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Gastrin AND PPI

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321346/a-perplexing-case-of-abdominal-pain-that-led-to-the-diagnosis-of-zollinger-ellison-syndrome
#1
Adrienne Lenhart, Mona Hassan, Alireza Meighani, Omar Sadiq, Yousuf Siddiqui
Zollinger-Ellison syndrome (ZES) is a rare clinical disorder, characterized by hypersecretion of gastric acid and multiple ulcers distal to the duodenal bulb. This occurs via the release of gastrin by neuroendocrine tumors known as gastrinomas. Patients with ZES present with nonspecific GI symptoms, which often leads to a delay in diagnosis. Our patient is a 55-year-old female with chronic abdominal pain, nausea, and diarrhea. She underwent EGD, EUS, MRCP, CT scans, and cholecystectomy, which did not reveal the cause of her symptoms...
2017: Case Reports in Gastrointestinal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160247/adenocarcinoma-arising-in-multiple-hyperplastic-polyps-in-a-patient-with-helicobacter-pylori-infection-and-hypergastrinemia-during-long-term-proton-pump-inhibitor-therapy
#2
Hajime Anjiki, Ken-Ichi Mukaisho, Yu Kadomoto, Hisakazu Doi, Kunio Yoshikawa, Takahisa Nakayama, Diem Thi-Ngoc Vo, Takanori Hattori, Hiroyuki Sugihara
We report a case of developing multiple adenocarcinoma foci in multiple hyperplastic polyps in a patient with Helicobacter pylori infection and hypergastrinemia during long-term proton pump inhibitor (PPI) therapy. A 57-year-old man, who was undergoing hemodialysis for chronic renal failure, underwent an upper gastrointestinal endoscopy to elucidate the cause of anemia. Atrophic gastritis with H. pylori infection and multiple adenocarcinoma foci in multiple hyperplastic polyps were found in the endoscopic and histological examinations...
April 2017: Clinical Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109748/chronic-proton-pump-inhibition-therapy-in-the-diagnostic-accuracy-of-serum-pepsinogen-i-and-gastrin-concentrations-to-identify-pernicious-anaemia
#3
Mariam Martín-Alcolea, Inés Rodríguez-Hernández, Marta Aldea, Irene Rosas, Jordi Juncà, Maria Luisa Granada
BACKGROUND: Chronic use of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) leads to increases in gastrin and pepsinogen-I serum concentrations. AIM: To asses if chronic treatment with PPIs has an effect on serum gastrin and pepsinogen-I concentrations for the diagnosis of pernicious anaemia (PA). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Serum gastrin and pepsinogen-I were measured in 38 patients with PA and 74 without PA (controls); 17/38 PA patients and 36/74 controls were treated with PPIs...
January 18, 2017: Clinical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928793/-subtype-classification-and-clinicopathological-characteristics-of-gastric-neuroendocrine-neoplasms-an-analysis-of-241-cases
#4
Pan Zhang, Yu Zhang, Chi Zhang, Yanfen Shi, Jixi Liu, Qing Liu, Lili Yu, Miao Wang, Guoming Zou, Jie Lou, Jie Chen, Huangying Tan
OBJECTIVE: To study subtype classification of gastric neuroendocrine neoplasm (NEN) and their clinicopathological characteristics in order to provide reference for clinical practice. METHODS: Clinicopathological data of 241 gastric NEN patients (174 cases from China-Japan Friendship Hospital and 67 cases from The First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-Sen University) between January 2011 and June 2016 were retrospectively summarized. According to serum gastrin, 24-hour intragastric pH monitoring and pathological grade, patients with gastric NEN were divided into 4 types: type I( (hypergastrinemia and achlorhydria, related to autoimmune chronic atrophic gastritis), type II( [hypergastrinemia and Zollinger-Ellison syndrome, related to gastrinoma or multiple endocrine neoplasia type I( (MEN-I()], type III( (sporadic disease with normal serum gastrin level), and type IIII( [poorly differentiated gastric neuroendocrine carcinoma (NEC) and mixed adenoneuroendocrine carcinoma (MANEC)]...
