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telomere length

Lisa M Schneper, Jeanne Brooks-Gunn, Daniel A Notterman, Stephen J Suomi
OBJECTIVE: Child-rearing environments have been associated with morbidity in adult rhesus monkeys. We examine whether such links are also seen with leukocyte telomere length. METHODS: To determine telomere length in leukocytes, blood was collected from 11 adult female monkeys aged 7 to 10 years who had been exposed to different rearing environments between birth and 7 months. Four had been reared with their mothers in typical social groups composed of other female monkeys, their offspring, and 1 to 2 adult male monkeys...
October 19, 2016: Psychosomatic Medicine
C Piñol-Felis, T Fernández-Marcelo, J Viñas-Salas, C Valls-Bautista
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer worldwide. Our aim is to describe the state of the art about the role of telomeres and telomerase in the clinical management of CRC and its potential utility as prognostic and diagnostic biomarkers and targets of new treatments. Telomere length could be a new diagnostic marker as an anomalous behavior is observed in peripheral blood cells when CRC patients and healthy people are compared. Moreover, telomeres and telomerase may be used as diagnostic markers considering that universal changes appear along the CRC process...
October 19, 2016: Clinical & Translational Oncology
Mi-Sun Kwon, Jaewon Min, Hee-Yeon Jeon, Kwangwoo Hwang, Chuna Kim, Junho Lee, Je-Gun Joung, Woong-Yang Park, Hyunsook Lee
BRCA2 is a multifunctional tumor suppressor involved in homologous recombination (HR), mitotic checkpoint regulation, and telomere homeostasis. Absence of Brca2 in mice results in progressive shortening of telomeres and senescence, yet cells are prone to neoplastic transformation with elongated telomeres, suggesting that BRCA2 has positive and negative effects on telomere length regulation along the path to tumorigenesis. Using Caenorhabditis elegans as a model, we show here that depletion of BRC-2, an ortholog of BRCA2, paradoxically delays senescence in telomerase-deficient mutant worms...
October 2016: FEBS Open Bio
Shigeo Ohba, Joydeep Mukherjee, Tor-Christian Johannessen, Andrew Mancini, Tracy T Chow, Matthew Wood, Lindsey Jones, Tali Mazor, Roxanne E Marshall, Pavithra Viswanath, Kyle M Walsh, Arie Perry, Robert J A Bell, Joanna J Phillips, Joseph F Costello, Sabrina M Ronen, Russell O Pieper
Mutations in the isocitrate dehydrogenase gene IDH1 are common in lower-grade glioma where they result in the production of 2-hydroxyglutarate (2HG), disrupted patterns of histone methylation and gliomagenesis. IDH1 mutations also co-segregate with mutations in the ATRX gene and the TERT promoter, suggesting that IDH mutation may drive the creation or selection of telomere-stabilizing events as part of immortalization/transformation process. To determine if and how this may occur, we investigated the phenotype of pRb/p53-deficient human astrocytes engineered with IDH1 wild-type (WT) or R132H mutant (IDH1mut) genes as they progressed through their lifespan...
October 6, 2016: Cancer Research
Yu Zou, Huei Jinn Tong, Mingming Li, Kai Soo Tan, Tong Cao
The ability of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) to proliferate indefinitely is attributed to its high telomerase activity and associated long telomere. However, factors regulating telomere length in hESCs remain largely uncharacterized. The aims of this study were, to identify factors which modulate telomere length of hESCs, and to determine if the telomere length of hESCs influences cellular senescence of its differentiated progeny cells. Telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) gene expression, telomerase activity and telomere length of hESCs cultured in different culture systems were compared...
October 18, 2016: Biogerontology
Dries S Martens, Michelle Plusquin, Wilfried Gyselaers, Immaculata De Vivo, Tim S Nawrot
BACKGROUND: Newborn telomere length sets telomere length for later life. At birth, telomere length is highly variable among newborns and the environmental factors during in utero life for this observation remain largely unidentified. Obesity during pregnancy might reflect an adverse nutritional status affecting pregnancy and offspring outcomes, but the association of maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) with newborn telomere length, as a mechanism of maternal obesity, on the next generation has not been addressed...
October 18, 2016: BMC Medicine
Patrick S Tucker, Aaron T Scanlan, Rebecca K Vella, Vincent J Dalbo
BACKGROUND: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is an irreversible disease that diminishes length and quality of life. Emerging evidence suggests CKD progression and genomic integrity are inversely and causally related. To reduce health complications related to CKD progression, chronic aerobic exercise is often recommended. To date, appraisals of differing modes of exercise, along with postulations regarding the mechanisms responsible for observed effects, are lacking. In order to examine the ability of aerobic exercise to encourage improvements in genomic integrity, we evaluated the effects of 8 weeks of high-intensity interval training (HIIT; 85 % VO2max), low intensity training (LIT; 45-50 % VO2max), and sedentary behaviour (SED), in an animal model of early-stage CKD...
