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Elisabeth M Weiss, Walther Parson, Harald Niederstätter, Josef Marksteiner, Astrid Lampe
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a mental disorder following a severe traumatic experience and is characterized by high rates of comorbidity with related psychiatric disorders. However, even for individuals experiencing the same trauma, there is considerable inter-individual variability in the risk of PTSD, and this is largely thought to be determined by biological processes, such as genetic predisposition and epigenetic mechanism. In this review we will summarize recent research on genetics of PTSD, primarily focusing on candidate gene-association studies, targeting on functional genetic variants in the monoaminergic system and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis...
July 19, 2018: Psychotherapie, Psychosomatik, Medizinische Psychologie
Gülden Cancan, Serkan Teksöz, Süleyman Demiryas, Murat Özcan, Yusuf Bükey
Adrenal angiosarcoma is an uncommon neoplasm that derives from the vascular endothelium; due to its biological behavior, it should be distinguished from other adrenal tumors. We herein report a case of a 57-year-old woman with diagnosis of an adrenal tumor that was suspected to be malignant. The specimen was histopathologically proved to be an angiosarcoma. The patient was suffering from right upper quadrant pain; after laboratory and radiological workup, a non-functioning right adrenal mass, 14 cm in size, was recognized...
2018: Turkish Journal of Surgery
Adem Kocaman, Mehmet Gül, Kıymet Kübra Yurt, Gamze Altun, Emrah Zayman, Elfide Gizem Kıvrak
The aim of this study was to investigate the harmful effects of exposure to 900-megahertz (MHz) electromagnetic fields (EMF) and the protective effects of omega-3 (Omg-3) against EMF in the rat adrenal gland. Eighteen Wistar albino rats were randomly assigned into three groups, control (Cont), EMF, and EMF + Omg-3. The EMF and EMF + Omg-3 groups both consisted of six rats exposed to an EMF of 900 MHz for 60 min/day for 15 days. No procedure was applied to the six rats in the Cont group. At the end of the experiment, all rats were sacrificed, and the mean volumes of the cortex and medulla of the adrenal gland were estimated using a stereological counting technique...
October 2017: J Microsc Ultrastruct
Ling-Ling Chang, Wan-Song Alfred Wun, Paulus S Wang
BACKGROUND: Nonylphenol (NP) is an environmental endocrine-disrupting chemical (EDC) detected in human cord blood and milk. NP exposure in developmental periods results in hyperadrenalism and increasing 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase I (11β-HSD1) activity in an adult rat model. Alleviating 11β-HSD1 activity is therefore a logical and common way to treat hyperadrenalism. PF915275 (PF; 4'-cyano-biphenyl-4-sulfonic acid (6-amino-pyridin-2-yl)-amide) is a selective inhibitor for 11β-HSD1...
July 18, 2018: BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology
Carla Moscheo, Alessandro Campari, Marta Giorgia Podda, Giovanna Riccipetitoni, Paola Collini, Salvatore Lorenzo Renne, Claudio Vella, Marcello Napolitano, Roberto Luksch
INTRODUCTION: Peripheral neuroblastic tumors (PNTs) account for 8%-10% of all pediatric tumors. Adrenal glands and sympathetic ganglia are the commonest site of tumor growth. In the clinicopathologic spectrum of PNTs, neuroblastoma and ganglioneuroma are the most primitive and the most mature tumor form, while ganglioneuroblastoma represents an intermediate state of maturation. Surgical resection is the therapy of choice in localized disease, but can lead to serious complications when performed in the presence of certain imaging-defined risk factors...
July 1, 2018: Tumori
Faiza Mumtaz, Muhammad Imran Khan, Muhammad Zubair, Ahmad Reza Dehpour
The brain is a vital organ, susceptible to alterations under genetic influences and environmental experiences. Social isolation (SI) acts as a stressor which results in alterations in reactivity to stress, social behavior, function of neurochemical and neuroendocrine system, physiological, anatomical and behavioral changes in both animal and humans. During early stages of life, acute or chronic SIS has been proposed to show signs and symptoms of psychiatric and neurological disorders such as anxiety, depression, schizophrenia, epilepsy and memory loss...
September 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Richard J Santen, Christine M Jewell, Wei Yue, Daniel F Heitjan, Hershel Raff, Kevin S Katen, John A Cidlowski
Background: The glucocorticoid receptor consists of two alternatively spliced isoforms: GRα, which activates gene transcription, and GRβ, a dominant-negative receptor. Theoretically, inactivating variants of GRβ could result in glucocorticoid hypersensitivity. Case Report: A 46-year-old woman presented for evaluation of adrenal insufficiency prompted by low plasma cortisol levels and multiple unexplained symptoms but without clinical evidence of glucocorticoid insufficiency...