November 25, 2016: Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796466/randomised-trial-of-the-effect-of-a-gastrin-cck2-receptor-antagonist-on-esomeprazole-induced-hypergastrinaemia-evidence-against-rebound-hyperacidity
#5
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Malcolm Boyce, Frans van den Berg, Toni Mitchell, Kate Darwin, Steve Warrington
PURPOSE: Hypergastrinaemia induced by proton pump inhibitor (PPI) therapy may cause ECL-cell and parietal-cell hyperplasia and rebound hyperacidity and dyspepsia after PPI withdrawal. The aim of the study was to assess the effect of different dosage-regimens of netazepide, a gastrin/CCK2 receptor antagonist, on PPI-induced hypergastrinaemia and elevated chromogranin A (CgA). METHODS: Six groups of eight healthy subjects participated in a randomised, double-blind study of esomeprazole 40 mg daily for 28 days, in combination with netazepide 1, 5 or 25 mg or placebo, daily, during the last 14 days of esomeprazole or during 14 days after treatment withdrawal...
February 2017: European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27698822/bioinformatics-analysis-of-the-molecular-mechanism-of-diffuse-intrinsic-pontine-glioma
#6
Lei Deng, Pengju Xiong, Yunhui Luo, Xiao Bu, Suokai Qian, Wuzhao Zhong
The present study aimed to elucidate key molecular mechanisms in the progression of diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG). The gene expression profile GSE50021, which consisted of 35 pediatric DIPG samples and 10 normal brain samples, was downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus database. The differentially-expressed genes (DEGs) in the pediatric DIPG samples were identified. Gene Ontology (GO), Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) and Reactome pathways of DEGs were enriched and analyzed. The protein-protein interaction (PPI) network of the DEGs was constructed and functional modules of the PPI network were disclosed using ClusterONE...
October 2016: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27607343/gastric-acid-secretion
#7
Mitchell L Schubert
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The present review summarizes the past year's literature, both clinical and basic science, regarding neuroendocrine and intracellular regulation of gastric acid secretion and proper use of antisecretory medications. RECENT FINDINGS: Gastric acid kills microorganisms, modulates the gut microbiome, assists in digestion of protein, and facilitates absorption of iron, calcium, and vitamin B12. The main stimulants of acid secretion are gastrin, released from antral G cells; histamine, released from oxyntic enterochromaffin-like cells; and acetylcholine, released from antral and oxyntic intramural neurons...
November 2016: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27591354/gastrin-and-upper-gi-cancers
#8
REVIEW
Yoku Hayakawa, Wenju Chang, Guangchun Jin, Timothy C Wang
Gastrin was initially identified as the hormone primarily responsible for gastric acid secretion, but was subsequently shown to be a growth factor for the proximal stomach, acting through the gastrin receptor CCK2R. Studies in the past several decades have explored the role of gastrin, along with its incompletely processed precursors, in cancer development. The growth in long-term PPI use has frequently led to elevations in serum gastrin levels in patients with upper GI disease, including GERD, peptic ulcers, and chronic gastritis...
December 2016: Current Opinion in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27581154/identification-of-key-pathways-and-genes-in-colorectal-cancer-using-bioinformatics-analysis
#9
Bin Liang, Chunning Li, Jianying Zhao
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the most common malignant tumor of digestive system. The aim of this study was to identify gene signatures during CRC and uncover their potential mechanisms. The gene expression profiles of GSE21815 were downloaded from GEO database. The GSE21815 dataset contained 141 samples, including 132 CRC and 9 normal colon epitheliums. The gene ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway (KEGG) enrichment analyses were performed, and protein-protein interaction (PPI) network of the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) was constructed by Cytoscape software...
October 2016: Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27562401/impact-of-proton-pump-inhibitor-treatment-on-pancreatic-beta-cell-area-and-beta-cell-proliferation-in-humans
#10
Thomas G K Breuer, Laura Borker, Daniel R Quast, Andrea Tannapfel, Wolfgang E Schmidt, Waldemar Uhl, Juris J Meier
INTRODUCTION: Gastrin has been shown to promote beta-cell proliferation in rodents, but its effects in adult humans are largely unclear. Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) lead to endogenous hypergastrinaemia, and improved glucose control during PPI therapy has been reported in patients with diabetes. Therefore, we addressed whether PPI treatment is associated with improved glucose homoeostasis, islet cell hyperplasia or increased new beta-cell formation in humans. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Pancreatic tissue specimens from 60 patients with and 33 patients without previous PPI therapy were examined...
