorescence Complementation (BiFC), Gaussia Luciferase Protein-fragment Complementation Assay (GLuc PCA), and OPAL peptide array, which have proven vital in our studies of telomere protein interaction networks...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324503/visualization-of-human-telomerase-localization-by-fluorescence-microscopy-techniques
#14
Eladio Abreu, Rebecca M Terns, Michael P Terns
Human telomerase is a ribonucleoprotein (RNP) that synthesizes DNA repeats at the ends of chromosomes and maintains telomere length and genome stability. The enzyme is comprised of telomerase RNA (hTR) (which provides the template for telomere addition) and several protein subunits including telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) (the catalytic component). Intracellular trafficking of the enzyme has emerged as an important factor in the regulation of telomerase activity. Telomerase trafficking between nuclear Cajal bodies (proposed sites of telomerase biogenesis and regulation) and telomeres (sites of action) is regulated by the cell cycle in concordance with telomere synthesis during S phase...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324498/telomere-g-overhang-length-measurement-method-2-g-tail-telomere-hpa
#15
Hidetoshi Tahara
Both telomere length and telomere G-tail length are altered in human diseases such as cancer and age-related diseases. While most methods for measurement of G-tail and telomere length require electrophoresis, centrifugation, radioisotope labeling and autoradiography, G-tail telomere HPA provides a convenient and useful tool for the examination of G-tail length with a high-throughput platform using genomic DNA or cell lysate. G-tail telomere HPA may be applicable for clinical diagnostics as well as drug target screening...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324497/telomere-g-rich-overhang-length-measurement-dsn-method
#16
Yong Zhao, Jerry W Shay, Woodring E Wright
Telomeres terminate in 3' single-stranded G-rich overhangs that function in telomere end protection and telomerase action. An accurate measurement of overhang length is challenging due to the presence of many kilobases of double-stranded telomere DNA. Here, a simple method is described that utilizes duplex specific nuclease (DSN) to digest all double-stranded DNA including telomeres to fragments of <10 bp, leaving the single-stranded overhangs intact. Their length can then be determined by Southern blot using super-sensitive telomere C-rich probes...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324496/telomere-strand-specific-length-analysis-by-fluorescent-in-situ-hybridization-q-co-fish
#17
Isabelle Ourliac-Garnier, Arturo Londoño-Vallejo
The implementation of quantitative approaches in telomere chromosome-oriented FISH (telomeric CO-FISH) allows the assessment of the relative efficiency of lagging versus leading strand telomere replication and thus provides information on the implicated mechanisms. Here we describe a simple method for telomere strand-specific analyses and discuss its potential applications.
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324495/telomere-length-analysis-by-quantitative-fluorescent-in-situ-hybridization-q-fish
#18
Isabelle Ourliac-Garnier, Arturo Londoño-Vallejo
Length is a functional parameter of telomeres, the nucleoprotein structures that protect chromosome ends. The availability of highly specific, high affinity probes for telomeric repeat sequences allowed the development of quantitative approaches aimed at measuring telomere length directly on chromosomes or in interphase nuclei. Here, we describe a general method for telomere quantitative FISH on metaphase chromosomes and discuss its most common applications in research.
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324494/analysis-of-average-telomere-length-in-human-telomeric-protein-knockout-cells-generated-by-crispr-cas9
#19
Jun Xu, Zhou Songyang, Dan Liu, Hyeung Kim
Telomeres play an important role in ensuring the integrity of the genome. Telomere shortening can lead to loss of genetic information and trigger DNA damage responses. Cultured mammalian cells have served as critical model systems for studying the function of telomere binding proteins and telomerase. Tremendous heterogeneity can be observed both between species and within a single cell population. Recent advances in genome editing (such as the development of the CRISPR/Cas9 platform) have further enabled researchers to carry out loss-of-function analysis of how disrupting key players in telomere maintenance affects telomere length regulation...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324493/introduction-to-telomeres-and-telomerase
#20
Zhou Songyang
Telomeres are ends of chromosomes that play an important part in the biology of eukaryotic cells. Continued optimization and development of technologies have enabled researchers to probe the mechanisms of telomere maintenance in ever expanding areas. A combination of molecular, genetic, proteomic, and biochemical approaches has revealed the complex and coordinated action of telomerase and telomere-associated proteins. The length and integrity of telomeres are maintained to prevent telomere dysfunction, which has been linked to senescence, aging, disease, and cancer...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
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