July 17, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Jose A Rosa-Parra, Marcela Tamayo-Ortiz, Hector Lamadrid-Figueroa, Alejandra Cantoral-Preciado, Alejandra Montoya, Rosalind J Wright, Andrea A Baccarelli, Allan C Just, Katherine Svensson, Robert O Wright, Martha María Téllez-Rojo Solís
Context: Early life cortisol plays an important role in bone, muscle and fat mobilization processes, which could influence body composition, affecting anthropometric indicators like weight and height. Objective: To explore the association between diurnal cortisol levels and growth indexes in children from 12 to 48 months of age. Design: This study includes data of 404 children from the PROGRESS Mexican birth cohort. Cortisol was measured in 8 saliva samples collected at 4 time points during the day (from wake-up to bed time), over 2 days, when the child was either 12, 18 or 24 months old...
July 17, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Hiroki Kobayashi, Masanori Abe, Masayoshi Soma, Yoshiyu Takeda, Isao Kurihara, Hiroshi Itoh, Hironobu Umakoshi, Mika Tsuiki, Takuyuki Katabami, Takamasa Ichijo, Norio Wada, Takanobu Yoshimoto, Yoshihiro Ogawa, Junji Kawashima, Masakatsu Sone, Nobuya Inagaki, Katsutoshi Takahashi, Minemori Watanabe, Yuichi Matsuda, Hirotaka Shibata, Kohei Kamemura, Toshihiko Yanase, Michio Otsuki, Yuichi Fujii, Koichi Yamamoto, Atsushi Ogo, Kazutaka Nanba, Akiyo Tanabe, Tomoko Suzuki, Mitsuhide Naruse
OBJECTIVES: A subtype prediction score for primary aldosteronism has not yet been developed and validated using a large dataset. This study aimed to develop and validate a new subtype prediction score and to compare it with existing scores using a large multicenter database. METHODS: In total, 1936 patients with primary aldosteronism were randomly assigned to the development and validation datasets, constituting 1290 and 646 patients, respectively. Three prediction scores were generated with or without confirmatory tests, using logistic regression analysis...
July 16, 2018: Journal of Hypertension
Kunal Karamchandani, Jarrett Leathem, Elizabeth H Sinz
Acute adrenal insufficiency is a rare but potentially life-threatening event during the perioperative period. The usual manifestations of an acute adrenal crisis can mimic common postoperative complications and a high index of suspicion is required for the diagnosis. Early diagnosis and prompt treatment can be lifesaving. We present the case of a 65-year-old man who, after a partial nephrectomy, developed acute adrenal insufficiency, which remained undiagnosed in the postoperative period, eventually leading to cardiac arrest...
July 16, 2018: A&A practice
Tobias Nicolas Rojas, David Lautaro Vergara-Tabares, Diego Javier Valdez, Marina Flavia Ponzio, Susana Inés Peluc
Birds tend to adjust their behavior and physiology to changes in food availability in their environment. Seasonal fluctuation of food resources may act as an energetic challenge, augmenting hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA axis) activity, leading to an increase in corticosterone concentrations and promoting the metabolism of energy stores. Plant invasions may alter seasonal food fluctuations by providing a food supply during scarce seasons. This could attenuate the energetic challenge, reducing HPA axis activity and the metabolism of reserves...
July 18, 2018: Integrative Zoology
Jeong-Moo Lee, Kwang-Woong Lee, Suk Kyun Hong, Kyung Chul Yoon, Jae-Hyung Cho, Nam-Joon Yi, Kyung-Suk Suh
BACKGROUND: Status in terms of major vascular structure invasion is a crucial factor for successful major hepatic resection. In particular, surgery for advanced tumors with inferior vena cava (IVC) invasion is difficult and may even be dangerous for the patient, having high risk of massive bleeding and greater chance of embolic complications such as stroke, bowel ischemia, and pulmonary venous thrombosis. For such reasons, many surgeons hesitate to carry out such surgical resection, and even if they do so, may not totally remove the tumor including the part inside the IVC, achieving R1 resection...
July 17, 2018: Annals of Surgical Oncology
Khalil Pourkhalili, Hossein Fatemikia, Euikyung Kim, Navid Reza Mashayekhy, Naser Mohammadpour Dounighi, Abdollah Hajivandi, Yaghoob Hassan, Ramin Seyedian
Background: We investigated the hemodynamic changes (Inotropic, chronotropic and arrhythmogenic) in intravenously envenomed anesthetized rats with Hemiscorpius lepturus venom. The neutralizing potencies of different drugs and commercial antivenom were assessed simultaneously. Methods: Different doses of the crude venom (100, 200 and 400μg/rat) were injected during five minutes via the femoral vein and cardiovascular changes were recorded in rats in Razi Institute Corporation, Karaj, Iran in 2017...