November 2016: European Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27448962/gastrin-stimulates-a-cholecystokinin-2-receptor-expressing-cardia-progenitor-cell-and-promotes-progression-of-barrett-s-like-esophagus
#11
Yoomi Lee, Aleksandra M Urbanska, Yoku Hayakawa, Hongshan Wang, Andrew S Au, Aesis M Luna, Wenju Chang, Guangchun Jin, Govind Bhagat, Julian A Abrams, Richard A Friedman, Andrea Varro, Kenneth K Wang, Malcolm Boyce, Anil K Rustgi, Antonia R Sepulveda, Michael Quante, Timothy C Wang
OBJECTIVE: The incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) is increasing, but factors contributing to malignant progression of its precursor lesion, Barrett's esophagus (BE), have not been defined. Hypergastrinemia caused by long-term use of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), has been suggested as one possible risk factor. The gastrin receptor, CCK2R, is expressed in the cardia and upregulated in BE, suggesting the involvement of the gastrin-CCK2R pathway in progression. In the L2-IL-1β mouse model, Barrett's-like esophagus arises from the gastric cardia...
January 3, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27159420/study-of-gender-differences-in-proton-pump-inhibitor-dose-requirements-for-gerd-a-double-blind-randomized-trial
#12
Hólmfridur Helgadóttir, David C Metz, Sigrún H Lund, Sveinbjorn Gizurarson, Elin I Jacobsen, Gudrún A Asgeirsdóttir, Yrsa Yngadóttir, Einar S Björnsson
GOALS: To determine the proportion of patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease who are on proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) who could reduce their prior dosage by half, and identify predictors of successful step-down. BACKGROUND: Appropriate hypergastrinemia results from gastric acid inhibition. A gender difference in fasting gastrin with higher levels among women than among men on long-term PPI therapy has been demonstrated. STUDY: Patients with endoscopically verified erosive esophagitis on long-term PPI therapy were randomized double blindly to step down their dose by half or continue with the same dose for 8 weeks...
May 6, 2016: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27062346/a-prospective-placebo-controlled-pilot-evaluation-of-the-effect-of-omeprazole-on-serum-calcium-magnesium-cobalamin-gastrin-concentrations-and-bone-in-cats
#13
E Gould, C Clements, A Reed, L Giori, J M Steiner, J A Lidbury, J S Suchodolski, M Brand, T Moyers, L Emery, M K Tolbert
BACKGROUND: Chronic proton pump inhibitor administration has been associated with electrolyte and cobalamin deficiency, disrupted bone homeostasis, hypergastrinemia, and rebound acid hypersecretion in humans. It is unknown if this occurs in cats. OBJECTIVES: Prolonged oral omeprazole results in altered bone mineral density or content, serum calcium, magnesium, cobalamin, and gastrin concentrations in healthy cats. ANIMALS: Six healthy adult DSH cats...
May 2016: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26376477/functional-anatomy-and-physiology-of-gastric-secretion
#14
REVIEW
Mitchell L Schubert
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review summarizes the past year's literature regarding the neuroendocrine and intracellular regulation of gastric acid secretion, discussing both basic and clinical aspects. RECENT FINDINGS: Gastric acid facilitates the digestion of protein as well as the absorption of iron, calcium, vitamin B12, and certain medications. High acidity kills ingested microorganisms and limits bacterial overgrowth, enteric infection, and possibly spontaneous bacterial peritonitis...