December 2016: Sports Medicine—Open
Christopher Gilfillan, Pratyusha Naidu, Florence Gunawan, Fadwa Hassan, Pei Tian, Ngaire Elwood
AIMS: Telomeres undergo shortening with cell division, accelerated by increased oxidative stress. We aimed to demonstrate shortened telomeres in the offspring of mothers who have diabetes as a consequence of exposure to increased oxidative stress during intrauterine development. METHODS: We examined the level of glycaemia (glucose, HbA1c, fructosamine), oxidative stress (lipid peroxidation) and the levels of antioxidant enzymes (Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and Selenium dependent glutathione peroxidase) and correlate these findings with mean telomere length (TL) in maternal and foetal blood in groups of pregnant women with pre-gestational diabetes (PGD), gestational diabetes (GD) and a euglycaemic control group...
2016: PloS One
R Jeanne Ruiz, Jerome Trzeciakowski, Tiffany Moore, Kimberly S Ayers, Rita H Pickler
Chronic stress may accelerate cellular aging. Telomeres, protective "caps" at the end of chromosomes, modulate cellular aging and may be good biomarkers for the effects of chronic stress, including that associated with acculturation. The purpose of this analysis was to examine telomere length (TL) in acculturating Hispanic Mexican American women and to determine the associations among TL, acculturation, and psychological factors. As part of a larger cross-sectional study of 516 pregnant Hispanic Mexican American women, we analyzed DNA in blood samples (N = 56) collected at 22-24 weeks gestation for TL as an exploratory measure using monochrome multiplex quantitative telomere polymerase chain reaction (PCR)...
October 12, 2016: Biological Research for Nursing
Eugene Kobyliansky, Dmitry Torchinsky, Leonid Kalichman, David Karasik
BACKGROUND: To our knowledge, there are no experimental studies that have addressed the effects of starvation on the maintenance of telomere length. Two epidemiologic studies that have addressed this topic gave controversial results. OBJECTIVE: We characterized leukocyte telomere length (LTL) in a Chuvash population that was comprised of survivors of the mass famine of 1922-1923 and in these survivors' descendants. DESIGN: The tested cohort consisted of native Chuvash men (n = 687) and women (n = 647) who were born between 1909 and 1980 and who resided in small villages in the Chuvash Republic of the Russian Federation...
October 12, 2016: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Dan T A Eisenberg, Justin Tackney, Richard M Cawthon, Christina Theresa Cloutier, Kristen Hawkes
: Telomeres are repeating DNA at chromosome ends. Telomere length (TL) declines with age in most human tissues, and shorter TL is thought to accelerate senescence. In contrast, older men have sperm with longer TL; correspondingly, older paternal age at conception (PAC) predicts longer TL in offspring. This PAC-effect could be a unique form of transgenerational genetic plasticity that modifies somatic maintenance in response to cues of recent ancestral experience. The PAC-effect has not been examined in any non-human mammals...
October 12, 2016: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Chao Song, Wei Peng, Songna Yin, Jiamin Zhao, Beibei Fu, Jingcheng Zhang, Tingchao Mao, Haibo Wu, Yong Zhang
Increasing evidence shows that melatonin protected against age-related mitochondrial oxidative damage. However, the protective effects of melatonin against ovarian aging has not been explored. Young Kunming females (aged 2-3 months) were fed with melatonin added to drinking water for 6 or 12 months (mo). We found that long-term (12 mo) melatonin treatment significantly reduced ovarian aging, as indicated by substantial increases in litter size, pool of follicles, and telomere length as well as oocyte quantity and quality...
October 12, 2016: Scientific Reports
Yong Xu, Xiao Wang, Shi-Ming Chen, Chen Chen, Yan Wang, Bo-Kui Xiao, Ze-Zhang Tao
PURPOSE: To explore the influences of telomerase and alternative lengthening of telomeres mechanism on telomere length and laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma in vitro and in vivo. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Short hairpin RNA expression vectors targeting the messenger TERT, TRF2, RAD51 and NBS1 were constructed. The mRNA and protein expression of targeted genes in human laryngeal squamous carcinoma cell line HEp-2 was evaluated by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting separately...