March 2018: Journal of Arthropod-borne Diseases
Hyeon Ji Kim, Shin Ho Yang, Sun Hye Yang, Seung Su Han, Gwang Jun Kim
Paraganglioma in pregnancy is an extremely rare condition and its diagnosis is often delayed because the clinical symptoms can mimic those of preeclampsia or gestational hypertension. Here, we report the case of a 32-year-old, gravida 2, para 1 woman who presented with severe headache, palpitation, and sweating at 37 weeks' gestation. Although emergent cesarean section was performed on the assumption of severe preeclampsia, blood pressure fluctuated and heart rate remained tachycardiac. We suspected that she might have thromboembolic lesion in the chest or pheochromocytoma...
July 2018: Obstetrics & Gynecology Science
Seema Sethi, Shivam Thakur, Suzanne Jacques, H D Aoun, Paul Tranchida
Myelolipomas are uncommon, benign tumors which typically occur in the adrenal glands and consist of mature adipose tissue and benign hematopoietic components. Myelolipomas can occur outside of the adrenal glands, but the presacral region, retroperitoneum, pelvis, and mediastinum are unusual locations for these tumors. It is important to recognize this entity in these locations since they can attain massive sizes leading to pressure symptoms and need to be differentiated from the malignant tumors like liposarcomas...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
G Rizzo, C Coramusi, G Pietricola, F Sionne, F Castri, D P Pafundi, R Aversa, C Coco
Myelolipomas are rare benign tumors that are commonly found in the adrenal glands. Extra-adrenal locations are rare, and presacral myelolipomas represent the most common extra-adrenal location. The differential diagnosis of malignant presacral neoplasms is very challenging. We present a case of a presacral neoplasm that was completely removed with a laparoscopic approach and diagnosed as a myelolipoma only after pathological examination.
July 2018: Journal of Surgical Case Reports
Fang Lai, Gengbiao Zhou, Shutao Mai, Xiaolian Qin, Wenting Liu, Yan Zhang, Dongping Xie, Yanna Weng, Jiongdong Du, Yi Zheng, Jiyang Liao, Yun Han
Background: Sini Decoction (SND) is composed of Aconitum carmichaelii Debeaux, Zingiber officinale Roscoe, and Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch, having been used in China for centuries for collapsing phrase of disease. Studies reported that SND could alleviate inflammatory response, ameliorate microcirculatory disturbances, and improve shock reversal and adrenal gland glucocorticoid stress response during sepsis shock, yet the underlying mechanism is still elusive. Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 is demonstrated to be crucially correlated with the corticosterone secretion and the impaired adrenal glucocorticoid responses in sepsis...
2018: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
Elizabeth A Burgess, Kathleen E Hunt, Scott D Kraus, Rosalind M Rolland
Exhaled breath analysis is a non-invasive assessment tool that has shown promise in human diagnostics, and could greatly benefit research, management, and conservation of large whales. However, hormone assessment of whale respiratory vapor (blow) has been challenged by variable water content and unknown total volume of collected samples. To advance this technique, we investigated urea (a compound present in narrow range in circulation) as a normalizing factor to correct for blow sample concentration. Normalized progesterone, testosterone, and cortisol concentrations of 100 blow samples from 46 photo-identified North Atlantic right whales (Eubalaena glacialis) were more biologically relevant compared to absolute estimates, varying by sex, age class, or individual...
July 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
Jumpei Fujiki, Naoyuki Maeda, Michiko Sato, Takahiro Ieko, Hiroki Inoue, Tomohito Iwasaki, Hidetomo Iwano, Hiroshi Yokota
Corticosterone (CORT), the major glucocorticoid in rodents, is secreted from the adrenal gland, affects various organs in the body and regulates energy metabolism as a stress response. Although local steroidogenesis of androgens and estrogens in skeletal muscles has been previously reported, local CORT synthesis in skeletal muscle remains unconfirmed. In the present study, we investigated steroidogenic activities in a clonal myoblastic cell line, C2C12 cells. Three enzymes involved in CORT synthesis, 3ß-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3ß-HSD), cytochrome P450c21 and cytochrome P45011ß, were identified in C2C12 cells by detecting the enzymatic reaction products with LC-MS/MS analysis...
July 7, 2018: Steroids
Kareem Eldin Mohammed Ahmed, Håvard G Frøysa, Odd André Karlsen, Jørn V Sagen, Gunnar Mellgren, Steven Verhaegen, Erik Ropstad, Anders Goksøyr, Ralf Kellmann
Endocrine disrupting chemicals have been reported to exert effects directly on enzymes involved in steroid biosynthesis. Here, we present a new liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for profiling the steroid metabolome of H295R human adrenocarcinoma cells. Our method can simultaneously analyse 19 precursors, intermediates and end-products, representing the adrenal steroid biosynthesis pathway. In order to obtain better insights into the processes of steroidogenesis, we investigated the dose-response relationship of forskolin, an activator of adeylate cyclase, on steroid production in H295R cells...
July 11, 2018: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
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