November 2015: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26369775/the-first-in-class-potassium-competitive-acid-blocker-vonoprazan-fumarate-pharmacokinetic-and-pharmacodynamic-considerations
#15
REVIEW
Hirotoshi Echizen
Vonoprazan fumarate (Takecab) is a first-in-class potassium-competitive acid blocker that has been available in the market in Japan since February 2015. Vonoprazan is administered orally at 20 mg once daily for the treatment of gastroduodenal ulcer, at 20 and 10 mg once daily for the treatment and secondary prevention of reflux esophagitis, respectively, at 10 mg once daily for the secondary prevention of low-dose aspirin- or non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug-induced peptic ulcer, and at 20 mg twice daily in combination with clarithromycin and amoxicillin for the eradication of Helicobacter pylori...
April 2016: Clinical Pharmacokinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26342486/gastric-hypersecretory-states-investigation-and-management
#16
Jennifer Phan, Jihane N Benhammou, Joseph R Pisegna
Hypersecretory conditions affecting the stomach account for significant morbidity and mortality manifested in some cases with peptic ulcer, gastrointestinal hemorrhage, and/or gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). The diagnosis of gastric acid hypersecretory states can be challenging and relies on the use of quantitative assays to measure gastric acid secretion and serum gastrin. The most common etiology for hypergastrinemia is the use of potent gastric acid inhibitors such as the proton pump inhibitors. The differential diagnosis of this condition is of critical importance, and will dictate management decisions...
December 2015: Current Treatment Options in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26240800/diagnostic-and-treatment-approaches-for-refractory-peptic-ulcers
#17
REVIEW
Heung Up Kim
Refractory peptic ulcers are defined as ulcers that do not heal completely after 8 to 12 weeks of standard anti-secretory drug treatment. The most common causes of refractory ulcers are persistent Helicobacter pylori infection and use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Simultaneous use of two or more H. pylori diagnostic methods are recommended for increased sensitivity. Serologic tests may be useful for patients currently taking proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) or for suspected false negative results, as they are not affected by PPI use...
July 2015: Clinical Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26177572/systematic-review-the-effects-of-long-term-proton-pump-inhibitor-use-on-serum-gastrin-levels-and-gastric-histology
#18
REVIEW
L Lundell, M Vieth, F Gibson, P Nagy, P J Kahrilas
BACKGROUND: Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) have a well-established safety profile. However, concerns have been raised about a potential relationship between PPI-induced hypergastrinaemia and the development of enterochromaffin-like (ECL) cell hyperplasia, neuroendocrine tumours and gastric cancer during long-term therapy. AIM: To review the effects of long-term PPI use on serum gastrin levels and gastric histopathology. METHODS: A systematic literature search was conducted in PubMed on 21 April 2015 to identify studies reporting the effects of long-term (defined as >3 years) PPI use on gastrin levels and gastric histopathology...
September 2015: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26111126/safety-tolerability-pharmacokinetics-and-pharmacodynamics-of-single-rising-tak-438-vonoprazan-doses-in-healthy-male-japanese-non-japanese-subjects
#19
Yuuichi Sakurai, Akira Nishimura, Gale Kennedy, Mark Hibberd, Richard Jenkins, Hiroyuki Okamoto, Tomoki Yoneyama, Helen Jenkins, Kiyoshi Ashida, Shin Irie, Jörg Täubel
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics of TAK-438 (vonoprazan, a potassium-competitive acid blocker) in healthy male subjects. METHODS: In two phase I, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, single rising-dose studies, healthy male subjects (Japan N=84; UK N=63) received a single TAK-438 dose (1-120 mg in Japan and 1-40 mg in the UK). Assessments included safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics (intragastric pH)...
June 25, 2015: Clinical and Translational Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26059834/gastric-neuroendocrine-neoplasms-and-proton-pump-inhibitors-fact-or-coincidence
#20
Federica Cavalcoli, Alessandra Zilli, Dario Conte, Clorinda Ciafardini, Sara Massironi
OBJECTIVE: Reporting on three cases of gastric neuroendocrine tumors (g-NETs) in patients taking long-term proton pump inhibitors (PPIs). These tumors are not classifiable considering current criteria. g-NETs are currently grouped as: types 1 and 2, related to hypergastrinemia due to chronic atrophic gastritis and Zollinger-Ellison syndrome respectively, and type 3, normogastrinemic and more aggressive. Although the g-NETs onset in patients taking PPIs is biologically plausible, only a few cases have been reported so far...
2015: Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology
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