September 6, 2016: American Journal of Otolaryngology
Manuel Gunkel, Inn Chung, Stefan Wörz, Katharina I Deeg, Ronald Simon, Guido Sauter, David T W Jones, Andrey Korshunov, Karl Rohr, Holger Erfle, Karsten Rippe
The microscopic analysis of telomere features provides a wealth of information on the mechanism by which tumor cells maintain their unlimited proliferative potential. Accordingly, the analysis of telomeres in tissue sections of patient tumor samples can be exploited to obtain diagnostic information and to define tumor subgroups. In many instances, however, analysis of the image data is conducted by manual inspection of 2D images at relatively low resolution for only a small part of the sample. As the telomere feature signal distribution is frequently heterogeneous, this approach is prone to a biased selection of the information present in the image and lacks subcellular details...
October 7, 2016: Methods: a Companion to Methods in Enzymology
Luise A Seeker, Rebecca Holland, Sarah Underwood, Jennifer Fairlie, Androniki Psifidi, Joanna J Ilska, Ainsley Bagnall, Bruce Whitelaw, Mike Coffey, Georgios Banos, Daniel H Nussey
Telomere length (TL) is increasingly being used as a biomarker in epidemiological, biomedical and ecological studies. A wide range of DNA extraction techniques have been used in telomere experiments and recent quantitative PCR (qPCR) based studies suggest that the choice of DNA extraction method may influence average relative TL (RTL) measurements. Such extraction method effects may limit the use of historically collected DNA samples extracted with different methods. However, if extraction method effects are systematic an extraction method specific (MS) calibrator might be able to correct for them, because systematic effects would influence the calibrator sample in the same way as all other samples...
2016: PloS One
Taylor Wand, Mike Fang, Christina Chen, Nathan Hardy, J Philip McCoy, Bogdan Dumitriu, Neal S Young, Angélique Biancotto
Abnormal telomere lengths have been linked to cancer and other hematologic disorders. Determination of mean telomere content (MTC) is traditionally performed by Southern blotting and densitometry, giving a mean telomere restriction fragment (TRF) value for the total cell population studied. Here, we compared a quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction approach (qPCR) and a flow cytometric approach, fluorescence in situ hybridization (Flow-FISH), to evaluate telomere content distribution in total patient peripheral blood mononuclear cells or specific cell populations...
October 2016: Cytometry. Part A: the Journal of the International Society for Analytical Cytology
Wei Wang, Xiaolei Feng, Xiaoran Duan, Shanjuan Tan, Sihua Wang, Tuanwei Wang, Feifei Feng, Yiming Wu, Yongjun Wu
OBJECTIVE: To identify the significance of a support vector machine (SVM) model and a decision tree (DT) model for the diagnosis of lung cancer combined with the detection of fragile histidine triad (FHIT), RAS association domain family 1 (RASSF1A) and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A (p16) promoter methylation levels and relative telomere length (RTL) of white blood cells from peripheral blood DNA. METHODS: The levels of p16, RASSF1A and FHIT promoter methylation and the RTL of white blood cells in peripheral blood DNA of 200 healthy individuals and 200 lung cancer patients were analyzed by SYBR Green-based quantitative methylation-specific PCR and quantitative PCR...
September 24, 2016: International Journal of Biological Markers
G Caocci, M Greco, G Delogu, C Secchi, A Perra, S Ghiani, F Orru, A Vacca, F Galimi, G La Nasa
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 7, 2016: Blood Cancer Journal
Hannah Watson, Mark Bolton, Britt J Heidinger, Winnie Boner, Pat Monaghan
Repeated exposure to elevated levels of glucocorticoids during development can have long-term detrimental effects on survival and fitness, potentially associated with increased telomere attrition. Nestling birds are regularly handled for ecological research, yet few authors have considered the potential for handling-induced stress to influence hormonally mediated phenotypic development or bias interpretations of subsequent focal measurements. We experimentally manipulated the handling experience of the semi-precocial nestlings of European Storm Petrel Hydrobates pelagicus to simulate handling in a typical field study and examined cumulative effects on physiology and condition in late postnatal development...
October 2016: Ibis
Francisco Gomez-Delgado, Javier Delgado-Lista, Javier Lopez-Moreno, Oriol Alberto Rangel-Zuñiga, Juan Francisco Alcala-Diaz, Ana Leon-Acuña, Andreea Corina, Elena Yubero-Serrano, Jose David Torres-Peña, Antonio Camargo, Antonio Garcia-Rios, Javier Caballero, Justo Castaño, Jose M Ordovas, Jose Lopez-Miranda, Pablo Perez-Martinez
BACKGROUND: Leukocyte telomere length (LTL) attrition has been associated with age-related diseases. Telomerase RNA Component (TERC) genetic variants have been associated with LTL; whereas fatty acids (FAs) can interact with genetic factors and influence in aging. We explore whether variability at the TERC gene locus interacts with FA profile and two healthy diets (low-fat diet vs Mediterranean diet [MedDiet]) modulating LTL, glucose metabolism, and inflammation status in coronary heart disease (CHD) patients...
October 5, 2016: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
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